Abstract

We use broadband near-infrared continuous-filtering Vernier spectroscopy (CF-VS) for time-resolved detection of H2O and OH radical in a premixed CH4/air flat flame. The CF-VS spectrometer is based on a femtosecond Er:fiber laser, an external cavity that contains the flame, and a detection system comprising a rotating diffraction grating and photodetectors. Spectra of H2O and OH radical around 1570 nm are continuously recorded with 6.6 GHz spectral resolution, 4.0 × 10−7 cm−1 absorption sensitivity, and 25 ms time resolution, while the fuel-air equivalence ratio is periodically modulated with a square wave. The concentrations of the two analytes are retrieved with percent level precision by a fit of a Vernier model to each spectrum spanning 13 nm. The temporal profiles of both concentrations in each modulation cycle are repeatable and the steady-state concentration levels are in good agreement with predictions based on one-dimensional simulations of a static flat flame. The robust CF-VS spectrometer opens up for quantitative monitoring of multiple products of time-varying combustion processes with relatively simple data acquisition procedures.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (2)

2018 (2)

M. Zhao, D. Buttsworth, and R. Choudhury, “Experimental and numerical study of OH* chemiluminescence in hydrogen diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 197, 369–377 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Rutkowski, A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, A. C. Johansson, A. Khodabakhsh, A. A. Kyuberis, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, S. N. Yurchenko, and J. Tennyson, “An experimental water line list at 1950 K in the 6250–6670 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 205, 213–219 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Werblinski, P. Fendt, L. Zigan, and S. Will, “High-speed combustion diagnostics in a rapid compression machine by broadband supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 56(15), 4443–4453 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Rutkowski and J. Morville, “Continuous Vernier filtering of an optical frequency comb for broadband cavity-enhanced molecular spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 187, 204–214 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Khodabakhsh, L. Rutkowski, J. Morville, and A. Foltynowicz, “Mid-infrared continuous-filtering Vernier spectroscopy using a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(7), 210 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. J. Schroeder, R. J. Wright, S. Coburn, B. Sodergren, K. C. Cossel, S. Droste, G. W. Truong, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, and G. B. Rieker, “Dual frequency comb laser absorption spectroscopy in a 16 MW gas turbine exhaust,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(3), 4565–4573 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ehn, J. Zhu, X. Li, and J. Kiefer, “Advanced laser-based techniques for gas-phase diagnostics in combustion and aerospace engineering,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(3), 341–366 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Infrared laser-absorption sensing for combustion gases,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 60, 132–176 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. Khodabakhsh, V. Ramaiah-Badarla, L. Rutkowski, A. C. Johansson, K. F. Lee, J. Jiang, C. Mohr, M. E. Fermann, and A. Foltynowicz, “Fourier transform and Vernier spectroscopy using an optical frequency comb at 3–5.4 µm,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2541–2544 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Rutkowski, A. C. Johansson, D. Valiev, A. Khodabakhsh, A. Tkacz, F. M. Schmidt, and A. Foltynowicz, “Detection of OH in an atmospheric flame at 1.5 µm using optical frequency comb spectroscopy,” Photonics Lett. Pol. 8(4), 110–112 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Z. Qu, R. Ghorbani, D. Valiev, and F. M. Schmidt, “Calibration-free scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy – application to H2O and temperature sensing in flames,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16492–16499 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Werblinski, F. Mittmann, M. Altenhoff, T. Seeger, L. Zigan, and S. Will, “Temperature and water mole fraction measurements by time-domain-based supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy in a flame,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 118(1), 153–158 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. A. Michelsen, C. Schulz, G. J. Smallwood, and S. Will, “Laser-induced incandescence: Particulate diagnostics for combustion, atmospheric, and industrial applications,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 51, 2–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2012 (1)

X. Chao, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy for real-time, in situ NO detection in combustion gases with a 5.2 µm quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 106(4), 987–997 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. Kiefer and P. Ewart, “Laser diagnostics and minor species detection in combustion using resonant four-wave mixing,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 37(5), 525–564 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. K. Hanson, “Applications of quantitative laser sensors to kinetics, propulsion and practical energy systems,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 1–40 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Aldén, J. Bood, Z. Li, and M. Richter, “Visualization and understanding of combustion processes using spatially and temporally resolved laser diagnostic techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 69–97 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: Fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36(2), 280–306 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

G. Hartung, J. Hult, and C. F. Kaminski, “A flat flame burner for the calibration of laser thermometry techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(9), 2485–2493 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

C. Schulz and V. Sick, “Tracer-LIF diagnostics: quantitative measurement of fuel concentration, temperature and fuel/air ratio in practical combustion systems,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31(1), 75–121 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, “Combustion at the focus: laser diagnostics and control,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30(1), 89–123 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Schocker, K. Kohse-Höinghaus, and A. Brockhinke, “Quantitative determination of combustion intermediates with cavity ring-down spectroscopy: systematic study in propene flames near the soot-formation limit,” Appl. Opt. 44(31), 6660–6672 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. Choudhuri, “Intermediate radical concentrations in hydrogen–natural gas blended fuel jet flames,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 29(12), 1293–1302 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. P. Wilcox, E. T. H. Chrysostom, A. McIlroy, J. W. Daily, and I. M. Kennedy, “Measurement of CrO in flames by cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77(5), 535–540 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Docquier and S. Candel, “Combustion control and sensors: a review,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 28(2), 107–150 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

