Abstract

The accuracy and precision of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a sampled imaging system are affected by the shift-variant nature of subpixel binning of the pixel values in edge-based methods. This study demonstrates that a binning phase selected from a small number of binning phases can achieve a practical precision criterion for the MTF measurement. Furthermore, the new method proposed in this paper approximates the non-aliased, fundamental MTF without edge angle estimation and the following subpixel binning. The algorithm simply averages the aliased MTFs calculated from the row-by-row edge gradients in the region of a bitonal edge image and removes an assumed aliasing component. This method is also applicable to an oblique and non-straight edge.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. K. Masaoka, “Accuracy and precision of edge-based modulation transfer function measurement for sampled imaging systems,” IEEE Access 6(1), 41079–41086 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Masaoka, K. Arai, and Y. Takiguchi, “Real-time measurement of ultra-high definition camera modulation transfer function,” SMPTE Motion Imag. J. 127(10), 1 (2018).
  3. Photography—electronic still picture imaging—resolution and spatial frequency responses, document ISO 12233:2017, 2017.
  4. P. D. Burns, “Slanted-edge MTF for digital camera and scanner analysis,” in Proceedings of IS&T PICS Conference 2000, Portland, OR, USA, 2000, pp. 135–138.
  5. K. Masaoka, T. Yamashita, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “Modified slanted-edge method and multidirectional modulation transfer function estimation,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6040–6046 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. K. M. Roland, “A study of slanted-edge MTF stability and repeatability,” Proc. SPIE 9396, 93960L (2015).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

K. Masaoka, “Accuracy and precision of edge-based modulation transfer function measurement for sampled imaging systems,” IEEE Access 6(1), 41079–41086 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Masaoka, K. Arai, and Y. Takiguchi, “Real-time measurement of ultra-high definition camera modulation transfer function,” SMPTE Motion Imag. J. 127(10), 1 (2018).

2015 (1)

J. K. M. Roland, “A study of slanted-edge MTF stability and repeatability,” Proc. SPIE 9396, 93960L (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Arai, K.

K. Masaoka, K. Arai, and Y. Takiguchi, “Real-time measurement of ultra-high definition camera modulation transfer function,” SMPTE Motion Imag. J. 127(10), 1 (2018).

Masaoka, K.

K. Masaoka, “Accuracy and precision of edge-based modulation transfer function measurement for sampled imaging systems,” IEEE Access 6(1), 41079–41086 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Masaoka, K. Arai, and Y. Takiguchi, “Real-time measurement of ultra-high definition camera modulation transfer function,” SMPTE Motion Imag. J. 127(10), 1 (2018).

K. Masaoka, T. Yamashita, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “Modified slanted-edge method and multidirectional modulation transfer function estimation,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6040–6046 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishida, Y.

Roland, J. K. M.

J. K. M. Roland, “A study of slanted-edge MTF stability and repeatability,” Proc. SPIE 9396, 93960L (2015).
[Crossref]

Sugawara, M.

Takiguchi, Y.

K. Masaoka, K. Arai, and Y. Takiguchi, “Real-time measurement of ultra-high definition camera modulation transfer function,” SMPTE Motion Imag. J. 127(10), 1 (2018).

Yamashita, T.

IEEE Access (1)

K. Masaoka, “Accuracy and precision of edge-based modulation transfer function measurement for sampled imaging systems,” IEEE Access 6(1), 41079–41086 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. K. M. Roland, “A study of slanted-edge MTF stability and repeatability,” Proc. SPIE 9396, 93960L (2015).
[Crossref]

SMPTE Motion Imag. J. (1)

K. Masaoka, K. Arai, and Y. Takiguchi, “Real-time measurement of ultra-high definition camera modulation transfer function,” SMPTE Motion Imag. J. 127(10), 1 (2018).

Other (2)

Photography—electronic still picture imaging—resolution and spatial frequency responses, document ISO 12233:2017, 2017.

P. D. Burns, “Slanted-edge MTF for digital camera and scanner analysis,” in Proceedings of IS&T PICS Conference 2000, Portland, OR, USA, 2000, pp. 135–138.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of binning phase shifts (nbin = 4 and m = 8). Note that horizontally aligned pixels are rotated such that the edge angle orients upright and perpendicular to the bin array in the new edge-based method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SDs of averaged MTF values at 0.37 cycles/pixel from synthesized edge images having a sinc4(ξ) MTF with nbin of 4 (blue) and 8 (orange) and m of 1 (conventional), 4, 8, and 16.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SDs of the MTF values at 0.37 cycles/pixel calculated from synthesized edge images having a sinc4(ξ) MTF using the selected binning phase shifts with nbin of 4 (blue) and 8 (orange) and m of 4, 8, and 16.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 MTF curves (gray) calculated from each row of a synthesized slanted-edge image (MTF: sinc4(ξ); ROI size: 100 (W) × 200 (H) pixels; slant angle: 3°) with the averaged MTF curve (black solid line) and |F(ξ)| (red dashed line).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fundamental MTF |F(ξ)|, aliasing MTF |F(1 – ξ)|, and ensemble average of aliased MTFs with correction ⟨|Fs(ξ)|⟩CORR.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Relation between ⟨|Fs(ξ)|⟩CORR/|F(ξ)| and r(ξ).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 MTF calculated by the simplified method (black solid line) and a conventional edge-based method (blue solid line) from a synthesized image with an oblique and non-straight edge having a sinc4(ξ) MTF (red dashed line).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 MTFs (gray) calculated from each of 100 edge images (MTF: sinc4(ξ), red dashed line; ROI size: 100 (W) × 200 (H) pixels; edge angle: 3°; signal-to-noise ratio: 40 dB) and MTF calculated from the averaged edge image (black solid line).

Equations (3)

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| F s (ξ) | = 0 1 | F{step(xs)f(x)comb(x){δ(x)δ(x1)}} |ds   = 0 1 | e 2πsξ ( δ(ξ)/2 +1/ j2πξ )F(ξ)comb(x) e jπξ j2sin(πξ) |ds  =sinc(ξ) 0 1 | e 2πsξ e jπξ F(ξ)comb(x) |ds ,
| F s (ξ) | CORR | F(ξ) | = 2 π E( 4r(ξ) (r(ξ)+ 1) 2 ).
p= log( π 4 | F s ( ξ N ) | CORR )/ log( 2 π ) .

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