Abstract

We report on erbium (Er) related electroluminescence (EL) in the visible and near infrared (NIR) regions from the light-emitting device (LED) based on the Er-doped ZnO (ZnO:Er)/n-Si isotype heterostructure formed by sputtering ZnO:Er film on n-Si/n+-Si epitaxial wafer. Herein, the ZnO:Er film exhibits n-type in electrical conduction. The aforementioned LED is electroluminescent only under sufficiently high forward bias with the negative voltage connecting to n+-Si substrate. Such forward bias enables the electrons from n-Si to enter into the ultra-thin SiOx (x ≤ 2) layer inherently existing between the ZnO:Er film and n-Si via Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism and, subsequently, to drift into the ZnO:Er film thus becoming hot electrons, which impact-excite the Er3+ ions to emit characteristic visible and NIR light. Furthermore, the Er-related EL from the aforementioned LED can be significantly enhanced through adopting the strategy of co-doping F ions into the ZnO host, which brings about twofold primary effects. Firstly, due to the atomic size compensation between F and Er3+ ions, the ZnO crystal grains become larger to accommodate much more optically active Er3+ ions. Secondly, the partial substitution of F ions for O2- ions around the Er3+ ion reduces the symmetry of pseudo-octahedral crystal field of Er3+ ion, thus increasing the probabilities of intra-4f transitions of Er3+ ions. We believe that this work sheds light on developing efficient silicon-based LEDs using the Er-doped oxide semiconductors.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  2. S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 µm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Nazarov, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, R. A. Yankov, I. N. Osiyuk, I. P. Tjagulskii, V. S. Lysenko, and T. Gebel, “Light emission and charge trapping in Er-doped silicon dioxide films containing silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151914 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Coffa, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Light Emission From Er-Doped Si: Materials Properties, Mechanisms, and Device Performance,” MRS Bull. 23(4), 25–32 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Highly erbium-doped zinc–oxide thin film prepared by laser ablation and its 1.54 µm emission dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 7129–7136 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Pavesi, “Routes toward silicon-based lasers,” Mater. Today 8(1), 18–25 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Priolo, G. Franzo, S. Coffa, and A. Carnera, “Excitation and nonradiative deexcitation processes of Er3+ in crystalline Si,” Phys. Rev. B 57(8), 4443–4455 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081109 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
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    [Crossref]
  19. S. Pearton, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 50(3), 293–340 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Klingshirn, J. Fallert, H. Zhou, J. Sartor, C. Thiele, F. Maier-Flaig, D. Schneider, and H. Kalt, “65 years of ZnO research - old and very recent results,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1424–1447 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(12), 126501 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. X. Ren, X. Zhang, N. Liu, L. Wen, L. Ding, Z. Ma, J. Su, L. Li, J. Han, and Y. Gao, “White Light-Emitting Diode From Sb-Doped p-ZnO Nanowire Arrays/n-GaN Film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Jiang, J. Chen, H. Bi, L. Li, W. Jing, J. Zhang, J. Dai, R. Che, C. Chen, and Y. Gao, “The underlying micro-mechanism of performance enhancement of non-polar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diode with i-ZnO inserted layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(3), 033505 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  24. W. Zhao, X. Xiong, Y. Han, L. Wen, Z. Zou, S. Luo, H. Li, J. Su, T. Zhai, and Y. Gao, “Fe-Doped p-ZnO Nanostructures/n-GaN Heterojunction for “Blue-Free” Orange Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(17), 1700146 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Muotonnet, and Y. L. Guillo, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. J. Kenyon, “Recent developments in rare-earthdoped materials for optoelectronics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 26(4-5), 225–284 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. Harako, S. Yokoyama, K. Ide, X. Zhao, and S. Komoro, “Visible and infrared electroluminescence from an Er-doped n-ZnO/p-Si light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(1), 19–22 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. E. F. Pecora, T. I. Murphy, and L. D. Negro, “Rare earth doped Si-rich ZnO for multiband near-infrared light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191115 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Yang, Y. Li, L. Xiang, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Low-voltage driven ∼1.54 µm electroluminescence from erbium-doped ZnO/p+-Si heterostructured devices: Energy transfer from ZnO host to erbium ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181111 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. Y. Yang, Y. Li, C. Wang, C. Zhu, C. Lv, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Rare-Earth Doped ZnO Films: A Material Platform to Realize Multicolor and Near-Infrared Electroluminescence,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 240–244 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. Chen, Z. Gao, M. Jiang, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from silicon-based light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(16), 163106 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. W. Jia, K. Monge, and F. Fernandez, “Energy transfer from the host to Eu3+ in ZnO,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 27–32 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  33. H. Akazawa and H. Shinojima, “Comparative study of visible and infrared photoluminescence resulting from indirect and direct excitation processes of Er3+ ions doped in ZnO host films,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(19), 195304 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. Jiang, C. Zhu, J. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films: Enhancement effect of yttrium codoping,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 163104 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  35. M. D. McCluskey and S. J. Jokela, “Defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 071101 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  36. Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, L. Rebohle, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, J. A. Rodríguez, W. Skorupa, and B. Garrido, “Intense green-yellow electroluminescence from Tb+-implanted silicon-rich silicon nitride/oxide light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  37. F.-C. Chiu and C.-M. Lai, “Optical and electrical characterizations of cerium oxide thin films,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(7), 075104 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  38. P. V. Aleskandrova, V. K. Gueorguiev, T. E. Ivanov, and J. B. Koprinarova, “Poole-Frenkel conduction in Al/ZrO2/SiO2/Si structures,” Eur. Phys. J. B 52(4), 453–457 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  39. J. Robertson, “High dielectric constant oxides,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 28(3), 265–291 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  40. N. Fujimura, A. Ohta, K. Makihara, and S. Miyazaki, “Evaluation of valence band top and electron affinity of SiO2 and Si-based semiconductors using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(8S2), 08PC06 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  41. S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, S. Iwan, Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and K. L. Teo, “Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence from n-ZnO∕SiOx∕(n,p)-Si heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013506 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  42. Z. Zhou, T. Komori, M. Yoshino, M. Morinaga, N. Matsunami, A. Koizumi, and Y. Takeda, “Enhanced 1.54 µm photoluminescence from Er-containing ZnO through nitrogen doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041107 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  43. X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO thin films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  44. M. Ishii, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and Y. Aoyagi, “Local structure analysis of an optically active center in Er-doped ZnO thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3679–3684 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  45. A. Terrasi, F. Priolo, G. Franzo, S. Coffa, F. D’Acapito, and S. Mobilio, “EXAFS analysis of Er sites in Er-O and Er-F co-doped crystalline Si,” J. Lumin. 80(1-4), 363–367 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

