Abstract

An all glass Fresnel lens (AGFL) was fabricated by glass molding with a vitreous carbon (VC) micro mold. In the glass molding process, a glass plate was heated up to its softening temperature and pressed against to the VC mold to replicate the Fresnel pattern. The VC molds having negative shape Fresnel profile were fabricated by carbonization of replicated Furan precursor using a diamond turning machined nickel master. During the carbonization process, the Furan precursor shrank due to the thermal decomposition, and this shrinkage must be compensated to obtain a precise AGFL. In this study, we examined the shrinkage ratio during the carbonization process using a preliminary experiment using the commercially available PMMA Fresnel lens as the master, and fabricated a nickel master with an enlarged Fresnel profile for shrinkage compensation. To verify the compensation method, the surface profiles of the fabricated VC mold and molded AGFL were measured and compared with the designed profile. The deviations between measured and designed profiles were less than 4 μm. In addition, the tip radii of the grooves and draft angle of the molded AGFL were within the acceptable tolerance for CPV applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

E. Nam, C.-Y. Lee, M. B. G. Jun, and B.-K. Min, “Ductile mode electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining for glassy carbon,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(4), 045021 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ju, S. Lim, J. W. Seok, and S.-M. Kim, “A method to fabricate low-cost and large area Vitreous Carbon mold for glass molded microstructures,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(2), 287–291 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

B. Tao, P. He, L. Shen, and A. Yi, “Annealing of compression molded ashperical glass lens,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 136, 011008 (2014).

S.-F. Tseng, M.-F. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, C.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yang, and Y.-S. Chen, “Laser micromilling of convex microfluidic channels onto glassy carbon for glass molding dies,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 57, 58–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, M. DeBruyckere, D. Steadfast, J. Hackett, B. Farmer, G. Poe, B. Patrick, P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, and A. Seltzer, “Large-aperture fast multilevel Fresnel zone lenses in glass and ultrathin polymer films for visible and near-infrared imaging applications,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2312–2316 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

F. Duerr, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Tailored free-form optics with movement to integrate tracking in concentrating photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 21(Suppl 3), A401–A411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-K. Chong, S.-L. Lau, T.-K. Yew, and P. C.-L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrating system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Nishioka, K. Ikematsu, Y. Ota, and K. Araki, “Sandblasting durability of acrylic and glass Fresnel lenses for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Sol. Energy 86(10), 3021–3025 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

D. C. Miller and S. R. Kurtz, “Durability of Fresnel lenses: A review specific to the concentrating photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2037–2068 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, and K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, and R. Z. Wang, “Numerical and experimental analysis of a point focus solar collector using high concentration imaging PMMA Fresnel lens,” Energy Convers. Manage. 52(6), 2417–2426 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. C. Miller, M. D. Kempe, C. E. Kennedy, and S. R. Kurtz, “Analysis of transmitted optical spectrum enabling accelerated testing of multijunction concentrating photovoltaic designs,” Opt. Eng. 50, 013003 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

F. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Kloccke, G. Pongs, and A. Y. Yi, “Numerical simulation assisted curve compensation in compression molding of high precision aspherical glass lenses,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 131, 011014 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

S. H. Chang, Y. M. Lee, K. H. Shin, and Y. M. Heo, “A study of the Aspheric Glass Lens Forming Analysis in the Progressive GMP Process,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 11(3), 85–92 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. W. Youn, M. Takahashi, H. Goto, and R. Maeda, “Fabrication of micro-mold for glass embossing using focused ion beam, femto-second laser, eximer laser and dicing techniques,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 187, 326–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Takahashi, K. Sugimoto, and R. Maeda, “Nanoimprint of glass materials with glassy carbon molds fabricated by focused-ion-beam etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7B), 5600–5605 (2005).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. R. Whitfield, R. W. Bentley, C. K. Weatherby, A. C. Hunt, H.-D. Mohring, F. H. Klotz, P. Keuber, J. C. Miñano, and E. Alarte-Garvi, “The development and testing of small concentrating PV system,” Sol. Energy 67(1-3), 23–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Alarte-Garvi, E.