I. Derzy, V. A. Lozovsky, and S. Cheskis, “Absolute CH concentration in flames measured by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 306(5-6), 319–324 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10(10), 845–852 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Cheskis, I. Derzy, V. A. Lozovsky, A. Kachanov, and D. Romanini, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of OH radicals in low pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 66(3), 377–381 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. S. Dandy and S. R. Vosen, “Numerical and experimental studies of hydroxyl radical chemiluminescence in methane-air fames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 82(1-6), 131–150 (1992).
[Crossref]

Abd Alrahman, C.

Aldén, M.

M. Aldén, J. Bood, Z. Li, and M. Richter, “Visualization and understanding of combustion processes using spatially and temporally resolved laser diagnostic techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 69–97 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, “Combustion at the focus: laser diagnostics and control,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30(1), 89–123 (2005).
[Crossref]

Altenhoff, M.

T. Werblinski, F. Mittmann, M. Altenhoff, T. Seeger, L. Zigan, and S. Will, “Temperature and water mole fraction measurements by time-domain-based supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy in a flame,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 118(1), 153–158 (2015).
[Crossref]

An, X.

Barbe, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barlow, R. S.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, “Combustion at the focus: laser diagnostics and control,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30(1), 89–123 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

P. J. Schroeder, R. J. Wright, S. Coburn, B. Sodergren, K. C. Cossel, S. Droste, G. W. Truong, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, and G. B. Rieker, “Dual frequency comb laser absorption spectroscopy in a 16 MW gas turbine exhaust,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 36(3), 4565–4573 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bood, J.

M. Aldén, J. Bood, Z. Li, and M. Richter, “Visualization and understanding of combustion processes using spatially and temporally resolved laser diagnostic techniques,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 69–97 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

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[Crossref]

Tan, Y.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Tashkun, S. A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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L. Rutkowski, A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, A. C. Johansson, A. Khodabakhsh, A. A. Kyuberis, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, S. N. Yurchenko, and J. Tennyson, “An experimental water line list at 1950 K in the 6250–6670 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 205, 213–219 (2018).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Tkacz, A.

L. Rutkowski, A. C. Johansson, D. Valiev, A. Khodabakhsh, A. Tkacz, F. M. Schmidt, and A. Foltynowicz, “Detection of OH in an atmospheric flame at 1.5 µm using optical frequency comb spectroscopy,” Photonics Lett. Pol. 8(4), 110–112 (2016).
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Toon, G. C.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Tyuterev, V. G.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Urata, Y.

Valiev, D.

L. Rutkowski, A. C. Johansson, D. Valiev, A. Khodabakhsh, A. Tkacz, F. M. Schmidt, and A. Foltynowicz, “Detection of OH in an atmospheric flame at 1.5 µm using optical frequency comb spectroscopy,” Photonics Lett. Pol. 8(4), 110–112 (2016).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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D. S. Dandy and S. R. Vosen, “Numerical and experimental studies of hydroxyl radical chemiluminescence in methane-air fames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 82(1-6), 131–150 (1992).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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T. Werblinski, P. Fendt, L. Zigan, and S. Will, “High-speed combustion diagnostics in a rapid compression machine by broadband supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 56(15), 4443–4453 (2017).
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T. Werblinski, F. Mittmann, M. Altenhoff, T. Seeger, L. Zigan, and S. Will, “Temperature and water mole fraction measurements by time-domain-based supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy in a flame,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 118(1), 153–158 (2015).
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B. P. Wilcox, E. T. H. Chrysostom, A. McIlroy, J. W. Daily, and I. M. Kennedy, “Measurement of CrO in flames by cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77(5), 535–540 (2003).
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T. Werblinski, P. Fendt, L. Zigan, and S. Will, “High-speed combustion diagnostics in a rapid compression machine by broadband supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 56(15), 4443–4453 (2017).
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T. Werblinski, F. Mittmann, M. Altenhoff, T. Seeger, L. Zigan, and S. Will, “Temperature and water mole fraction measurements by time-domain-based supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy in a flame,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 118(1), 153–158 (2015).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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C. Liu and L. Xu, “Laser absorption spectroscopy for combustion diagnosis in reactive flows: A review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 54(1), 1–44 (2019).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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L. Rutkowski, A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, A. C. Johansson, A. Khodabakhsh, A. A. Kyuberis, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, S. N. Yurchenko, and J. Tennyson, “An experimental water line list at 1950 K in the 6250–6670 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 205, 213–219 (2018).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Zhao, M.

M. Zhao, D. Buttsworth, and R. Choudhury, “Experimental and numerical study of OH* chemiluminescence in hydrogen diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 197, 369–377 (2018).
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Zigan, L.