F. Jiang, J. Chen, H. Bi, L. Li, W. Jing, J. Zhang, J. Dai, R. Che, C. Chen, and Y. Gao, “The underlying micro-mechanism of performance enhancement of non-polar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diode with i-ZnO inserted layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(3), 033505 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

W. Zhao, X. Xiong, Y. Han, L. Wen, Z. Zou, S. Luo, H. Li, J. Su, T. Zhai, and Y. Gao, “Fe-Doped p-ZnO Nanostructures/n-GaN Heterojunction for “Blue-Free” Orange Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(17), 1700146 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Z. Gao, M. Jiang, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from silicon-based light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(16), 163106 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Akazawa and H. Shinojima, “Comparative study of visible and infrared photoluminescence resulting from indirect and direct excitation processes of Er3+ ions doped in ZnO host films,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(19), 195304 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

M. Jiang, C. Zhu, J. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films: Enhancement effect of yttrium codoping,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 163104 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. P. Ogden, T.-M. Lu, and J. L. Plawsky, “Electron transport and dielectric breakdown in silicon nitride using a charge transport model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(15), 152904 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. W. Wang, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhancement of 1.5 µm emission under 980 nm resonant excitation in Er and Yb co-doped GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(15), 152103 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Fujimura, A. Ohta, K. Makihara, and S. Miyazaki, “Evaluation of valence band top and electron affinity of SiO2 and Si-based semiconductors using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(8S2), 08PC06 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

C. Lv, C. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with erbium-doped CeO2 films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ren, X. Zhang, N. Liu, L. Wen, L. Ding, Z. Ma, J. Su, L. Li, J. Han, and Y. Gao, “White Light-Emitting Diode From Sb-Doped p-ZnO Nanowire Arrays/n-GaN Film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. Rebohle, Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, M. Braun, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, B. Garrido, M. Helm, and W. Skorupa, “The electroluminescence mechanism of Er3+ in different silicon oxide and silicon nitride environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(12), 123104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, Y. Li, C. Wang, C. Zhu, C. Lv, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Rare-Earth Doped ZnO Films: A Material Platform to Realize Multicolor and Near-Infrared Electroluminescence,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 240–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, L. Rebohle, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, J. A. Rodríguez, W. Skorupa, and B. Garrido, “Intense green-yellow electroluminescence from Tb+-implanted silicon-rich silicon nitride/oxide light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111102 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, L. López-Conesa, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, and B. Garrido, “Carrier transport and electroluminescence efficiency of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystal superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, Y. Li, L. Xiang, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Low-voltage driven ∼1.54 µm electroluminescence from erbium-doped ZnO/p+-Si heterostructured devices: Energy transfer from ZnO host to erbium ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181111 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

E. F. Pecora, T. I. Murphy, and L. D. Negro, “Rare earth doped Si-rich ZnO for multiband near-infrared light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191115 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

C. Klingshirn, J. Fallert, H. Zhou, J. Sartor, C. Thiele, F. Maier-Flaig, D. Schneider, and H. Kalt, “65 years of ZnO research - old and very recent results,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1424–1447 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

