Abstract

Two experimental configurations of a hybrid K-band (25 GHz) microwave photonic link (MPL) are investigated for seamless broadband wireless access networks. Experimental configurations consist of optical fiber, free-space optics (FSO) and radio frequency (RF) wireless channels. We analyze in detail the effects of channel impairments, namely fiber chromatic dispersion, atmospheric turbulence and multipath-induced fading on the transmission performance. In the first configuration, transmission of the 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal with 5, 20 and 50 MHz bandwidths over 5 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF), 2 m turbulent FSO and 3 m RF wireless channels is investigated. We show that, for QAM with a high bandwidth, the link performance is being affected more by atmospheric turbulence. In the second configuration, the 20 MHz 4/16/64-QAM signals over a 50 km SSMF and 40 m FSO/RF wireless links are successfully transmitted with the measured error vector magnitude (EVM) values of 12, 9 and 7.9%, respectively. It is shown that, for all transmitted microwave vector signals, the bit error rate is lower than the hard-decision forward-error-correction limit of 3.8×10−3. Moreover, an extended FSO link span of 500 m for 25 GHz hybrid MPL with 16-QAM at 10 Gb/s under the weak and strong turbulence regimes is evaluated via simulation analysis to mimic a practical outdoor system.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (4)

2018 (6)

2017 (2)

R. Puerta, J. Yu, X. Li, Y. Xu, J. J. Vegas Olmos, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Antenna misalignment effects in 100 Gbit/s D-band wireless transmissions,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 59(6), 1431–1434 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wen, H. Zheng, Q. Mo, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, C. Xia, B. Huang, H. Liu, H. Yu, P. Sillard, J. E. A. Lopez, R. A. Correa, and G. Li, “Few-mode fibre-optic microwave photonic links,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17021 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

K. Wang, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, K. Alameh, and E. Skafidas, “Full-duplex gigabit indoor optical wireless communication system with CAP modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(7), 790–793 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. E. Alavi, M. R. K. Soltanian, I. S. Amiri, M. Khalily, A. S. M. Supa’at, and H. Ahmad, “Towards 5G: A photonic based millimeter wave signal generation for applying in 5G access fronthaul,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19891 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Xu, M. Xu, F. Lu, L. Cheng, J. Yu, and G.-K. Chang, “Fiber–wireless integrated mobile backhaul network based on a hybrid millimeter-wave and free-space-optics architecture with an adaptive diversity combining technique,” Opt. Lett. 41(9), 1909 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. T. Dat, A. Kanno, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, “Full-duplex transmission of LTE-A carrier aggregation signal over a bidirectional seamless fiber-millimeter-wave system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 691–700 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

R. Li, X. Han, X. Chen, X. Chen, and J. Yao, “A phase-modulated microwave photonic link with an extended transmission distance,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(24), 2563–2566 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Chen and J. Yao, “A high spectral efficiency coherent microwave photonic link employing both amplitude and phase,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(14), 3091–3097 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

C. Ben Naila, K. Wakamori, M. Matsumoto, A. Bekkali, and K. Tsukamoto, “Transmission analysis of digital TV signals over a radio-on-FSO channel,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(8), 137–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

K. Kazaura, K. Wakamori, M. Matsumoto, T. Higashino, K. Tsukamoto, and S. Komaki, “RoFSO: A universal platform for convergence of fiber and free-space optical communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(2), 130–137 (2010).
[Crossref]

Achten, F.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, Y. Zhang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, S. Van Der Heide, M. Mazur, H. Huang, H. Chen, R. Amezcua-Correa, G. Li, M. Capuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, H. Safar, C. Bolle, D. T. Neilson, E. Burrows, K. Kim, M. Bigot-Astruc, F. Achten, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, and J. Carpenter, “Digital turbulence compensation of free space optical link with multimode optical amplifier,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2019, p. PD1.1.

Ahmad, H.

S. E. Alavi, M. R. K. Soltanian, I. S. Amiri, M. Khalily, A. S. M. Supa’at, and H. Ahmad, “Towards 5G: A photonic based millimeter wave signal generation for applying in 5G access fronthaul,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19891 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alameh, K.

K. Wang, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, K. Alameh, and E. Skafidas, “Full-duplex gigabit indoor optical wireless communication system with CAP modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(7), 790–793 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alavi, S. E.

