Abstract

High-energy narrowband terahertz (THz) pulses, relevant for a plethora of applications, can be created from the interference of two chirped-pulse drive lasers. The presence of third order dispersion, an intrinsic feature of many high-energy drive lasers, however, can significantly reduce the optical-to-THz conversion efficiency and have other undesired effects. Here, we present a detailed description of the effect of third-order dispersion (TOD) in the pump pulse on the generation of THz radiation via phase-matching of broadband highly chirped pulse trains. Although the analysis is general, we focus specifically on parameters typical to a Ti:Sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system for quasi-phase-matching in periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) in the range of THz frequencies around 0.5 THz. Our analysis provides the tools to optimize the THz generation process for applications requiring high energy and to control it to produce desired THz waveforms in a variety of scenarios.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (3)

2018 (10)

Y. Yamaguchi, R. Hida, T. Suzuki, F. Isa, K. Yoshikiyo, L. Fujii, H. Nemoto, and F. Kannari, “Shaping and amplification of wavelength-tunable mid-infrared femtosecond pulses generated by intra-pulse difference-frequency mixing with spectral focusing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(12), C1–C7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yin, X. Ren, Y. Wang, F. Zhuang, J. Li, and Z. Chang, “Generation of high-energy narrowband 2.05 $\mu$μm pulses for seeding a Ho:YLF laser,” Photonics Res. 6(1), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, F. Ahr, L. Zapata, O. D. Mücke, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, D. Schimpf, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded interactions mediated by terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12536–12546 (2018).
[Crossref]

B.-H. Chen, T. Nagy, and P. Baum, “Efficient middle-infrared generation in LiGaS$_2$2 by simultaneous spectral broadening and difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1742–1745 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Nguyen, P. G. de Alaiza Martinez, I. Thiele, S. Skupin, and L. Bergé, “THz field engineering in two-color femtosecond filaments using chirped and delayed laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 20(3), 033026 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Curcio, V. Dolci, S. Lupi, and M. Petrarca, “Terahertz-based retrieval of the spectral phase and amplitude of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 783–786 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Curry, S. Fabbri, J. Maxson, P. Musumeci, and A. Gover, “Terahertz-based retrieval of the spectral phase and amplitude of ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(9), 094801 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Zhang, A. Fallahi, M. Hemmer, X. Wu, M. Fakhari, Y. Hua, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, L. E. Zapata, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Segmented terahertz electron accelerator and manipulator (STEAM),” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 336–342 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Ehberger, A. Ryabov, and P. Baum, “Tilted electron pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(9), 094801 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Ehberger, C. Kealhofer, and P. Baum, “Electron energy analysis by phase-space shaping with THz field cycles,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044303 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

M. Fakhari, A. Fallahi, and F. X. Kärtner, “THz cavities and injectors for compact electron acceleration using laser-driven thz sources,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 20(4), 041302 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Ahr, S. W. Jolly, N. H. Matlis, S. Carbajo, T. Kroh, K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, J. Schulte, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, A. R. Maier, and F. X. Kärtner, “Narrowband terahertz generation with chirped-and-delayed laser pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2118–2121 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Ungelenk, M. Höner, H. Huck, S. Khan, C. Mai, A. M. auf der Heide, C. Evain, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Continuously tunable narrowband pulses in the THz gap from laser-modulated electron bunches in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 20(2), 020706 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Cartella, T. F. Nova, A. Oriana, G. Cerullo, M. Först, C. Manzoni, and A. Cavalleri, “Narrowband carrier-envelope phase stable mid-infrared pulses at wavelengths beyond 10 $\mu$μm by chirped-pulse difference frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 663–666 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Tóth, J. Fülöp, and J. Hebling, “Periodically intensity-modulated pulses by optical parametric amplification for multicycle tunable terahertz pulse generation,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28258–28272 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Krogen, H. Suchowski, H. Liang, N. Flemens, K.-H. Hong, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Moses, “Generation and multi-octave shaping of mid-infrared intense single-cycle pulses,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 222–226 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, H. Bromberger, A. Cartella, T. Gebert, M. Först, and A. Cavalleri, “Generation of narrowband, high-intensity, carrier-envelope phase-stable pulses tunable between 4 and 18 THz,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 129–131 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Mücke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