F.-C. Chiu and C.-M. Lai, “Optical and electrical characterizations of cerium oxide thin films,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(7), 075104 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO thin films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(12), 126501 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. D. McCluskey and S. J. Jokela, “Defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 071101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. Harako, S. Yokoyama, K. Ide, X. Zhao, and S. Komoro, “Visible and infrared electroluminescence from an Er-doped n-ZnO/p-Si light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(1), 19–22 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, S. Iwan, Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and K. L. Teo, “Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence from n-ZnO∕SiOx∕(n,p)-Si heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013506 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

P. V. Aleskandrova, V. K. Gueorguiev, T. E. Ivanov, and J. B. Koprinarova, “Poole-Frenkel conduction in Al/ZrO2/SiO2/Si structures,” Eur. Phys. J. B 52(4), 453–457 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

Z. Zhou, T. Komori, M. Yoshino, M. Morinaga, N. Matsunami, A. Koizumi, and Y. Takeda, “Enhanced 1.54 µm photoluminescence from Er-containing ZnO through nitrogen doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ü Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Pearton, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 50(3), 293–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Nazarov, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, R. A. Yankov, I. N. Osiyuk, I. P. Tjagulskii, V. S. Lysenko, and T. Gebel, “Light emission and charge trapping in Er-doped silicon dioxide films containing silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151914 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Pavesi, “Routes toward silicon-based lasers,” Mater. Today 8(1), 18–25 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Robertson, “High dielectric constant oxides,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 28(3), 265–291 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Y. Q. Wang and A. J. Steckl, “Three-color integration on rare-earth-doped GaN electroluminescent thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(4), 502–504 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Jia, K. Monge, and F. Fernandez, “Energy transfer from the host to Eu3+ in ZnO,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 27–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

A. J. Kenyon, “Recent developments in rare-earthdoped materials for optoelectronics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 26(4-5), 225–284 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Ishii, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and Y. Aoyagi, “Local structure analysis of an optically active center in Er-doped ZnO thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3679–3684 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Highly erbium-doped zinc–oxide thin film prepared by laser ablation and its 1.54 µm emission dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 µm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, “Optoelectronic Properties and Applications of Rare-Earth-Doped GaN,” MRS Bull. 24(9), 33–38 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

S. Coffa, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Light Emission From Er-Doped Si: Materials Properties, Mechanisms, and Device Performance,” MRS Bull. 23(4), 25–32 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Priolo, G. Franzo, S. Coffa, and A. Carnera, “Excitation and nonradiative deexcitation processes of Er3+ in crystalline Si,” Phys. Rev. B 57(8), 4443–4455 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Terrasi, F. Priolo, G. Franzo, S. Coffa, F. D’Acapito, and S. Mobilio, “EXAFS analysis of Er sites in Er-O and Er-F co-doped crystalline Si,” J. Lumin. 80(1-4), 363–367 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Matsuoka and S.-i. Tohno, “Electroluminescence of erbium-doped silicon films as grown by ion beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(1), 96–98 (1997).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Muotonnet, and Y. L. Guillo, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Akazawa, H.

H. Akazawa and H. Shinojima, “Comparative study of visible and infrared photoluminescence resulting from indirect and direct excitation processes of Er3+ ions doped in ZnO host films,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(19), 195304 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aleskandrova, P. V.

P. V. Aleskandrova, V. K. Gueorguiev, T. E. Ivanov, and J. B. Koprinarova, “Poole-Frenkel conduction in Al/ZrO2/SiO2/Si structures,” Eur. Phys. J. B 52(4), 453–457 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alivov, Y. I.

Ü Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aoyagi, Y.

M. Ishii, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and Y. Aoyagi, “Local structure analysis of an optically active center in Er-doped ZnO thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3679–3684 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 µm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Highly erbium-doped zinc–oxide thin film prepared by laser ablation and its 1.54 µm emission dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

Ü Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berencén, Y.

L. Rebohle, Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, M. Braun, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, B. Garrido, M. Helm, and W. Skorupa, “The electroluminescence mechanism of Er3+ in different silicon oxide and silicon nitride environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(12), 123104 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, L. López-Conesa, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, and B. Garrido, “Carrier transport and electroluminescence efficiency of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystal superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, L. Rebohle, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, J. A. Rodríguez, W. Skorupa, and B. Garrido, “Intense green-yellow electroluminescence from Tb+-implanted silicon-rich silicon nitride/oxide light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bi, H.

F. Jiang, J. Chen, H. Bi, L. Li, W. Jing, J. Zhang, J. Dai, R. Che, C. Chen, and Y. Gao, “The underlying micro-mechanism of performance enhancement of non-polar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diode with i-ZnO inserted layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(3), 033505 (2018).
[Crossref]

Braun, M.

L. Rebohle, Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, M. Braun, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, B. Garrido, M. Helm, and W. Skorupa, “The electroluminescence mechanism of Er3+ in different silicon oxide and silicon nitride environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(12), 123104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carnera, A.