S. E. Alavi, M. R. K. Soltanian, I. S. Amiri, M. Khalily, A. S. M. Supa’at, and H. Ahmad, “Towards 5G: A photonic based millimeter wave signal generation for applying in 5G access fronthaul,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19891 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alfadhli, Y.

Y. Alfadhli, P. C. Peng, H. Cho, S. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. W. Chen, and G. K. Chang, “Real-time FPGA demonstration of hybrid bi-directional MMW and FSO fronthaul architecture,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2019 – Proceedings (OSA, 2019), p. W2A.39.

Alshebeili, S.

M. A. Esmail, A. Ragheb, H. Fathallah, and S. Alshebeili, “Demonstration of photonics-based switching of 5G signal over hybrid all-optical network,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(13), 1250–1253 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alshebeili, S. A.

M. A. Esmail, A. M. Ragheb, H. A. Fathallah, M. Altamimi, and S. A. Alshebeili, “5G-28 GHz signal transmission over hybrid all-optical FSO/RF link in dusty weather conditions,” IEEE Access 7, 24404–24410 (2019).
[Crossref]

Altamimi, M.

M. A. Esmail, A. M. Ragheb, H. A. Fathallah, M. Altamimi, and S. A. Alshebeili, “5G-28 GHz signal transmission over hybrid all-optical FSO/RF link in dusty weather conditions,” IEEE Access 7, 24404–24410 (2019).
[Crossref]

Alvarado-Zacarias, J. C.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, Y. Zhang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, S. Van Der Heide, M. Mazur, H. Huang, H. Chen, R. Amezcua-Correa, G. Li, M. Capuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, H. Safar, C. Bolle, D. T. Neilson, E. Burrows, K. Kim, M. Bigot-Astruc, F. Achten, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, and J. Carpenter, “Digital turbulence compensation of free space optical link with multimode optical amplifier,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2019, p. PD1.1.

Amezcua-Correa, A.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, Y. Zhang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, S. Van Der Heide, M. Mazur, H. Huang, H. Chen, R. Amezcua-Correa, G. Li, M. Capuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, H. Safar, C. Bolle, D. T. Neilson, E. Burrows, K. Kim, M. Bigot-Astruc, F. Achten, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, and J. Carpenter, “Digital turbulence compensation of free space optical link with multimode optical amplifier,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2019, p. PD1.1.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, Y. Zhang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, S. Van Der Heide, M. Mazur, H. Huang, H. Chen, R. Amezcua-Correa, G. Li, M. Capuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, H. Safar, C. Bolle, D. T. Neilson, E. Burrows, K. Kim, M. Bigot-Astruc, F. Achten, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, and J. Carpenter, “Digital turbulence compensation of free space optical link with multimode optical amplifier,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2019, p. PD1.1.

Amiri, I. S.

S. E. Alavi, M. R. K. Soltanian, I. S. Amiri, M. Khalily, A. S. M. Supa’at, and H. Ahmad, “Towards 5G: A photonic based millimeter wave signal generation for applying in 5G access fronthaul,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19891 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE, 2005), 1.

Apostolopoulos, D.

C. Vagionas, S. Papaioannou, G. Kalfas, N. Pleros, N. Argyris, K. Kanta, N. Iliadis, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, and H. Avramopoulos, “A six-channel mmWave/IFoF link with 24Gb/s capacity for 5G fronthaul networks,” in MWP 2018 – 2018 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2018), p. Tu4B.6.

Argyris, N.

C. Vagionas, S. Papaioannou, G. Kalfas, N. Pleros, N. Argyris, K. Kanta, N. Iliadis, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, and H. Avramopoulos, “A six-channel mmWave/IFoF link with 24Gb/s capacity for 5G fronthaul networks,” in MWP 2018 – 2018 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2018), p. Tu4B.6.

Avramopoulos, H.

C. Vagionas, S. Papaioannou, G. Kalfas, N. Pleros, N. Argyris, K. Kanta, N. Iliadis, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, and H. Avramopoulos, “A six-channel mmWave/IFoF link with 24Gb/s capacity for 5G fronthaul networks,” in MWP 2018 – 2018 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2018), p. Tu4B.6.

Bekkali, A.

C. Ben Naila, K. Wakamori, M. Matsumoto, A. Bekkali, and K. Tsukamoto, “Transmission analysis of digital TV signals over a radio-on-FSO channel,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(8), 137–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ben Naila, C.

