Abstract

We report the design of an elliptical-core five-mode group selective photonic lantern (EC-F-MGS-PL) supporting ten spatial modes over the C-band, whose output fiber is an elliptical-core few mode fiber (EC-FMF). Initially, we fix the cladding diameters of all input fibers to form an elliptical structure. With the help of beam propagation methods (BPM), we carry out comprehensive geometrical optimization of various input fiber bundle, and identify the optimal setting of input fiber bundle in order to achieve the maximum mode selectivity, low insertion loss (IL), and high mode conversion efficiency (MCE) for all five mode groups. Next, we optimize each fiber core diameter and propose a two-step tapering process, for the ease of performance enhancement for the EC-F-MGS-PL. Finally, the mode field evolution and the wavelength dependent operation of the proposed EC-F-MGS-PL is numerically investigated. A mode selectivity of 9∼17 dB and IL of 0.1∼0.38 dB for all five mode groups can be achieved over the C-band, while MCE keeps between 83.3%–95.8%. By taking into account of the fabrication process, we believe that both the design strategy and optimization procedure of the EC-F-MGS-PL are helpful for the implementation of multi-input-multi-output (MIMO)-less mode division multiplexing (MDM) transmission.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  2. N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

B. Huang, J. C. A. Zacarias, H. Liu, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. Antonio-Loppez, J. Zhao, R. A. Correa, and G. Li, “Triple-clad photonic lanterns for mode scaling,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13390–13396 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2012 (2)

Alvarado, J. C.

Alvarado-Zacarias, J. C.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

B. Huang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “10-Mode Photonic Lanterns Using Low-Index Micro-Structured Drilling Preforms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angeles, California United States, 20171–3.

Alvarado-Zacarías, J. C.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amezcua Correa, R.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

Amezcua-Correa, A.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. C. Alvarado, G. Lopez-Galmiche, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Hernández-Cordero, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. Sillard, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Six mode selective fiber optic spatial multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1663–1666 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “10-Mode Photonic Lanterns Using Low-Index Micro-Structured Drilling Preforms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angeles, California United States, 20171–3.

Antonio Lopez, J. E.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

Z. S. Eznaveh, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. C. A. Zacarias, A. Schülzgen, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. A. Correa, “All-fiber few-mode multicore photonic lantern mode multiplexer,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16701–16707 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. C. Alvarado, G. Lopez-Galmiche, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Hernández-Cordero, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. Sillard, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Six mode selective fiber optic spatial multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1663–1666 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

B. Huang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “10-Mode Photonic Lanterns Using Low-Index Micro-Structured Drilling Preforms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angeles, California United States, 20171–3.

Antonio-López, J. E.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

Antonio-Loppez, J.

Ben Yoo, S. J.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

Benitez, A. V.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

Bigo, S.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km Transmission of Five Mode Division Multiplexed Data Streams at 100Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP Complexity,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), 1–3.

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 107–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, B. J. Mangan, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and D. F. Murphy, ““Photonic lantern” spectral filters in multi-core fibre,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13996–14008 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Yerolatsitis and T. A. Birks, “Six-mode photonic lantern multiplexer made from reduced-cladding fibres,” 2015 European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, 20151–3.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. S. Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (London, United Kingdom, 20131–3.

Bolle, C.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km Transmission of Five Mode Division Multiplexed Data Streams at 100Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP Complexity,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), 1–3.

Cao, Z.

Charlet, G.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km Transmission of Five Mode Division Multiplexed Data Streams at 100Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP Complexity,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), 1–3.

Chen, H.

B. Huang, J. C. A. Zacarias, H. Liu, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. Antonio-Loppez, J. Zhao, R. A. Correa, and G. Li, “Triple-clad photonic lanterns for mode scaling,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13390–13396 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “10-Mode Photonic Lanterns Using Low-Index Micro-Structured Drilling Preforms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angeles, California United States, 20171–3.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Correa, R. A.

B. Huang, J. C. A. Zacarias, H. Liu, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. Antonio-Loppez, J. Zhao, R. A. Correa, and G. Li, “Triple-clad photonic lanterns for mode scaling,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13390–13396 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. S. Eznaveh, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. C. A. Zacarias, A. Schülzgen, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. A. Correa, “All-fiber few-mode multicore photonic lantern mode multiplexer,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16701–16707 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Cruz, J. L.

Dai, Y.

Díez, A.

Ercan, B.

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. S. Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (London, United Kingdom, 20131–3.

Eznaveh, Z. S.

Z. S. Eznaveh, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. C. A. Zacarias, A. Schülzgen, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. A. Correa, “All-fiber few-mode multicore photonic lantern mode multiplexer,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16701–16707 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Fan, Y.