F. Priolo, G. Franzo, S. Coffa, and A. Carnera, “Excitation and nonradiative deexcitation processes of Er3+ in crystalline Si,” Phys. Rev. B 57(8), 4443–4455 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cen, Z. H.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, S. Iwan, Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and K. L. Teo, “Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence from n-ZnO∕SiOx∕(n,p)-Si heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Che, R.

F. Jiang, J. Chen, H. Bi, L. Li, W. Jing, J. Zhang, J. Dai, R. Che, C. Chen, and Y. Gao, “The underlying micro-mechanism of performance enhancement of non-polar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diode with i-ZnO inserted layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(3), 033505 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

F. Jiang, J. Chen, H. Bi, L. Li, W. Jing, J. Zhang, J. Dai, R. Che, C. Chen, and Y. Gao, “The underlying micro-mechanism of performance enhancement of non-polar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diode with i-ZnO inserted layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(3), 033505 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

F. Jiang, J. Chen, H. Bi, L. Li, W. Jing, J. Zhang, J. Dai, R. Che, C. Chen, and Y. Gao, “The underlying micro-mechanism of performance enhancement of non-polar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diode with i-ZnO inserted layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(3), 033505 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Z. Gao, M. Jiang, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from silicon-based light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(16), 163106 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Jiang, C. Zhu, J. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films: Enhancement effect of yttrium codoping,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 163104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. P.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, S. Iwan, Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and K. L. Teo, “Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence from n-ZnO∕SiOx∕(n,p)-Si heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013506 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chiu, F.-C.

F.-C. Chiu and C.-M. Lai, “Optical and electrical characterizations of cerium oxide thin films,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(7), 075104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cho, S. J.

Ü Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Coffa, S.

F. Priolo, G. Franzo, S. Coffa, and A. Carnera, “Excitation and nonradiative deexcitation processes of Er3+ in crystalline Si,” Phys. Rev. B 57(8), 4443–4455 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Coffa, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Light Emission From Er-Doped Si: Materials Properties, Mechanisms, and Device Performance,” MRS Bull. 23(4), 25–32 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Terrasi, F. Priolo, G. Franzo, S. Coffa, F. D’Acapito, and S. Mobilio, “EXAFS analysis of Er sites in Er-O and Er-F co-doped crystalline Si,” J. Lumin. 80(1-4), 363–367 (1998).
[Crossref]

D’Acapito, F.

A. Terrasi, F. Priolo, G. Franzo, S. Coffa, F. D’Acapito, and S. Mobilio, “EXAFS analysis of Er sites in Er-O and Er-F co-doped crystalline Si,” J. Lumin. 80(1-4), 363–367 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

F. Jiang, J. Chen, H. Bi, L. Li, W. Jing, J. Zhang, J. Dai, R. Che, C. Chen, and Y. Gao, “The underlying micro-mechanism of performance enhancement of non-polar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diode with i-ZnO inserted layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(3), 033505 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dal Negro, L.

S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081109 (2010).
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Di Stefano, G.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ding, L.

X. Ren, X. Zhang, N. Liu, L. Wen, L. Ding, Z. Ma, J. Su, L. Li, J. Han, and Y. Gao, “White Light-Emitting Diode From Sb-Doped p-ZnO Nanowire Arrays/n-GaN Film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dogan, S.

Ü Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fallert, J.

C. Klingshirn, J. Fallert, H. Zhou, J. Sartor, C. Thiele, F. Maier-Flaig, D. Schneider, and H. Kalt, “65 years of ZnO research - old and very recent results,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1424–1447 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fallica, P. G.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Favennec, P. N.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Muotonnet, and Y. L. Guillo, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, F.

W. Jia, K. Monge, and F. Fernandez, “Energy transfer from the host to Eu3+ in ZnO,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 27–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Franzo, G.

A. Terrasi, F. Priolo, G. Franzo, S. Coffa, F. D’Acapito, and S. Mobilio, “EXAFS analysis of Er sites in Er-O and Er-F co-doped crystalline Si,” J. Lumin. 80(1-4), 363–367 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Priolo, G. Franzo, S. Coffa, and A. Carnera, “Excitation and nonradiative deexcitation processes of Er3+ in crystalline Si,” Phys. Rev. B 57(8), 4443–4455 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Coffa, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Light Emission From Er-Doped Si: Materials Properties, Mechanisms, and Device Performance,” MRS Bull. 23(4), 25–32 (1998).
[Crossref]

Franzò, G.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[Crossref]

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N. Fujimura, A. Ohta, K. Makihara, and S. Miyazaki, “Evaluation of valence band top and electron affinity of SiO2 and Si-based semiconductors using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(8S2), 08PC06 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