C. Ben Naila, K. Wakamori, M. Matsumoto, A. Bekkali, and K. Tsukamoto, “Transmission analysis of digital TV signals over a radio-on-FSO channel,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(8), 137–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bigot-Astruc, M.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, Y. Zhang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, S. Van Der Heide, M. Mazur, H. Huang, H. Chen, R. Amezcua-Correa, G. Li, M. Capuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, H. Safar, C. Bolle, D. T. Neilson, E. Burrows, K. Kim, M. Bigot-Astruc, F. Achten, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, and J. Carpenter, “Digital turbulence compensation of free space optical link with multimode optical amplifier,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2019, p. PD1.1.

Bohata, J.

Bolle, C.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, Y. Zhang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, S. Van Der Heide, M. Mazur, H. Huang, H. Chen, R. Amezcua-Correa, G. Li, M. Capuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, H. Safar, C. Bolle, D. T. Neilson, E. Burrows, K. Kim, M. Bigot-Astruc, F. Achten, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, and J. Carpenter, “Digital turbulence compensation of free space optical link with multimode optical amplifier,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2019, p. PD1.1.

Borges, R. M.

Burrows, E.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, Y. Zhang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, S. Van Der Heide, M. Mazur, H. Huang, H. Chen, R. Amezcua-Correa, G. Li, M. Capuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, H. Safar, C. Bolle, D. T. Neilson, E. Burrows, K. Kim, M. Bigot-Astruc, F. Achten, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, and J. Carpenter, “Digital turbulence compensation of free space optical link with multimode optical amplifier,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2019, p. PD1.1.

Cao, P.

Capuzzo, M.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, Y. Zhang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, S. Van Der Heide, M. Mazur, H. Huang, H. Chen, R. Amezcua-Correa, G. Li, M. Capuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, H. Safar, C. Bolle, D. T. Neilson, E. Burrows, K. Kim, M. Bigot-Astruc, F. Achten, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, and J. Carpenter, “Digital turbulence compensation of free space optical link with multimode optical amplifier,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2019, p. PD1.1.

Carpenter, J.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, Y. Zhang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, S. Van Der Heide, M. Mazur, H. Huang, H. Chen, R. Amezcua-Correa, G. Li, M. Capuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, H. Safar, C. Bolle, D. T. Neilson, E. Burrows, K. Kim, M. Bigot-Astruc, F. Achten, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, and J. Carpenter, “Digital turbulence compensation of free space optical link with multimode optical amplifier,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2019, p. PD1.1.

Chan, C.-K.

Chang, G. K.

Y. Alfadhli, P. C. Peng, H. Cho, S. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. W. Chen, and G. K. Chang, “Real-time FPGA demonstration of hybrid bi-directional MMW and FSO fronthaul architecture,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2019 – Proceedings (OSA, 2019), p. W2A.39.

Chang, G.-K.

Chang, Q.

Chen, H.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, Y. Zhang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, S. Van Der Heide, M. Mazur, H. Huang, H. Chen, R. Amezcua-Correa, G. Li, M. Capuzzo, R. Kopf, A. Tate, H. Safar, C. Bolle, D. T. Neilson, E. Burrows, K. Kim, M. Bigot-Astruc, F. Achten, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, and J. Carpenter, “Digital turbulence compensation of free space optical link with multimode optical amplifier,” in European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2019, p. PD1.1.

Chen, X.

X. Chen and J. Yao, “A high spectral efficiency coherent microwave photonic link employing both amplitude and phase,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(14), 3091–3097 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Li, X. Han, X. Chen, X. Chen, and J. Yao, “A phase-modulated microwave photonic link with an extended transmission distance,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(24), 2563–2566 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Li, X. Han, X. Chen, X. Chen, and J. Yao, “A phase-modulated microwave photonic link with an extended transmission distance,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(24), 2563–2566 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. W.

Y. Alfadhli, P. C. Peng, H. Cho, S. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. W. Chen, and G. K. Chang, “Real-time FPGA demonstration of hybrid bi-directional MMW and FSO fronthaul architecture,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2019 – Proceedings (OSA, 2019), p. W2A.39.

Cheng, L.

Cho, H.

Y. Alfadhli, P. C. Peng, H. Cho, S. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. W. Chen, and G. K. Chang, “Real-time FPGA demonstration of hybrid bi-directional MMW and FSO fronthaul architecture,” in 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2019 – Proceedings (OSA, 2019), p. W2A.39.

Cho, H. J.