Feng, L.

X. Sai, Y. Li, X. Zeng, L. Feng, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, and J. Wu, “Elliptical-core Mode-selective Photonic Lanterns for MIMO-free Mode Division Multiplexing Systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (San Jose, California United States, 2017), 1–2.

Fontaine, N. K.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, J. C. A. Zacarias, H. Liu, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. Antonio-Loppez, J. Zhao, R. A. Correa, and G. Li, “Triple-clad photonic lanterns for mode scaling,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13390–13396 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “10-Mode Photonic Lanterns Using Low-Index Micro-Structured Drilling Preforms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angeles, California United States, 20171–3.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

N. K. Fontaine, “Photonic lantern spatial multiplexers in space-division multiplexing,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, (Waikoloa, Hawaii United States, 2013), 97–98.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. S. Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (London, United Kingdom, 20131–3.

Fu, S.

Gan, L.

L. Shen, L. Gan, C. Yang, W. Tong, S. Fu, D. Liu, and M. Tang, “Highly Mode Selective 3-Mode Photonic Lantern through Geometric Optimization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Gil, J. R. S.

N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. S. Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (London, United Kingdom, 20131–3.

Giles, I.

Gonnet, C.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Gris-Sánchez, I.

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 107–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

Guan, B.

Guo, H.

X. Sai, Y. Li, C. Yang, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, W. Tong, and J. Wu, “Design of elliptical-core mode-selective photonic lanterns with six modes for MIMO-free mode division multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4355–4358 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Sai, Y. Li, X. Zeng, L. Feng, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, and J. Wu, “Elliptical-core Mode-selective Photonic Lanterns for MIMO-free Mode Division Multiplexing Systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (San Jose, California United States, 2017), 1–2.

Habib, M. S.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Hayes, J. R.

B. Huang, J. C. A. Zacarias, H. Liu, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. Antonio-Loppez, J. Zhao, R. A. Correa, and G. Li, “Triple-clad photonic lanterns for mode scaling,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13390–13396 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “10-Mode Photonic Lanterns Using Low-Index Micro-Structured Drilling Preforms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angeles, California United States, 20171–3.

Hernández-Cordero, J.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. C. Alvarado, G. Lopez-Galmiche, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Hernández-Cordero, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. Sillard, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Six mode selective fiber optic spatial multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1663–1666 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hong, X.

X. Sai, Y. Li, C. Yang, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, W. Tong, and J. Wu, “Design of elliptical-core mode-selective photonic lanterns with six modes for MIMO-free mode division multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4355–4358 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Sai, Y. Li, X. Zeng, L. Feng, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, and J. Wu, “Elliptical-core Mode-selective Photonic Lanterns for MIMO-free Mode Division Multiplexing Systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (San Jose, California United States, 2017), 1–2.

Huang, B.

Koebele, C.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km Transmission of Five Mode Division Multiplexed Data Streams at 100Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP Complexity,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), 1–3.

Koonen, T.

Lei, Y.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 107–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

S. G. Leon-Saval, “The Photonic Lantern,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angeles, California United States, 2017), 1–3.

N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. S. Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (London, United Kingdom, 20131–3.

Li, G.

Li, J.

Li, W.

X. Sai, Y. Li, C. Yang, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, W. Tong, and J. Wu, “Design of elliptical-core mode-selective photonic lanterns with six modes for MIMO-free mode division multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4355–4358 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Sai, Y. Li, X. Zeng, L. Feng, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, and J. Wu, “Elliptical-core Mode-selective Photonic Lanterns for MIMO-free Mode Division Multiplexing Systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (San Jose, California United States, 2017), 1–2.

Li, Y.

X. Sai, Y. Li, C. Yang, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, W. Tong, and J. Wu, “Design of elliptical-core mode-selective photonic lanterns with six modes for MIMO-free mode division multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4355–4358 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Sai, Y. Li, X. Zeng, L. Feng, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, and J. Wu, “Elliptical-core Mode-selective Photonic Lanterns for MIMO-free Mode Division Multiplexing Systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (San Jose, California United States, 2017), 1–2.

Lingle, R.

Lingle, R. J.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

Liu, D.

D. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Cao, M. Tang, D. Liu, I. Giles, T. Koonen, and C. Okonkwo, “Mode-dependent characterization of photonic lanterns,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2302–2305 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, L. Gan, C. Yang, W. Tong, S. Fu, D. Liu, and M. Tang, “Highly Mode Selective 3-Mode Photonic Lantern through Geometric Optimization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Liu, H.

Lopez-Galmiche, G.

Mangan, B. J.

Milord, L.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km Transmission of Five Mode Division Multiplexed Data Streams at 100Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP Complexity,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), 1–3.