G. R. Whitfield, R. W. Bentley, C. K. Weatherby, A. C. Hunt, H.-D. Mohring, F. H. Klotz, P. Keuber, J. C. Miñano, and E. Alarte-Garvi, “The development and testing of small concentrating PV system,” Sol. Energy 67(1-3), 23–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Antón, I.

Araki, K.

K. Nishioka, K. Ikematsu, Y. Ota, and K. Araki, “Sandblasting durability of acrylic and glass Fresnel lenses for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Sol. Energy 86(10), 3021–3025 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Nishioka, K. Nabemoto, Y. Sakurada, Y. Ota, K. Takami, H. Nagai, and K. Araki, “Anti-soiling layer coated on PMMA Fresnel lens for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 003332–003334 (2011)

Askins, S.

Atcheson, P. D.

Bentley, R. W.

G. R. Whitfield, R. W. Bentley, C. K. Weatherby, A. C. Hunt, H.-D. Mohring, F. H. Klotz, P. Keuber, J. C. Miñano, and E. Alarte-Garvi, “The development and testing of small concentrating PV system,” Sol. Energy 67(1-3), 23–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Britten, J. A.

Chang, S. H.

Chen, M.-F.

S.-F. Tseng, M.-F. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, C.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yang, and Y.-S. Chen, “Laser micromilling of convex microfluidic channels onto glassy carbon for glass molding dies,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 57, 58–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Kloccke, G. Pongs, and A. Y. Yi, “Numerical simulation assisted curve compensation in compression molding of high precision aspherical glass lenses,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 131, 011014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, A. Y. Yi, F. Klocke, G. Pongs, and A. Demmer, “Manufacturing of glass diffractive optics by use of molding process,” ASPE Annual Conference, 15–20 (2007)

Chen, Y.-S.

S.-F. Tseng, M.-F. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, C.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yang, and Y.-S. Chen, “Laser micromilling of convex microfluidic channels onto glassy carbon for glass molding dies,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 57, 58–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chong, K.-K.

K.-K. Chong, S.-L. Lau, T.-K. Yew, and P. C.-L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrating system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y. J.

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, and R. Z. Wang, “Numerical and experimental analysis of a point focus solar collector using high concentration imaging PMMA Fresnel lens,” Energy Convers. Manage. 52(6), 2417–2426 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, and K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
[Crossref]

DeBruyckere, M.

Demmer, A.

Y. Chen, A. Y. Yi, F. Klocke, G. Pongs, and A. Demmer, “Manufacturing of glass diffractive optics by use of molding process,” ASPE Annual Conference, 15–20 (2007)

Dixit, S. N.

Domber, J. L.

Domínguez, C.

Duerr, F.

Farmer, B.

Giebink, N. C.

Goto, H.

S. W. Youn, M. Takahashi, H. Goto, and R. Maeda, “Fabrication of micro-mold for glass embossing using focused ion beam, femto-second laser, eximer laser and dicing techniques,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 187, 326–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hackett, J.

Hasegawa, K.

Hassan, M. R. A.

Hatano, T.

He, P.

B. Tao, P. He, L. Shen, and A. Yi, “Annealing of compression molded ashperical glass lens,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 136, 011008 (2014).

Heo, Y. M.

Herrero, R.

Higuchi, T.

H. Suzuki, T. Higuchi, M. Nishioka, T. Kitajima, A. Yui, S. Okuyama, H. Shibutani, and O. Horiuchi, “Precision grinding of micro Fresnel shape and precision glass molding of micro Fresnel lens,” Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the ASPE 25, 437–440 (2001)

Horiuchi, O.

H. Suzuki, T. Higuchi, M. Nishioka, T. Kitajima, A. Yui, S. Okuyama, H. Shibutani, and O. Horiuchi, “Precision grinding of micro Fresnel shape and precision glass molding of micro Fresnel lens,” Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the ASPE 25, 437–440 (2001)

Hsiao, W.-T.