Y. Yin, J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Wang, A. Chew, and Z. Chang, “High-energy two-cycle pulses at 3.2 $\mu$μm by a broadband-pumped dual-chirped optical parametric amplification,” Opt. Express 24(22), 24989–24998 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Ravi, M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, F. Reichert, D. N. Schimpf, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded parametric amplification for highly efficient terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3806–3809 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, and F. X. Kärtner, “Pulse sequences for efficient multi-cycle terahertz generation in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25582–5276 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Kealhofer, W. Schneider, D. Ehberger, A. Ryabov, F. Krausz, and P. Baum, “All-optical control and metrology of electron pulses,” Science 352(6284), 429–433 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: Exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Carbajo, J. Schulte, X. Wu, K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, and F. X. Kärtner, “Efficient narrowband terahertz generation in cryogenically cooled periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5762–5765 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Fu, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “High-energy infrared femtosecond pulses generated by dual-chirped optical parametric amplification,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5082–5085 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, C. Zhou, W. R. Huang, F. Ahr, and F. X. Kärtner, “Temperature dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient of congruent lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz range,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29729–29737 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Unferdorben, Z. Szaller, I. Hajdara, J. Hebling, and L. Pálfalvi, “Measurement of refractive index and absorption coefficient of congruent and stoichiometric lithium niobate in the terahertz range,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 36(12), 1203–1209 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. Vicario, B. Monoszlai, and C. P. Hauri, “GV/m single-cycle terahertz fields from a laser-driven large-size partitioned organic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(21), 213901 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Yoshida, S. Kamada, and T. Aoki, “Elimination of the chirp of narrowband terahertz pulses generated by chirped pulse beating using a tandem grating pair laser pulse stretcher,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23679–23685 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. Kamada, S. Murata, and T. Aoki, “On the chirp of narrowband terahertz pulses generated by photomixing with nonlinearly chirped laser pulse pairs,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032701 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. J. Wong, A. Fallahi, and F. X. Kärtner, “Compact electron acceleration and bunch compression in THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9792–9806 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Hosaka, N. Yamamoto, Y. Takashima, C. Szwaj, M. L. Parquier, C. Evain, S. Bielawski, M. Adachi, H. Zen, T. Tanikawa, S. Kimura, M. Katoh, M. Shimada, and T. Takahashi, “Saturation of the laser-induced narrowband coherent synchrotron radiation process: Experimental observation at a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.--Accel. Beams 16(2), 020701 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Y. Shen, X. Yang, G. L. Carr, Y. Hidaka, J. B. Murphy, and X. Wang, “Tunable few-cycle and multicycle coherent terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(20), 204801 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, E. J. Takahashi, O. D. Mücke, P. Lu, and K. Midorikawa, “Dual-chirped optical parametric amplification for generating few hundred mJ infrared pulses,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7190–7212 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, X. Zhou, C. A. Werley, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of high power tunable multicycle teraherz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. Evain, C. Szwaj, S. Bielawski, M. Hosaka, Y. Takashima, M. Shimada, S. Kimura, M. Katoh, A. Mochihashi, T. Takahashi, and T. Hara, “Laser-induced narrowband coherent synchrotron radiation: Efficiency versus frequency and laser power,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.--Accel. Beams 13(9), 090703 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. G. Neumann, R. B. Fiorito, P. G. O’Shea, H. Loos, B. Sheehy, Y. Shen, and Z. Wu, “Terahertz laser modulation of electron beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053304 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Cao, X. Gao, W. Chen, H. Wang, W. Zhang, and Z. Gong, “Study of quasi-phase matching wavelength acceptance bandwidth for periodically poled LiNbO$_3$3 crystal-based difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(5), 589–593 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

J. R. Danielson, A. D. Jameson, J. L. Tomaino, H. Hui, J. D. Wetzel, Y.-S. Lee, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Intense narrow band terahertz generation via type-II difference-frequency generation in ZnTe using chirped optical pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033111 (2008).
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J. Hebling, K. L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, “High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 345–353 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Bielawski, C. Evain, T. Hara, M. Hosaka, M. Katoh, S. Kimura, A. Mochihashi, M. Shimada, C. Szwaj, T. Takahashi, and Y. Takashima, “Tunable narrowband terahertz emission from mastered laser–electron beam interaction,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 390–393 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Phase-locked generation and field-resolved detection of widely tunable terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 100 MV/cm,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2767–2769 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Optical generation of narrow-band terahertz packets in periodically-inverted electro-optic crystals: conversion efficiency and optimal laser pulse format,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2263–2276 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, and V. G. Kozlov, “Generation of multicycle terahertz pulses via optical rectification in periodically inverted GaAs structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181104 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, and Y. Ueno, “Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55 $\mu$μm pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071118 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2001 (2)