F. Jiang, J. Chen, H. Bi, L. Li, W. Jing, J. Zhang, J. Dai, R. Che, C. Chen, and Y. Gao, “The underlying micro-mechanism of performance enhancement of non-polar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diode with i-ZnO inserted layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(3), 033505 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Zhao, X. Xiong, Y. Han, L. Wen, Z. Zou, S. Luo, H. Li, J. Su, T. Zhai, and Y. Gao, “Fe-Doped p-ZnO Nanostructures/n-GaN Heterojunction for “Blue-Free” Orange Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(17), 1700146 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Z. Gao, M. Jiang, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from silicon-based light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(16), 163106 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Jiang, C. Zhu, J. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films: Enhancement effect of yttrium codoping,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 163104 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ren, X. Zhang, N. Liu, L. Wen, L. Ding, Z. Ma, J. Su, L. Li, J. Han, and Y. Gao, “White Light-Emitting Diode From Sb-Doped p-ZnO Nanowire Arrays/n-GaN Film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lv, C. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with erbium-doped CeO2 films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, Z.

J. Chen, Z. Gao, M. Jiang, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from silicon-based light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(16), 163106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Garrido, B.

L. Rebohle, Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, M. Braun, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, B. Garrido, M. Helm, and W. Skorupa, “The electroluminescence mechanism of Er3+ in different silicon oxide and silicon nitride environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(12), 123104 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, L. López-Conesa, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, and B. Garrido, “Carrier transport and electroluminescence efficiency of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystal superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, L. Rebohle, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, J. A. Rodríguez, W. Skorupa, and B. Garrido, “Intense green-yellow electroluminescence from Tb+-implanted silicon-rich silicon nitride/oxide light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gebel, T.

A. Nazarov, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, R. A. Yankov, I. N. Osiyuk, I. P. Tjagulskii, V. S. Lysenko, and T. Gebel, “Light emission and charge trapping in Er-doped silicon dioxide films containing silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151914 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gu, X. Q.

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO thin films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gueorguiev, V. K.

P. V. Aleskandrova, V. K. Gueorguiev, T. E. Ivanov, and J. B. Koprinarova, “Poole-Frenkel conduction in Al/ZrO2/SiO2/Si structures,” Eur. Phys. J. B 52(4), 453–457 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guillo, Y. L.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Muotonnet, and Y. L. Guillo, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

X. Ren, X. Zhang, N. Liu, L. Wen, L. Ding, Z. Ma, J. Su, L. Li, J. Han, and Y. Gao, “White Light-Emitting Diode From Sb-Doped p-ZnO Nanowire Arrays/n-GaN Film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, Y.

W. Zhao, X. Xiong, Y. Han, L. Wen, Z. Zou, S. Luo, H. Li, J. Su, T. Zhai, and Y. Gao, “Fe-Doped p-ZnO Nanostructures/n-GaN Heterojunction for “Blue-Free” Orange Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(17), 1700146 (2017).
[Crossref]

Harako, S.

S. Harako, S. Yokoyama, K. Ide, X. Zhao, and S. Komoro, “Visible and infrared electroluminescence from an Er-doped n-ZnO/p-Si light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(1), 19–22 (2008).
[Crossref]

He, H. P.

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO thin films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

Helm, M.

L. Rebohle, Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, M. Braun, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, B. Garrido, M. Helm, and W. Skorupa, “The electroluminescence mechanism of Er3+ in different silicon oxide and silicon nitride environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(12), 123104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hiller, D.

L. Rebohle, Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, M. Braun, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, B. Garrido, M. Helm, and W. Skorupa, “The electroluminescence mechanism of Er3+ in different silicon oxide and silicon nitride environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(12), 123104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, L. Rebohle, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, J. A. Rodríguez, W. Skorupa, and B. Garrido, “Intense green-yellow electroluminescence from Tb+-implanted silicon-rich silicon nitride/oxide light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Iacona, F.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ide, K.

S. Harako, S. Yokoyama, K. Ide, X. Zhao, and S. Komoro, “Visible and infrared electroluminescence from an Er-doped n-ZnO/p-Si light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(1), 19–22 (2008).
[Crossref]

Irrera, A.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ishii, M.

M. Ishii, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and Y. Aoyagi, “Local structure analysis of an optically active center in Er-doped ZnO thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3679–3684 (2001).
[Crossref]

Isshiki, H.

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Highly erbium-doped zinc–oxide thin film prepared by laser ablation and its 1.54 µm emission dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 µm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, T. E.

P. V. Aleskandrova, V. K. Gueorguiev, T. E. Ivanov, and J. B. Koprinarova, “Poole-Frenkel conduction in Al/ZrO2/SiO2/Si structures,” Eur. Phys. J. B 52(4), 453–457 (2006).
[Crossref]

Iwan, S.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, S. Iwan, Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and K. L. Teo, “Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence from n-ZnO∕SiOx∕(n,p)-Si heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013506 (2008).
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A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(12), 126501 (2009).
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Jia, W.

W. Jia, K. Monge, and F. Fernandez, “Energy transfer from the host to Eu3+ in ZnO,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 27–32 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jiang, F.