S.-F. Tseng, M.-F. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, C.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yang, and Y.-S. Chen, “Laser micromilling of convex microfluidic channels onto glassy carbon for glass molding dies,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 57, 58–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.-Y.

S.-F. Tseng, M.-F. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, C.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yang, and Y.-S. Chen, “Laser micromilling of convex microfluidic channels onto glassy carbon for glass molding dies,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 57, 58–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hunt, A. C.

G. R. Whitfield, R. W. Bentley, C. K. Weatherby, A. C. Hunt, H.-D. Mohring, F. H. Klotz, P. Keuber, J. C. Miñano, and E. Alarte-Garvi, “The development and testing of small concentrating PV system,” Sol. Energy 67(1-3), 23–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ikematsu, K.

K. Nishioka, K. Ikematsu, Y. Ota, and K. Araki, “Sandblasting durability of acrylic and glass Fresnel lenses for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Sol. Energy 86(10), 3021–3025 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ju, J. H.

Y. K. Kim, J. H. Ju, and S.-M. Kim, “Replication of a glass microlens array using a vitreous carbon mold,” Opt. Express 26(12), 14936–14944 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Ju, S. Lim, J. W. Seok, and S.-M. Kim, “A method to fabricate low-cost and large area Vitreous Carbon mold for glass molded microstructures,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(2), 287–291 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jun, M. B. G.

E. Nam, C.-Y. Lee, M. B. G. Jun, and B.-K. Min, “Ductile mode electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining for glassy carbon,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(4), 045021 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kasa, H.

Kempe, M. D.

D. C. Miller, M. D. Kempe, C. E. Kennedy, and S. R. Kurtz, “Analysis of transmitted optical spectrum enabling accelerated testing of multijunction concentrating photovoltaic designs,” Opt. Eng. 50, 013003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kennedy, C. E.

D. C. Miller, M. D. Kempe, C. E. Kennedy, and S. R. Kurtz, “Analysis of transmitted optical spectrum enabling accelerated testing of multijunction concentrating photovoltaic designs,” Opt. Eng. 50, 013003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Keuber, P.

G. R. Whitfield, R. W. Bentley, C. K. Weatherby, A. C. Hunt, H.-D. Mohring, F. H. Klotz, P. Keuber, J. C. Miñano, and E. Alarte-Garvi, “The development and testing of small concentrating PV system,” Sol. Energy 67(1-3), 23–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-M.

Y. K. Kim, J. H. Ju, and S.-M. Kim, “Replication of a glass microlens array using a vitreous carbon mold,” Opt. Express 26(12), 14936–14944 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Ju, S. Lim, J. W. Seok, and S.-M. Kim, “A method to fabricate low-cost and large area Vitreous Carbon mold for glass molded microstructures,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(2), 287–291 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. K.

Kintaka, K.

Kitajima, T.

H. Suzuki, T. Higuchi, M. Nishioka, T. Kitajima, A. Yui, S. Okuyama, H. Shibutani, and O. Horiuchi, “Precision grinding of micro Fresnel shape and precision glass molding of micro Fresnel lens,” Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the ASPE 25, 437–440 (2001)

Kloccke, F.

F. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Kloccke, G. Pongs, and A. Y. Yi, “Numerical simulation assisted curve compensation in compression molding of high precision aspherical glass lenses,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 131, 011014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Klocke, F.

Y. Chen, A. Y. Yi, F. Klocke, G. Pongs, and A. Demmer, “Manufacturing of glass diffractive optics by use of molding process,” ASPE Annual Conference, 15–20 (2007)

Klotz, F. H.

G. R. Whitfield, R. W. Bentley, C. K. Weatherby, A. C. Hunt, H.-D. Mohring, F. H. Klotz, P. Keuber, J. C. Miñano, and E. Alarte-Garvi, “The development and testing of small concentrating PV system,” Sol. Energy 67(1-3), 23–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

Kurtz, S. R.