T. Werblinski, P. Fendt, L. Zigan, and S. Will, “High-speed combustion diagnostics in a rapid compression machine by broadband supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 56(15), 4443–4453 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Werblinski, F. Mittmann, M. Altenhoff, T. Seeger, L. Zigan, and S. Will, “Temperature and water mole fraction measurements by time-domain-based supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy in a flame,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 118(1), 153–158 (2015).
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L. Rutkowski, A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, A. C. Johansson, A. Khodabakhsh, A. A. Kyuberis, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, S. N. Yurchenko, and J. Tennyson, “An experimental water line list at 1950 K in the 6250–6670 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 205, 213–219 (2018).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (5)

T. Werblinski, F. Mittmann, M. Altenhoff, T. Seeger, L. Zigan, and S. Will, “Temperature and water mole fraction measurements by time-domain-based supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy in a flame,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 118(1), 153–158 (2015).
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A. Khodabakhsh, L. Rutkowski, J. Morville, and A. Foltynowicz, “Mid-infrared continuous-filtering Vernier spectroscopy using a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 123(7), 210 (2017).
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Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

C. Liu and L. Xu, “Laser absorption spectroscopy for combustion diagnosis in reactive flows: A review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 54(1), 1–44 (2019).
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Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Derzy, V. A. Lozovsky, and S. Cheskis, “Absolute CH concentration in flames measured by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 306(5-6), 319–324 (1999).
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Combust. Flame (1)

M. Zhao, D. Buttsworth, and R. Choudhury, “Experimental and numerical study of OH* chemiluminescence in hydrogen diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 197, 369–377 (2018).
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Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. S. Dandy and S. R. Vosen, “Numerical and experimental studies of hydroxyl radical chemiluminescence in methane-air fames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 82(1-6), 131–150 (1992).
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Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (1)

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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (3)

L. Rutkowski and J. Morville, “Continuous Vernier filtering of an optical frequency comb for broadband cavity-enhanced molecular spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 187, 204–214 (2017).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. PI 1 and 2: proportional integral controllers; PMF: polarization maintaining fiber; PZT: piezo-electric transducer; TS: translation stage; MFC 1-3: mass flow controllers; S: solenoid valve; HVA: high voltage amplifier; Ph: phase shifter; λ/2 and λ/4: half- and quarter-wave plates; FG 1 and 2: function generators; GS: galvo scanner; DG: diffraction grating; BS 1 and 2: non-polarizing beam splitters; QD: quadrant detector; D1-4: photo diode elements of the quadrant detector; PD 1 and 2: InGaAs photodiodes for acquisition of Vernier and etalon spectra, respectively; DAQ: multichannel data acquisition card.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Single scan flame spectrum (black markers) measured at HAB = 3.0 mm, ϕ = 1.00 and total flow of 10 L/min compared to a fit of a Vernier spectrum model considering both H2O and OH transitions (green curve), and only OH (red curve). The spectral region used for retrieving the OH concentration is highlighted in blue. (b) Residual of the fit shown in (a). (c, e): Zooms of regions containing the strongest OH lines used to retrieve OH concentrations, along with the corresponding residuals (d, f).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Allan-Werle plots for H2O (blue open circles) and OH (red diamonds) concentrations retrieved from fits, along with the curves corresponding to the white noise regime (τ−1/2 dependence, black dashed lines).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Average H2O (blue open circles) and OH (red diamonds) concentrations retrieved from fits to a 10 s series of flame spectra and one-dimensional Cantera simulations of the concentration profiles of H2O (blue curve) and OH (red curve) as a function of HAB at ϕ = 1.00. Error bars indicate the precision at 25 ms retrieved from the Allan-Werle analysis.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. H2O (blue) and OH (red) concentrations retrieved from fits to spectra acquired at HAB = 3.0 mm while modulating ϕ between 0.87 and 1.00 with a square wave at different frequencies and duty cycles. Temporal profiles obtained with (a-c) 50% duty cycle square waves at the frequencies specified in the panels, and with (d-f) 1 Hz modulation and duty cycles ranging from 30 to 15%, corresponding to the pulse durations specified in the panels. The modulation signals are shown by the gray curves with arbitrary Y axes in all the panels.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a, b): Experimental temporal profiles of H2O (blue) and OH (red) concentrations retrieved from a 100 s series of measurements taken while modulating the equivalence ratio at 200 mHz, with every cycle overlapped and plotted along with the average of all cycles (black). The modulation signals are shown by the gray curves with arbitrary Y axes in both panels. (c, d): One-dimensional Cantera simulations of H2O (blue) and OH (red) concentrations at different equivalence ratios and CH4 flow rate set to 950 mL/min. The equivalence ratios corresponding to the high/low levels of the modulation in (a) and (b) are marked by vertical green dashed lines, and the mean value of the experimentally obtained steady-state concentrations are indicated by solid markers. Measurements and simulations shown in the left (a, c) and right (b, d) plots were carried out at HAB = 1.5 and 3.0 mm, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Experimental and simulated H2O and OH concentration ratios for each pair of ϕs.

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