F. Jiang, J. Chen, H. Bi, L. Li, W. Jing, J. Zhang, J. Dai, R. Che, C. Chen, and Y. Gao, “The underlying micro-mechanism of performance enhancement of non-polar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diode with i-ZnO inserted layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(3), 033505 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

Q. W. Wang, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhancement of 1.5 µm emission under 980 nm resonant excitation in Er and Yb co-doped GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(15), 152103 (2016).
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Jiang, M.

J. Chen, Z. Gao, M. Jiang, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from silicon-based light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(16), 163106 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Jiang, C. Zhu, J. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films: Enhancement effect of yttrium codoping,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 163104 (2016).
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L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jing, W.

F. Jiang, J. Chen, H. Bi, L. Li, W. Jing, J. Zhang, J. Dai, R. Che, C. Chen, and Y. Gao, “The underlying micro-mechanism of performance enhancement of non-polar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diode with i-ZnO inserted layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(3), 033505 (2018).
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M. D. McCluskey and S. J. Jokela, “Defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 071101 (2009).
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C. Klingshirn, J. Fallert, H. Zhou, J. Sartor, C. Thiele, F. Maier-Flaig, D. Schneider, and H. Kalt, “65 years of ZnO research - old and very recent results,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1424–1447 (2010).
[Crossref]

Katsumata, T.

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 µm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Highly erbium-doped zinc–oxide thin film prepared by laser ablation and its 1.54 µm emission dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 7129–7136 (2000).
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A. J. Kenyon, “Recent developments in rare-earthdoped materials for optoelectronics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 26(4-5), 225–284 (2002).
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C. Klingshirn, J. Fallert, H. Zhou, J. Sartor, C. Thiele, F. Maier-Flaig, D. Schneider, and H. Kalt, “65 years of ZnO research - old and very recent results,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1424–1447 (2010).
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Koizumi, A.

Z. Zhou, T. Komori, M. Yoshino, M. Morinaga, N. Matsunami, A. Koizumi, and Y. Takeda, “Enhanced 1.54 µm photoluminescence from Er-containing ZnO through nitrogen doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041107 (2005).
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Komori, T.

Z. Zhou, T. Komori, M. Yoshino, M. Morinaga, N. Matsunami, A. Koizumi, and Y. Takeda, “Enhanced 1.54 µm photoluminescence from Er-containing ZnO through nitrogen doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Komoro, S.

S. Harako, S. Yokoyama, K. Ide, X. Zhao, and S. Komoro, “Visible and infrared electroluminescence from an Er-doped n-ZnO/p-Si light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(1), 19–22 (2008).
[Crossref]

Komuro, S.

M. Ishii, S. Komuro, T. Morikawa, and Y. Aoyagi, “Local structure analysis of an optically active center in Er-doped ZnO thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3679–3684 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Highly erbium-doped zinc–oxide thin film prepared by laser ablation and its 1.54 µm emission dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 µm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Koprinarova, J. B.

P. V. Aleskandrova, V. K. Gueorguiev, T. E. Ivanov, and J. B. Koprinarova, “Poole-Frenkel conduction in Al/ZrO2/SiO2/Si structures,” Eur. Phys. J. B 52(4), 453–457 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D. L.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, S. Iwan, Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and K. L. Teo, “Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence from n-ZnO∕SiOx∕(n,p)-Si heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013506 (2008).
[Crossref]

L’Haridon, H.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Muotonnet, and Y. L. Guillo, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718–719 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lai, C.-M.

F.-C. Chiu and C.-M. Lai, “Optical and electrical characterizations of cerium oxide thin films,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(7), 075104 (2010).
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Y. Yang, Y. Li, C. Wang, C. Zhu, C. Lv, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Rare-Earth Doped ZnO Films: A Material Platform to Realize Multicolor and Near-Infrared Electroluminescence,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 240–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. W.

Q. W. Wang, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhancement of 1.5 µm emission under 980 nm resonant excitation in Er and Yb co-doped GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(15), 152103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Wang and A. J. Steckl, “Three-color integration on rare-earth-doped GaN electroluminescent thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(4), 502–504 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wen, L.

W. Zhao, X. Xiong, Y. Han, L. Wen, Z. Zou, S. Luo, H. Li, J. Su, T. Zhai, and Y. Gao, “Fe-Doped p-ZnO Nanostructures/n-GaN Heterojunction for “Blue-Free” Orange Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(17), 1700146 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ren, X. Zhang, N. Liu, L. Wen, L. Ding, Z. Ma, J. Su, L. Li, J. Han, and Y. Gao, “White Light-Emitting Diode From Sb-Doped p-ZnO Nanowire Arrays/n-GaN Film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wutzler, R.

L. Rebohle, Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, M. Braun, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, B. Garrido, M. Helm, and W. Skorupa, “The electroluminescence mechanism of Er3+ in different silicon oxide and silicon nitride environments,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(12), 123104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Berencén, R. Wutzler, L. Rebohle, D. Hiller, J. M. Ramírez, J. A. Rodríguez, W. Skorupa, and B. Garrido, “Intense green-yellow electroluminescence from Tb+-implanted silicon-rich silicon nitride/oxide light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiang, L.