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Tunable narrow-band terahertz generation from periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(23), 3583–3585 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. Belabas, J.-P. Likforman, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, and M. Joffre, “Coherent broadband pulse shaping in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 26(10), 743–745 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(18), 2505–2507 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent, broadband midinfrared terahertz beam sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(21), 3049–3051 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of tunable narrowband THz radiation from large aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(2), 137–139 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

Adachi, M.

M. Hosaka, N. Yamamoto, Y. Takashima, C. Szwaj, M. L. Parquier, C. Evain, S. Bielawski, M. Adachi, H. Zen, T. Tanikawa, S. Kimura, M. Katoh, M. Shimada, and T. Takahashi, “Saturation of the laser-induced narrowband coherent synchrotron radiation process: Experimental observation at a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.--Accel. Beams 16(2), 020701 (2013).
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Ahr, F.

S. W. Jolly, N. H. Matlis, F. Ahr, V. Leroux, T. Eichner, A.-L. Calendron, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, F. X. Kärtner, and A. R. Maier, “Spectral phase control of interfering chirped pulses for high-energy narrowband terahertz generation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2591 (2019).
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M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, F. Ahr, L. Zapata, O. D. Mücke, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, D. Schimpf, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded interactions mediated by terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12536–12546 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Mücke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
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F. Ahr, S. W. Jolly, N. H. Matlis, S. Carbajo, T. Kroh, K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, J. Schulte, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, A. R. Maier, and F. X. Kärtner, “Narrowband terahertz generation with chirped-and-delayed laser pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2118–2121 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: Exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, C. Zhou, W. R. Huang, F. Ahr, and F. X. Kärtner, “Temperature dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient of congruent lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz range,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29729–29737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ajito, K.

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, and Y. Ueno, “Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55 $\mu$μm pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aoki, T.

T. Yoshida, S. Kamada, and T. Aoki, “Elimination of the chirp of narrowband terahertz pulses generated by chirped pulse beating using a tandem grating pair laser pulse stretcher,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23679–23685 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Kamada, S. Murata, and T. Aoki, “On the chirp of narrowband terahertz pulses generated by photomixing with nonlinearly chirped laser pulse pairs,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Assman, R. W.

F. Lemery, K. Flöttmann, T. Vinatier, and R. W. Assman, “A transverse deflection structure with dielectric-lined waveguides in the sub-THz regime,” in “proceedings of IPAC,” (2017).

Assmann, R. W.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: Exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 829, 24–29 (2016).
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auf der Heide, A. M.

P. Ungelenk, M. Höner, H. Huck, S. Khan, C. Mai, A. M. auf der Heide, C. Evain, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Continuously tunable narrowband pulses in the THz gap from laser-modulated electron bunches in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 20(2), 020706 (2017).
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Auston, D. H.

A. S. Weling and D. H. Auston, “Novel sources and detectors for coherent tunable narrow-band terahertz radiation in free space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(12), 2783–2791 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of tunable narrowband THz radiation from large aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(2), 137–139 (1994).
[Crossref]

Baum, P.

D. Ehberger, A. Ryabov, and P. Baum, “Tilted electron pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(9), 094801 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Ehberger, C. Kealhofer, and P. Baum, “Electron energy analysis by phase-space shaping with THz field cycles,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044303 (2018).
[Crossref]

B.-H. Chen, T. Nagy, and P. Baum, “Efficient middle-infrared generation in LiGaS$_2$2 by simultaneous spectral broadening and difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1742–1745 (2018).
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C. Kealhofer, W. Schneider, D. Ehberger, A. Ryabov, F. Krausz, and P. Baum, “All-optical control and metrology of electron pulses,” Science 352(6284), 429–433 (2016).
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Belabas, N.

Bergé, L.