D. C. Miller, M. D. Kempe, C. E. Kennedy, and S. R. Kurtz, “Analysis of transmitted optical spectrum enabling accelerated testing of multijunction concentrating photovoltaic designs,” Opt. Eng. 50, 013003 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. C. Miller and S. R. Kurtz, “Durability of Fresnel lenses: A review specific to the concentrating photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2037–2068 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lau, S.-L.

K.-K. Chong, S.-L. Lau, T.-K. Yew, and P. C.-L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrating system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-Y.

E. Nam, C.-Y. Lee, M. B. G. Jun, and B.-K. Min, “Ductile mode electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining for glassy carbon,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(4), 045021 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. M.

Lim, S.

J. H. Ju, S. Lim, J. W. Seok, and S.-M. Kim, “A method to fabricate low-cost and large area Vitreous Carbon mold for glass molded microstructures,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(2), 287–291 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lorenzo, E.

Luque, A.

Maeda, R.

S. W. Youn, M. Takahashi, H. Goto, and R. Maeda, “Fabrication of micro-mold for glass embossing using focused ion beam, femto-second laser, eximer laser and dicing techniques,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 187, 326–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Takahashi, K. Sugimoto, and R. Maeda, “Nanoimprint of glass materials with glassy carbon molds fabricated by focused-ion-beam etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7B), 5600–5605 (2005).
[Crossref]

Meuret, Y.

Miller, D. C.

D. C. Miller and S. R. Kurtz, “Durability of Fresnel lenses: A review specific to the concentrating photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2037–2068 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. C. Miller, M. D. Kempe, C. E. Kennedy, and S. R. Kurtz, “Analysis of transmitted optical spectrum enabling accelerated testing of multijunction concentrating photovoltaic designs,” Opt. Eng. 50, 013003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Min, B.-K.

E. Nam, C.-Y. Lee, M. B. G. Jun, and B.-K. Min, “Ductile mode electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining for glassy carbon,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(4), 045021 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miñano, J. C.

G. R. Whitfield, R. W. Bentley, C. K. Weatherby, A. C. Hunt, H.-D. Mohring, F. H. Klotz, P. Keuber, J. C. Miñano, and E. Alarte-Garvi, “The development and testing of small concentrating PV system,” Sol. Energy 67(1-3), 23–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mohring, H.-D.

G. R. Whitfield, R. W. Bentley, C. K. Weatherby, A. C. Hunt, H.-D. Mohring, F. H. Klotz, P. Keuber, J. C. Miñano, and E. Alarte-Garvi, “The development and testing of small concentrating PV system,” Sol. Energy 67(1-3), 23–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mori, T.

Nabemoto, K.

K. Nishioka, K. Nabemoto, Y. Sakurada, Y. Ota, K. Takami, H. Nagai, and K. Araki, “Anti-soiling layer coated on PMMA Fresnel lens for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 003332–003334 (2011)

Nagai, H.

K. Nishioka, K. Nabemoto, Y. Sakurada, Y. Ota, K. Takami, H. Nagai, and K. Araki, “Anti-soiling layer coated on PMMA Fresnel lens for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 003332–003334 (2011)

Nam, E.

E. Nam, C.-Y. Lee, M. B. G. Jun, and B.-K. Min, “Ductile mode electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining for glassy carbon,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(4), 045021 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nishii, J.

Nishioka, K.

K. Nishioka, K. Ikematsu, Y. Ota, and K. Araki, “Sandblasting durability of acrylic and glass Fresnel lenses for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Sol. Energy 86(10), 3021–3025 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Nishioka, K. Nabemoto, Y. Sakurada, Y. Ota, K. Takami, H. Nagai, and K. Araki, “Anti-soiling layer coated on PMMA Fresnel lens for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 003332–003334 (2011)

Nishioka, M.