Y. Yang, Y. Li, L. Xiang, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Low-voltage driven ∼1.54 µm electroluminescence from erbium-doped ZnO/p+-Si heterostructured devices: Energy transfer from ZnO host to erbium ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiong, X.

W. Zhao, X. Xiong, Y. Han, L. Wen, Z. Zou, S. Luo, H. Li, J. Su, T. Zhai, and Y. Gao, “Fe-Doped p-ZnO Nanostructures/n-GaN Heterojunction for “Blue-Free” Orange Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(17), 1700146 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

J. Chen, Z. Gao, M. Jiang, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from silicon-based light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films annealed at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(16), 163106 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Jiang, C. Zhu, J. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films: Enhancement effect of yttrium codoping,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 163104 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lv, C. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with erbium-doped CeO2 films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, Y. Li, C. Wang, C. Zhu, C. Lv, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Rare-Earth Doped ZnO Films: A Material Platform to Realize Multicolor and Near-Infrared Electroluminescence,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 240–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, Y. Li, L. Xiang, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Low-voltage driven ∼1.54 µm electroluminescence from erbium-doped ZnO/p+-Si heterostructured devices: Energy transfer from ZnO host to erbium ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, Y. Li, C. Wang, C. Zhu, C. Lv, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Rare-Earth Doped ZnO Films: A Material Platform to Realize Multicolor and Near-Infrared Electroluminescence,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 240–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, Y. Li, L. Xiang, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Low-voltage driven ∼1.54 µm electroluminescence from erbium-doped ZnO/p+-Si heterostructured devices: Energy transfer from ZnO host to erbium ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181111 (2013).
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A. Nazarov, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, R. A. Yankov, I. N. Osiyuk, I. P. Tjagulskii, V. S. Lysenko, and T. Gebel, “Light emission and charge trapping in Er-doped silicon dioxide films containing silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151914 (2005).
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[Crossref]

Ye, Z. Z.

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO thin films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

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S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Z. Zhou, T. Komori, M. Yoshino, M. Morinaga, N. Matsunami, A. Koizumi, and Y. Takeda, “Enhanced 1.54 µm photoluminescence from Er-containing ZnO through nitrogen doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041107 (2005).
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[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

F. Jiang, J. Chen, H. Bi, L. Li, W. Jing, J. Zhang, J. Dai, R. Che, C. Chen, and Y. Gao, “The underlying micro-mechanism of performance enhancement of non-polar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diode with i-ZnO inserted layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(3), 033505 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Ren, X. Zhang, N. Liu, L. Wen, L. Ding, Z. Ma, J. Su, L. Li, J. Han, and Y. Gao, “White Light-Emitting Diode From Sb-Doped p-ZnO Nanowire Arrays/n-GaN Film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

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X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO thin films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B. H.

X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO thin films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

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S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, S. Iwan, Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and K. L. Teo, “Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence from n-ZnO∕SiOx∕(n,p)-Si heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013506 (2008).
[Crossref]

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W. Zhao, X. Xiong, Y. Han, L. Wen, Z. Zou, S. Luo, H. Li, J. Su, T. Zhai, and Y. Gao, “Fe-Doped p-ZnO Nanostructures/n-GaN Heterojunction for “Blue-Free” Orange Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(17), 1700146 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

S. Harako, S. Yokoyama, K. Ide, X. Zhao, and S. Komoro, “Visible and infrared electroluminescence from an Er-doped n-ZnO/p-Si light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(1), 19–22 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Highly erbium-doped zinc–oxide thin film prepared by laser ablation and its 1.54 µm emission dynamics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 7129–7136 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Komuro, T. Katsumata, T. Morikawa, X. Zhao, H. Isshiki, and Y. Aoyagi, “1.54 µm emission dynamics of erbium-doped zinc-oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3935–3937 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

C. Klingshirn, J. Fallert, H. Zhou, J. Sartor, C. Thiele, F. Maier-Flaig, D. Schneider, and H. Kalt, “65 years of ZnO research - old and very recent results,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1424–1447 (2010).
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M. Jiang, C. Zhu, J. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films: Enhancement effect of yttrium codoping,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 163104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

Z. Zhou, T. Komori, M. Yoshino, M. Morinaga, N. Matsunami, A. Koizumi, and Y. Takeda, “Enhanced 1.54 µm photoluminescence from Er-containing ZnO through nitrogen doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhu, C.