A. Nguyen, P. G. de Alaiza Martinez, I. Thiele, S. Skupin, and L. Bergé, “THz field engineering in two-color femtosecond filaments using chirped and delayed laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 20(3), 033026 (2018).
[Crossref]

Berggren, K. K.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: Exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bielawski, S.

P. Ungelenk, M. Höner, H. Huck, S. Khan, C. Mai, A. M. auf der Heide, C. Evain, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Continuously tunable narrowband pulses in the THz gap from laser-modulated electron bunches in a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 20(2), 020706 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Hosaka, N. Yamamoto, Y. Takashima, C. Szwaj, M. L. Parquier, C. Evain, S. Bielawski, M. Adachi, H. Zen, T. Tanikawa, S. Kimura, M. Katoh, M. Shimada, and T. Takahashi, “Saturation of the laser-induced narrowband coherent synchrotron radiation process: Experimental observation at a storage ring,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.--Accel. Beams 16(2), 020701 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Evain, C. Szwaj, S. Bielawski, M. Hosaka, Y. Takashima, M. Shimada, S. Kimura, M. Katoh, A. Mochihashi, T. Takahashi, and T. Hara, “Laser-induced narrowband coherent synchrotron radiation: Efficiency versus frequency and laser power,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.--Accel. Beams 13(9), 090703 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Bielawski, C. Evain, T. Hara, M. Hosaka, M. Katoh, S. Kimura, A. Mochihashi, M. Shimada, C. Szwaj, T. Takahashi, and Y. Takashima, “Tunable narrowband terahertz emission from mastered laser–electron beam interaction,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 390–393 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bousquet, B.

Bromberger, H.

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Calendron, A.-L.

S. W. Jolly, N. H. Matlis, F. Ahr, V. Leroux, T. Eichner, A.-L. Calendron, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, F. X. Kärtner, and A. R. Maier, “Spectral phase control of interfering chirped pulses for high-energy narrowband terahertz generation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2591 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Zhang, A. Fallahi, M. Hemmer, H. Ye, M. Fakhari, Y. Hua, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, L. E. Zapata, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Femtosecond phase control in high-field terahertz-driven ultrafast electron sources,” Optica 6(7), 872–877 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Zhang, A. Fallahi, M. Hemmer, X. Wu, M. Fakhari, Y. Hua, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, L. E. Zapata, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Segmented terahertz electron accelerator and manipulator (STEAM),” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 336–342 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, F. Ahr, L. Zapata, O. D. Mücke, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, D. Schimpf, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded interactions mediated by terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12536–12546 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Mücke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: Exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Canioni, L.

Cankaya, H.

D. Zhang, A. Fallahi, M. Hemmer, H. Ye, M. Fakhari, Y. Hua, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, L. E. Zapata, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Femtosecond phase control in high-field terahertz-driven ultrafast electron sources,” Optica 6(7), 872–877 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Zhang, A. Fallahi, M. Hemmer, X. Wu, M. Fakhari, Y. Hua, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, L. E. Zapata, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Segmented terahertz electron accelerator and manipulator (STEAM),” Nat. Photonics 12(6), 336–342 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Mücke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Çankaya, H.

M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, F. Ahr, L. Zapata, O. D. Mücke, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, D. Schimpf, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded interactions mediated by terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12536–12546 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: Exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, Z.

Z. Cao, X. Gao, W. Chen, H. Wang, W. Zhang, and Z. Gong, “Study of quasi-phase matching wavelength acceptance bandwidth for periodically poled LiNbO$_3$3 crystal-based difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47(5), 589–593 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carbajo, S.

F. Ahr, S. W. Jolly, N. H. Matlis, S. Carbajo, T. Kroh, K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, J. Schulte, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, A. R. Maier, and F. X. Kärtner, “Narrowband terahertz generation with chirped-and-delayed laser pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2118–2121 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: Exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Carbajo, J. Schulte, X. Wu, K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, and F. X. Kärtner, “Efficient narrowband terahertz generation in cryogenically cooled periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5762–5765 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carr, G. L.

Y. Shen, X. Yang, G. L. Carr, Y. Hidaka, J. B. Murphy, and X. Wang, “Tunable few-cycle and multicycle coherent terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(20), 204801 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cartella, A.

Cavalleri, A.

Cerullo, G.

Chang, G.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: Exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, Z.