Murphy, D. F.

Okonkwo, C.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Cao, M. Tang, D. Liu, I. Giles, T. Koonen, and C. Okonkwo, “Mode-dependent characterization of photonic lanterns,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2302–2305 (2016).
[Crossref]

Okonkwo, C. M.

Poletti, F.

B. Huang, J. C. A. Zacarias, H. Liu, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. Antonio-Loppez, J. Zhao, R. A. Correa, and G. Li, “Triple-clad photonic lanterns for mode scaling,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13390–13396 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “10-Mode Photonic Lanterns Using Low-Index Micro-Structured Drilling Preforms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angeles, California United States, 20171–3.

Qiu, J.

X. Sai, Y. Li, C. Yang, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, W. Tong, and J. Wu, “Design of elliptical-core mode-selective photonic lanterns with six modes for MIMO-free mode division multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4355–4358 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Sai, Y. Li, X. Zeng, L. Feng, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, and J. Wu, “Elliptical-core Mode-selective Photonic Lanterns for MIMO-free Mode Division Multiplexing Systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (San Jose, California United States, 2017), 1–2.

Ryf, R.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, J. C. A. Zacarias, H. Liu, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. Antonio-Loppez, J. Zhao, R. A. Correa, and G. Li, “Triple-clad photonic lanterns for mode scaling,” Opt. Express 26(10), 13390–13396 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “10-Mode Photonic Lanterns Using Low-Index Micro-Structured Drilling Preforms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angeles, California United States, 20171–3.

N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. S. Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (London, United Kingdom, 20131–3.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km Transmission of Five Mode Division Multiplexed Data Streams at 100Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP Complexity,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), 1–3.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

Sai, X.

X. Sai, Y. Li, C. Yang, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, W. Tong, and J. Wu, “Design of elliptical-core mode-selective photonic lanterns with six modes for MIMO-free mode division multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4355–4358 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Sai, Y. Li, X. Zeng, L. Feng, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, and J. Wu, “Elliptical-core Mode-selective Photonic Lanterns for MIMO-free Mode Division Multiplexing Systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (San Jose, California United States, 2017), 1–2.

Salazar-Gil, J. R.

Salsi, M.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km Transmission of Five Mode Division Multiplexed Data Streams at 100Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP Complexity,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), 1–3.

Sanchez-Mondragon, J.

Schülzgen, A.

Scott, R. P.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

Shen, L.

L. Shen, L. Gan, C. Yang, W. Tong, S. Fu, D. Liu, and M. Tang, “Highly Mode Selective 3-Mode Photonic Lantern through Geometric Optimization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Shubochkin, R.

Sillard, P.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. C. Alvarado, G. Lopez-Galmiche, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Hernández-Cordero, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. Sillard, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Six mode selective fiber optic spatial multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1663–1666 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km Transmission of Five Mode Division Multiplexed Data Streams at 100Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP Complexity,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), 1–3.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Sun, Y.

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

Tang, M.

D. Yu, S. Fu, Z. Cao, M. Tang, D. Liu, I. Giles, T. Koonen, and C. Okonkwo, “Mode-dependent characterization of photonic lanterns,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2302–2305 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, L. Gan, C. Yang, W. Tong, S. Fu, D. Liu, and M. Tang, “Highly Mode Selective 3-Mode Photonic Lantern through Geometric Optimization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Thomson, R. R.

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 107–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tong, W.

X. Sai, Y. Li, C. Yang, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, W. Tong, and J. Wu, “Design of elliptical-core mode-selective photonic lanterns with six modes for MIMO-free mode division multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4355–4358 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, L. Gan, C. Yang, W. Tong, S. Fu, D. Liu, and M. Tang, “Highly Mode Selective 3-Mode Photonic Lantern through Geometric Optimization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Van Ras, D.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Velazquez-Benitez, A. M.

Velázquez-Benítez, A. M.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

X. Sai, Y. Li, C. Yang, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, W. Tong, and J. Wu, “Design of elliptical-core mode-selective photonic lanterns with six modes for MIMO-free mode division multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4355–4358 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Sai, Y. Li, X. Zeng, L. Feng, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, and J. Wu, “Elliptical-core Mode-selective Photonic Lanterns for MIMO-free Mode Division Multiplexing Systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (San Jose, California United States, 2017), 1–2.

Wu, R.

Xu, K.

Yang, C.

X. Sai, Y. Li, C. Yang, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, W. Tong, and J. Wu, “Design of elliptical-core mode-selective photonic lanterns with six modes for MIMO-free mode division multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4355–4358 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, L. Gan, C. Yang, W. Tong, S. Fu, D. Liu, and M. Tang, “Highly Mode Selective 3-Mode Photonic Lantern through Geometric Optimization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

Yerolatsitis, S.