H. Suzuki, T. Higuchi, M. Nishioka, T. Kitajima, A. Yui, S. Okuyama, H. Shibutani, and O. Horiuchi, “Precision grinding of micro Fresnel shape and precision glass molding of micro Fresnel lens,” Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the ASPE 25, 437–440 (2001)

Okuyama, S.

H. Suzuki, T. Higuchi, M. Nishioka, T. Kitajima, A. Yui, S. Okuyama, H. Shibutani, and O. Horiuchi, “Precision grinding of micro Fresnel shape and precision glass molding of micro Fresnel lens,” Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the ASPE 25, 437–440 (2001)

Ota, Y.

K. Nishioka, K. Ikematsu, Y. Ota, and K. Araki, “Sandblasting durability of acrylic and glass Fresnel lenses for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Sol. Energy 86(10), 3021–3025 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Nishioka, K. Nabemoto, Y. Sakurada, Y. Ota, K. Takami, H. Nagai, and K. Araki, “Anti-soiling layer coated on PMMA Fresnel lens for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 003332–003334 (2011)

Patrick, B.

Poe, G.

Pongs, G.

F. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Kloccke, G. Pongs, and A. Y. Yi, “Numerical simulation assisted curve compensation in compression molding of high precision aspherical glass lenses,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 131, 011014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, A. Y. Yi, F. Klocke, G. Pongs, and A. Demmer, “Manufacturing of glass diffractive optics by use of molding process,” ASPE Annual Conference, 15–20 (2007)

Price, J. S.

Rumyantsev, V. D.

Sakurada, Y.

K. Nishioka, K. Nabemoto, Y. Sakurada, Y. Ota, K. Takami, H. Nagai, and K. Araki, “Anti-soiling layer coated on PMMA Fresnel lens for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 003332–003334 (2011)

Sala, G.

Seltzer, A.

Seok, J. W.

J. H. Ju, S. Lim, J. W. Seok, and S.-M. Kim, “A method to fabricate low-cost and large area Vitreous Carbon mold for glass molded microstructures,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(2), 287–291 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

B. Tao, P. He, L. Shen, and A. Yi, “Annealing of compression molded ashperical glass lens,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 136, 011008 (2014).

Shibutani, H.

H. Suzuki, T. Higuchi, M. Nishioka, T. Kitajima, A. Yui, S. Okuyama, H. Shibutani, and O. Horiuchi, “Precision grinding of micro Fresnel shape and precision glass molding of micro Fresnel lens,” Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the ASPE 25, 437–440 (2001)

Shin, K. H.

Steadfast, D.

Sugimoto, K.

M. Takahashi, K. Sugimoto, and R. Maeda, “Nanoimprint of glass materials with glassy carbon molds fabricated by focused-ion-beam etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7B), 5600–5605 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sumathy, K.

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, and K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, H.

H. Suzuki, T. Higuchi, M. Nishioka, T. Kitajima, A. Yui, S. Okuyama, H. Shibutani, and O. Horiuchi, “Precision grinding of micro Fresnel shape and precision glass molding of micro Fresnel lens,” Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the ASPE 25, 437–440 (2001)

Takahashi, M.

S. W. Youn, M. Takahashi, H. Goto, and R. Maeda, “Fabrication of micro-mold for glass embossing using focused ion beam, femto-second laser, eximer laser and dicing techniques,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 187, 326–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Takahashi, K. Sugimoto, and R. Maeda, “Nanoimprint of glass materials with glassy carbon molds fabricated by focused-ion-beam etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7B), 5600–5605 (2005).
[Crossref]

Takami, K.

K. Nishioka, K. Nabemoto, Y. Sakurada, Y. Ota, K. Takami, H. Nagai, and K. Araki, “Anti-soiling layer coated on PMMA Fresnel lens for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 003332–003334 (2011)

Tan, P. C.-L.

K.-K. Chong, S.-L. Lau, T.-K. Yew, and P. C.-L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrating system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tao, B.

B. Tao, P. He, L. Shen, and A. Yi, “Annealing of compression molded ashperical glass lens,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 136, 011008 (2014).