Y. Yin, X. Ren, Y. Wang, F. Zhuang, J. Li, and Z. Chang, “Generation of high-energy narrowband 2.05 $\mu$μm pulses for seeding a Ho:YLF laser,” Photonics Res. 6(1), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yin, J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Wang, A. Chew, and Z. Chang, “High-energy two-cycle pulses at 3.2 $\mu$μm by a broadband-pumped dual-chirped optical parametric amplification,” Opt. Express 24(22), 24989–24998 (2016).
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F. Lemery, K. Flöttmann, T. Vinatier, and R. W. Assman, “A transverse deflection structure with dielectric-lined waveguides in the sub-THz regime,” in “proceedings of IPAC,” (2017).

S. W. Jolly, “Spectral phase manipulation of optical pump pulses for mJ-level narrowband terahertz generation in PPLN,” Ph.D. thesis, Universität Hamburg (2017).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Chirp and delay concept including now the general effect of higher order phase. (a) and (b) are the separate overlapped pump pulses without any TOD and the resulting difference frequency $\Delta \omega$, respectively. $\Omega$ corresponds to the phase-matched THz angular frequency, and $\Delta \omega$ is the bandwidth of the phase-matching process. (c) and (d) are the same now with TOD (not to scale) showing that less of the overall difference frequency content is within the THz bandwidth $\delta \Omega$. The horizontal dashed lines represent the bandwidth of the phase-matching process, and the vertical dashed lines represent the region in time that is within that bandwidth.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Comparison of the total pulse train envelope (a-d) and frequency content (e-f) for a pulse train of $N$=2 and $N$=10 pulses and drive pulses with and without TOD. In this specific example the THz frequency is centered at 400 GHz with pulses (GDD=2.3 ps$^2$, TOD=-0.0044  ps$^3$) delayed by $\Delta {t}$=5.78 ps. Insets in panel (a-d) show a zoom from 150-156 ps which captures the temporal interfences responsible for the difference frequency content.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison of the total pulse train difference frequency content at many time delays. We show the same permutations of no TOD (blue) and a TOD of −0.0044 ps$^3$ (orange), $N$=2 pulses (a)–(d) and a pulse train ($N$=10) (e)–(h), at the four different delays ${\Delta }t$=2.89, 5.78, 8.67,11.56 ps necessary to produce frequency content centered on 200, 400, 600, and 800 GHz respectively. Panels (b) and (f) are a duplication of Figs. 2(e) and 2(f).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Chirp-and-delay experimental setup (a), identical to the previous work in Ahr et al. [18]. This HR-PR combination produces a train of pulses rather than two pulses of equal energy. A waveplate is used to match perfectly the polarization of the IR light to the PPLN crystal axis. The beam is matched to the aperture of the PPLN crystal using a telescope, the parameters of which depend on the PPLN aperture. A Teflon plate separates the drive laser from the generated THz at the output of the crystal, whose energy is detector using a pyroelectric detector (b). The frequency of the generated THz is verified using an interferometer (c).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Effect of THz generation on the IR spectrum. (a) Comparison of the input and output spectrum of the main drive laser. The conversion of IR photons to THz causes a redshift of the spectrum, but there is a distinct ‘dip’ that only occurs in a small region. (b) The difference between the input and output drive spectrum shows prominent signatures of cascading, i.e. the multiple frequency down-conversion of the IR drive photons, as the input fluence increases and the conversion to THz becomes more efficient and the ‘dip’ becomes wider. The difference is shown for fluence levels in the range from 43 to 600 mJ/cm$^2$ with the arrow pointing towards increasing fluence. All data use a 544 GHz crystal (212 $\mu$m poling period) of 10 mm length.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Experimental output IR spectrum during a delay scan of a train of IR pulses generating THz in four different poling period PPLN crystals producing four different frequencies of (a) 300 GHz, (b) 350 GHz, (c) 544 GHz, (d) 860 GHz. As the delay between the pulses varies, different parts of the drive spectrum contribute to THz generation, which manifests as a moving local dip in spectral intensity shown clearly in the top row. The experimental data matches very well with our predicted behavior (white line added on the bottom row, from Eq. (10)). Pump fluence is low (below 100 mJ/cm$^2$) in all cases so that the dip is localized.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Comparison of the measured THz output energy at different temporal delays (a) and (d), and that by calculating (c) and (e) the expected output of the THz generation process at each time delay with two fixed PPLN crystal properties (crystals of poling perdiod 212 and 125 $\mu$m producing 544 and 860 GHz respectively). The calculation includes permutations of no TOD and realistic TOD, 2 pulses and a pulse train. The width of the delay scan increases when TOD is included, but the complexity seen in experiments ((a) and (c)) is only visible when including the whole pulse train (dashed red lines). The complexity seen in the IR output spectrum in both cases can be explained by an increase in the spectral dip width proportional to the generated THz, shown in (c) and (f).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The relative decrease in THz generation efficiency due to TOD for different frequencies and lengths with the Angus pump parameters in PPLN. In all cases as the TOD increases the efficiency drops monotonically relative to the case with zero TOD. Calculations are made with the FFT+analytic method using Eq. (1) and therefore do not take in to account nonlinear cascading. Shown are results for 360 GHz (a) and 720 GHz (b) at lengths of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.6 cm.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The production of temporally complex THz pulses. (a), a train of identical pulses with varying energy, shown with only pulses 1–3 and (b), the instantaneous difference frequency between pulse 1 and pulse 2 (blue), and pulse 2 and pulse 3 (orange). Due to this input pulse format THz is generated at two distinct moments in time, denoted as ‘THz 1’ and ‘THz 2’. At the proper delay this still results in only one output THz pulse, shown in (c). (d), a pair of pulses could be engineered with additional $\Delta$GDD and $\Delta$TOD added to only one pulse (15500 fs$^2$ and 300000 fs$^3$ respectively) such that isolated THz pulses are generated at moments in time that are far apart, as shown in (e). In (f) we show the output THz, which now is two distinctly separated pulses. The duration of the THz pulses depends on many experimental parameters (see text).
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Producing chirped THz pulses via broadband direct phase matching. The frequency content (a) of Angus pulses with $\Delta t=103.75$ ps (matched for 7.179 THz) with and without TOD (solid), overlaid with the $\eta _{\textrm{rel}}$ for 0.5 mm GaP (dashed). The peak without TOD is so narrow so as to not be visible. The THz pulses produced (b) with TOD (orange) and without TOD (blue) on the pump pulses, that have either a linear chirp or flat phase respectively. If the chirped pulse were compressed (c) the temporal envelope would correspond to the Fourier-limit of the broad bandwidth of the frequency content and GaP phase-matching.