M. Jiang, C. Zhu, J. Zhou, J. Chen, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from light-emitting devices with erbium-doped TiO2 films: Enhancement effect of yttrium codoping,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 163104 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lv, C. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with erbium-doped CeO2 films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, Y. Li, C. Wang, C. Zhu, C. Lv, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Rare-Earth Doped ZnO Films: A Material Platform to Realize Multicolor and Near-Infrared Electroluminescence,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 240–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

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X. Q. Gu, L. P. Zhu, Z. Z. Ye, H. P. He, Y. Z. Zhang, and B. H. Zhao, “Preparation of Li and Er codoped ZnO thin films and their photoluminescence,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5134–5136 (2009).
[Crossref]

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W. Zhao, X. Xiong, Y. Han, L. Wen, Z. Zou, S. Luo, H. Li, J. Su, T. Zhai, and Y. Gao, “Fe-Doped p-ZnO Nanostructures/n-GaN Heterojunction for “Blue-Free” Orange Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(17), 1700146 (2017).
[Crossref]

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X. Ren, X. Zhang, N. Liu, L. Wen, L. Ding, Z. Ma, J. Su, L. Li, J. Han, and Y. Gao, “White Light-Emitting Diode From Sb-Doped p-ZnO Nanowire Arrays/n-GaN Film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(14), 2182–2188 (2015).
[Crossref]

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W. Zhao, X. Xiong, Y. Han, L. Wen, Z. Zou, S. Luo, H. Li, J. Su, T. Zhai, and Y. Gao, “Fe-Doped p-ZnO Nanostructures/n-GaN Heterojunction for “Blue-Free” Orange Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(17), 1700146 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, Y. Li, C. Wang, C. Zhu, C. Lv, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Rare-Earth Doped ZnO Films: A Material Platform to Realize Multicolor and Near-Infrared Electroluminescence,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 240–244 (2014).
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[Crossref]

F. Jiang, J. Chen, H. Bi, L. Li, W. Jing, J. Zhang, J. Dai, R. Che, C. Chen, and Y. Gao, “The underlying micro-mechanism of performance enhancement of non-polar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diode with i-ZnO inserted layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(3), 033505 (2018).
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[Crossref]

A. Nazarov, J. M. Sun, W. Skorupa, R. A. Yankov, I. N. Osiyuk, I. P. Tjagulskii, V. S. Lysenko, and T. Gebel, “Light emission and charge trapping in Er-doped silicon dioxide films containing silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151914 (2005).
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[Crossref]

S. Yerci, R. Li, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped Si-rich silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081109 (2010).
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L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
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J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, L. López-Conesa, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, and B. Garrido, “Carrier transport and electroluminescence efficiency of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystal superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 081102 (2013).
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C. Lv, C. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. Gao, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with erbium-doped CeO2 films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 141102 (2015).
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Q. W. Wang, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhancement of 1.5 µm emission under 980 nm resonant excitation in Er and Yb co-doped GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(15), 152103 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, J. L. Zhao, S. Iwan, Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, J. D. Ye, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and K. L. Teo, “Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence from n-ZnO∕SiOx∕(n,p)-Si heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 013506 (2008).
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Z. Zhou, T. Komori, M. Yoshino, M. Morinaga, N. Matsunami, A. Koizumi, and Y. Takeda, “Enhanced 1.54 µm photoluminescence from Er-containing ZnO through nitrogen doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(4), 041107 (2005).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) XRD patterns (b) Raman spectra of the ZnO:(Er, F) and ZnO:Er films annealed at 700 °C for 2 h in O2 ambient, respectively. For comparison, the Raman spectrum for a ZnO film without Er doping is also included. (c) XPS survey scan spectrum and (d) F 1s XPS spectrum for the ZnO:(Er, F) film.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) and (b) Plane-view SEM images; (c) and (d) Cross-sectional HRTEM images; (e) and (f) Amplified HRTEM images for the ZnO:(Er, F) and ZnO:Er films deposited on silicon substrates.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Visible PL spectra for the ZnO:(Er, F) and ZnO:Er films, and (b) The corresponding schematic diagram for the proposed energy transfer process in the case of PL from the ZnO:(Er, F) film and the ZnO:Er film, excited by a 325 nm He-Cd laser. (c) NIR PL spectra for the ZnO:(Er, F) and ZnO:Er films, and (d) The corresponding schematic diagram for the excitation and de-excitation processes of Er3+ ions, excited by a 980 nm laser.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The Visible and NIR EL spectra for the two LEDs with the ZnO:(Er, F) and ZnO:Er films, respectively, acquired at the injection current: (a) 15 mA and (b) 20 mA. The dependence of EL intensity of the emission peak at (c) 550 nm and (d) 1532 nm on the injection current for the two LEDs as mentioned above.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. J-V curve of the LED with (a) the ZnO:(Er, F) film and (b) the ZnO:Er film under the forward bias with the negative voltage connecting to n+-Si. The inset in (a)/(b) shows the P-F conduction fitting for the J-V curve segment in the voltage range where the LED is electroluminescent.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Schematic energy band diagram for the ZnO:(Er, F)/n-Si/ structured LED under sufficiently high forward bias. The impact excitation and de-excitation processes for Er3+ ions are also schematically illustrated.

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