Thienpont, H.

Tseng, S.-F.

S.-F. Tseng, M.-F. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, C.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yang, and Y.-S. Chen, “Laser micromilling of convex microfluidic channels onto glassy carbon for glass molding dies,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 57, 58–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vallerotto, G.

Victoria, M.

Wang, B.

Wang, F.

F. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Kloccke, G. Pongs, and A. Y. Yi, “Numerical simulation assisted curve compensation in compression molding of high precision aspherical glass lenses,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 131, 011014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. Z.

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, and R. Z. Wang, “Numerical and experimental analysis of a point focus solar collector using high concentration imaging PMMA Fresnel lens,” Energy Convers. Manage. 52(6), 2417–2426 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, and K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wasworth, W. J.

Weatherby, C. K.

G. R. Whitfield, R. W. Bentley, C. K. Weatherby, A. C. Hunt, H.-D. Mohring, F. H. Klotz, P. Keuber, J. C. Miñano, and E. Alarte-Garvi, “The development and testing of small concentrating PV system,” Sol. Energy 67(1-3), 23–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Whitfield, G. R.

G. R. Whitfield, R. W. Bentley, C. K. Weatherby, A. C. Hunt, H.-D. Mohring, F. H. Klotz, P. Keuber, J. C. Miñano, and E. Alarte-Garvi, “The development and testing of small concentrating PV system,” Sol. Energy 67(1-3), 23–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xie, W. T.

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, and R. Z. Wang, “Numerical and experimental analysis of a point focus solar collector using high concentration imaging PMMA Fresnel lens,” Energy Convers. Manage. 52(6), 2417–2426 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, and K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.-H.

S.-F. Tseng, M.-F. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, C.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yang, and Y.-S. Chen, “Laser micromilling of convex microfluidic channels onto glassy carbon for glass molding dies,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 57, 58–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yew, T.-K.

K.-K. Chong, S.-L. Lau, T.-K. Yew, and P. C.-L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrating system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yi, A.

B. Tao, P. He, L. Shen, and A. Yi, “Annealing of compression molded ashperical glass lens,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 136, 011008 (2014).

Yi, A. Y.

F. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Kloccke, G. Pongs, and A. Y. Yi, “Numerical simulation assisted curve compensation in compression molding of high precision aspherical glass lenses,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 131, 011014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, A. Y. Yi, F. Klocke, G. Pongs, and A. Demmer, “Manufacturing of glass diffractive optics by use of molding process,” ASPE Annual Conference, 15–20 (2007)

Youn, S. W.

S. W. Youn, M. Takahashi, H. Goto, and R. Maeda, “Fabrication of micro-mold for glass embossing using focused ion beam, femto-second laser, eximer laser and dicing techniques,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 187, 326–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, F.

Yui, A.

H. Suzuki, T. Higuchi, M. Nishioka, T. Kitajima, A. Yui, S. Okuyama, H. Shibutani, and O. Horiuchi, “Precision grinding of micro Fresnel shape and precision glass molding of micro Fresnel lens,” Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the ASPE 25, 437–440 (2001)

Appl. Opt. (2)

Energy Convers. Manage. (1)

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, and R. Z. Wang, “Numerical and experimental analysis of a point focus solar collector using high concentration imaging PMMA Fresnel lens,” Energy Convers. Manage. 52(6), 2417–2426 (2011).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. (1)

J. H. Ju, S. Lim, J. W. Seok, and S.-M. Kim, “A method to fabricate low-cost and large area Vitreous Carbon mold for glass molded microstructures,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. 16(2), 287–291 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. (2)

B. Tao, P. He, L. Shen, and A. Yi, “Annealing of compression molded ashperical glass lens,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 136, 011008 (2014).

F. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Kloccke, G. Pongs, and A. Y. Yi, “Numerical simulation assisted curve compensation in compression molding of high precision aspherical glass lenses,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 131, 011014 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (1)

S. W. Youn, M. Takahashi, H. Goto, and R. Maeda, “Fabrication of micro-mold for glass embossing using focused ion beam, femto-second laser, eximer laser and dicing techniques,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 187, 326–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

E. Nam, C.-Y. Lee, M. B. G. Jun, and B.-K. Min, “Ductile mode electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining for glassy carbon,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(4), 045021 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Takahashi, K. Sugimoto, and R. Maeda, “Nanoimprint of glass materials with glassy carbon molds fabricated by focused-ion-beam etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(7B), 5600–5605 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. C. Miller, M. D. Kempe, C. E. Kennedy, and S. R. Kurtz, “Analysis of transmitted optical spectrum enabling accelerated testing of multijunction concentrating photovoltaic designs,” Opt. Eng. 50, 013003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

S.-F. Tseng, M.-F. Chen, W.-T. Hsiao, C.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yang, and Y.-S. Chen, “Laser micromilling of convex microfluidic channels onto glassy carbon for glass molding dies,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 57, 58–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (2)

Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. (2)

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, and K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
[Crossref]

K.-K. Chong, S.-L. Lau, T.-K. Yew, and P. C.-L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrating system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy (2)

G. R. Whitfield, R. W. Bentley, C. K. Weatherby, A. C. Hunt, H.-D. Mohring, F. H. Klotz, P. Keuber, J. C. Miñano, and E. Alarte-Garvi, “The development and testing of small concentrating PV system,” Sol. Energy 67(1-3), 23–34 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Nishioka, K. Ikematsu, Y. Ota, and K. Araki, “Sandblasting durability of acrylic and glass Fresnel lenses for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Sol. Energy 86(10), 3021–3025 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

D. C. Miller and S. R. Kurtz, “Durability of Fresnel lenses: A review specific to the concentrating photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2037–2068 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

H. Suzuki, T. Higuchi, M. Nishioka, T. Kitajima, A. Yui, S. Okuyama, H. Shibutani, and O. Horiuchi, “Precision grinding of micro Fresnel shape and precision glass molding of micro Fresnel lens,” Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the ASPE 25, 437–440 (2001)

K. Nishioka, K. Nabemoto, Y. Sakurada, Y. Ota, K. Takami, H. Nagai, and K. Araki, “Anti-soiling layer coated on PMMA Fresnel lens for concentrator photovoltaic modules,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 003332–003334 (2011)

M.F. Piszczor, D.J. Brinker, D.J. Flood, J.E. Avery, L.M. Fraas, E.S. Fairbanks, and J.W. Yerkes, “ A high- performance photovoltaic concentrator array: The mini-dome Fresnel lens concentrator with 30% efficient GaAs/GaSb tandem cells,” Conference Record of the Twenty Second IEEE, 1485–1490 (1991)

Y. Chen, A. Y. Yi, F. Klocke, G. Pongs, and A. Demmer, “Manufacturing of glass diffractive optics by use of molding process,” ASPE Annual Conference, 15–20 (2007)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Fabrication processes for modeled AGFL using VC mold prepared by carbonization of replicated precursor.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of measured pitch circle diameters (bar graph) and shrinkage ratio of VC mold (top blue square) at different pitch location in the preliminary experiment.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Effects of (a) groove tip radius and (b) draft angle on the optical efficiency of Fresnel lens.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Comparison of the Fresnel lens design profile (inverted) and the nickel master machining profile (enlarged for shrinkage compensation) and (b) magnified comparison for the facet in 1st pitch.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparisons of (a,b) measured and designed surface profiles for (a,b) VC mold at (a) center area and (b) last pitch region and for (c,d) AGFL (c) center area and (d) last pitch.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Error profiles of (a,b) the VC mold and (c, d) the AGFL; (a, c) center area and (b, d) last pitch area.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Cross sectional microscope images of replicated PDMS from (a) nickel master (4th pitch), (b) VC mold (4th pitch), and (c) AGFL (10th pitch).

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