Equations (11)

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A THz ( Ω , z ) = F t ω [ | A opt ( t ) | 2 ] i Ω χ 2 eff n ( Ω ) c [ e i Δ k z e α ( Ω ) z / 2 ] ( α ( Ω ) / 2 + i Δ k )
Δ k = Ω [ n ( Ω ) n g ( ω 0 ) ] c 2 π Λ ,
ω ( t ) = ω 0 + 1 ϕ 2 t + ϕ 3 2 ϕ 2 3 t 2 ,
η rel mat n ( Ω ) | Ω n ( Ω ) [ e i Δ k L e α ( Ω ) L / 2 ] ( α ( Ω ) + 2 i Δ k ) | 2 ,
A opt ( t ) = n = 1 E n A n ( t ( n 1 ) Δ t )
A n ( t ) exp [ 2 ln ( 2 ) t 2 ( δ ω L ϕ 2 ) 2 ] exp [ i ( ω 0 t + t 2 2 ϕ 2 + ϕ 3 t 3 6 ϕ 2 3 ) ] .
Δ ω ( t ) = [ Δ t ϕ 2 + ϕ 3 Δ t 2 2 ( ϕ 2 ) 3 ] + [ ϕ 3 Δ t ( ϕ 2 ) 3 ] t .
Ω = Δ t ϕ 2 + ϕ 3 2 ϕ 2 3 ( t gen 2 ( t gen Δ t ) 2 )
t gen = Δ t 2 + ϕ 2 3 ϕ 3 [ 1 ϕ 2 Ω Δ t ] .
ω avg = ω ( t gen ) + ω ( t gen Δ t ) 2 = ω 0 + ϕ 2 2 ϕ 3 Ω 2 ϕ 2 3 2 Δ t 2 ϕ 3 Δ t 2 ϕ 3 8 ϕ 2 3 ,
ν THz ( t ) = ν 0,THz + b THz t + .

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