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 107–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yerolatsitis and T. A. Birks, “Six-mode photonic lantern multiplexer made from reduced-cladding fibres,” 2015 European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, 20151–3.

Yin, F.

Yu, D.

Zacarias, J. C. A.

Zeng, X.

X. Sai, Y. Li, X. Zeng, L. Feng, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, and J. Wu, “Elliptical-core Mode-selective Photonic Lanterns for MIMO-free Mode Division Multiplexing Systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (San Jose, California United States, 2017), 1–2.

Zhao, J.

Zuo, Y.

X. Sai, Y. Li, C. Yang, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, W. Tong, and J. Wu, “Design of elliptical-core mode-selective photonic lanterns with six modes for MIMO-free mode division multiplexing systems,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4355–4358 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Sai, Y. Li, X. Zeng, L. Feng, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, and J. Wu, “Elliptical-core Mode-selective Photonic Lanterns for MIMO-free Mode Division Multiplexing Systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (San Jose, California United States, 2017), 1–2.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 107–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

X. Sai, Y. Li, X. Zeng, L. Feng, W. Li, J. Qiu, X. Hong, Y. Zuo, H. Guo, and J. Wu, “Elliptical-core Mode-selective Photonic Lanterns for MIMO-free Mode Division Multiplexing Systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (San Jose, California United States, 2017), 1–2.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40 km Transmission of Five Mode Division Multiplexed Data Streams at 100Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP Complexity,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), 1–3.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, J. E. Antonio Lopez, R. Amezcua Correa, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, L. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and R. J. Lingle, “30×30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, Spain, 2015), 1–3.

S. G. Leon-Saval, “The Photonic Lantern,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angeles, California United States, 2017), 1–3.

N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. S. Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (London, United Kingdom, 20131–3.

N. K. Fontaine, “Photonic lantern spatial multiplexers in space-division multiplexing,” in IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, (Waikoloa, Hawaii United States, 2013), 97–98.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, A. Amezcua-Correa, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. A. Correa, “Mode Selective Photonic Lantern with Graded Index Core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

L. Shen, L. Gan, C. Yang, W. Tong, S. Fu, D. Liu, and M. Tang, “Highly Mode Selective 3-Mode Photonic Lantern through Geometric Optimization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (San Diego, California United States, 2018), 1–3.

S. Yerolatsitis and T. A. Birks, “Six-mode photonic lantern multiplexer made from reduced-cladding fibres,” 2015 European Conference on Optical Communication (Valencia, 20151–3.

B. Huang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “10-Mode Photonic Lanterns Using Low-Index Micro-Structured Drilling Preforms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Los Angeles, California United States, 20171–3.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Theoretical five mode groups for the proposed EC-F-MGS-PL.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic structure of un-tapered end for EC-F-MGS-PL, (b)–(d) various distributions of ten input fibers, and (e) structure of EC-F-MGS-PL.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Mode selectivity, 3(b) IL, and 3(c) MCE for different geometry structures before optimization. Figure 3(d) Mode selectivity, 3(e) IL, and 3(f) MCE for first ten geometry structures after optimization.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Evolution of modes throughout the tapered transition, and (b) 3D schematic of the EC-F-MGS-PL.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Mode selectivity, 5(b) IL, and 5(c) MCE as a function of L1/L for PL-1. Figure 5(d) Mode selectivity, 5(e) IL, and 5(f) MCE as a function of L1/L for PL-2.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Calculated mode crosstalk matrix of one-step tapered EC-F-MGS-PL, and 6(b) calculated mode crosstalk matrix of two-step tapered EC-F-MGS-PL.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Evolution of mode fields when selectively exciting different mode groups.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Power evolution throughout the tapered transition of the EC-F-MGS-PL, when selectively exciting and measuring the mode groups of 8(a) 1, 8(b) 2, 8(c) 3, 8(d) 4, 8(e) 5.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Calculated mode crosstalk matrix after the fiber splicing with conventional circular-core FMF.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) Mode selectivity, 10(b) IL and 10(c) MCE of the EC-F-MGS-PL as a function of wavelength.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Parameters of input fibers

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Table 2. Mode selectivity, IL and MCE of the EC-F-MGS-PL and the CC-F-MGS-PL

Equations (3)

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M o d e   s e l e c t i v i t y i = log 10 ( P i i / P i j )   ( i , j = 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , j i )
I L i = 10 log 10 ( j R i j )   ( i , j = 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 )
M C E i = ( P i i / P i n ) × 100 %   ( i = 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 )

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