Correa, R. A.

H. Wen, H. Zheng, Q. Mo, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, C. Xia, B. Huang, H. Liu, H. Yu, P. Sillard, J. E. A. Lopez, R. A. Correa, and G. Li, “Few-mode fibre-optic microwave photonic links,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17021 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cunha, M. S. B.

Da Costa, I. F.

Da Silva, R. N.

Dat, P. T.

de Sousa, T. F. B.

El-Hajjar, M.

Esmail, M. A.

M. A. Esmail, A. M. Ragheb, H. A. Fathallah, M. Altamimi, and S. A. Alshebeili, “5G-28 GHz signal transmission over hybrid all-optical FSO/RF link in dusty weather conditions,” IEEE Access 7, 24404–24410 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. A. Esmail, A. Ragheb, H. Fathallah, and S. Alshebeili, “Demonstration of photonics-based switching of 5G signal over hybrid all-optical network,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(13), 1250–1253 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.-H.

Fathallah, H.

M. A. Esmail, A. Ragheb, H. Fathallah, and S. Alshebeili, “Demonstration of photonics-based switching of 5G signal over hybrid all-optical network,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(13), 1250–1253 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fathallah, H. A.

M. A. Esmail, A. M. Ragheb, H. A. Fathallah, M. Altamimi, and S. A. Alshebeili, “5G-28 GHz signal transmission over hybrid all-optical FSO/RF link in dusty weather conditions,” IEEE Access 7, 24404–24410 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fernandes, M. A. C.

Filgueiras, H. R. D.

Fontaine, N. K.

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IEEE Access (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental configuration A. Insets: (i) Overview of the hybrid MPL setup, (ii) Turbulent FSO chamber, (iii) Recorded $C_n^2$ (${m^{ - 2/3}}$) and (iv) Optical spectrum with a carrier-suppressed modulation scheme measured after MZM 1. PC: polarization controller, MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator, MUX: multiplexer, Col: collimator, FH: fan heater, EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, DEMUX: de-multiplexer, VOA: variable optical attenuator, PD: PIN photodiode, EA: electrical amplifier and ANT: antenna.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental configuration B. Insets: (i) FSO coupling, (ii) Tx ANT in the corridor and (iii) Rx ANT in the corridor.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. EVM versus received MMW power of Configuration A with 5 km SSMF, 2 m FSO and 3 m RF wireless for 5, 20 and 50 MHz 64-QAM signals a) without and b) with atmospheric turbulence.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The measured spurious-free dynamic range of Configuration A.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. EVM performance at different SNR levels for 4/16/64-QAM signals with 20 MHz bandwidth of Configuration B with 5 km SSMF, 40 m FSO and 40 m RF wireless links. Insets show corresponding constellations.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. EVM versus the received MMW power of Configuration B with SSMF lengths of 5 and 50 km, FSO and RF wireless lengths of 40 m: (a) 4-QAM, (b) 16-QAM and (c) 64-QAM format. Insets are the corresponding constellation diagrams.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. EVM performance of the 64-QAM signal (Configuration B) under the variable angular orientation of Rx ANT off-axis of propagation.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Simulation results for hybrid MPL of 5 km SSMF and 500 m FSO links: (a) Electrical spectrum of transmitted 16-QAM signal, (b) Optical spectra obtained without and with 16-QAM data signal (c) EVM versus received MMW power for 10 Gb/s 16-QAM under weak and strong turbulence and (d) Corresponding constellation diagrams.

Tables (4)

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Table 1. Summary of recent RoFSO transmission experiments with MMW carrier frequencies from 2016–2019

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Table 2. Key experimental parameters

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Table 3. Measured EVM and calculated BER results for hybrid MPL (Configuration A) consisting of 5 km SSMF, 2 m FSO and 3 m RF wireless channels.

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Table 4. Measured EVM and calculated BER results for hybrid MPL (Configuration B) consisting of 50 km SSMF, 40 m FSO and 40 m RF wireless.

Equations (4)

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C n 2 = ( 79 × 10 6 P T 2 ) 2 C T 2 ,
C T 2 = ( T 1 T 2 ) 2 / d 2 / 3 ,
σ R 2 = 1.23 C n 2 k 7 / 6 L 11 / 6 ,
BE R M QAM = 2 lo g 2 ( M ) ( 1 1 M ) × erfc ( 3 2 ( M 1 ) × 1 EV M 2 ) ,

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