Abstract

The spectral phase shift of broadband amplified pulses, induced by population inversion, was measured in Ti:Sapphire at different pump fluence values. The measurement was performed for two orthogonal polarization directions and at two different crystal temperatures of 296 K and 30 K. Zero shifts and sign changes were observed in the spectral phase, which are connected to the gain spectrum of the crystal. The electronic refractive index changes were also numerically calculated by the Kramers-Kronig theory. The results are highly important for achieving sub-10 fs pulse duration and phase stability in the next generation of Ti:Sapphire-based laser systems.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

H. Cao, M. Kalashnikov, K. Osvay, N. Khodakovskiy, R. S. Nagymihaly, and V. Chvykov, “Active spectral shaping with polarization-encoded Ti:sapphire amplifiers for sub-20 fs multi-terrawatt systems,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(4), 045003 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. S. Nagymihaly, H. Cao, P. Jojart, M. Kalashnikov, A. Borzsonyi, V. Chvykov, R. Flender, M. Kovacs, and K. Osvay, “Carrier-envelope phase stability of a polarization-encoded chirped pulse Ti:Sapphire amplifier,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(4), A1–A5 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

Z. Gan, L. Yu, S. Li, C. Wang, X. Liang, Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Guo, Z. Fan, X. Yuan, L. Xu, Z. Liu, Y. Xu, J. Lu, H. Lu, D. Yin, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “200 J high efficiency Ti:sapphire chirped pulse amplifier pumped by temporal dual-pulse,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5169–5178 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Golinelli, X. Chen, E. Gontier, B. Bussière, O. Tcherbakoff, M. Natile, P. d’Oliveira, P.-M. Paul, and J.-F. Hergott, “Original Ti:Sa 10 kHz front-end design delivering 17 fs, 170 mrad CEP stabilized pulses up to 5 W,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2326–2329 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Burton, C. Debardelaben, W. Amir, and T. A. Planchon, “Temperature dependence of Ti:Sapphire fluorescence spectra for the design of cryogenic cooled Ti:Sapphire CPA laser,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6954–6962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Chériaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Fréneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Science and Engineering 4, e34 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kalashnikov, H. Cao, K. Osvay, and V. Chvykov, “Polarization-encoded chirped pulse amplification in Ti:sapphire: a way toward few-cycle petawatt lasers,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 25–28 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Indirect high-bandwidth stabilization of carrier-envelope phase of a high-energy, low-repetition-rate laser,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13276–13287 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

M. S. Kuznetsov, O. L. Antipov, A. A. Fotiadi, and P. Mégret, “Electronic and thermal refractive index changes in ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22374–22388 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Borzsonyi, A. Kovacs, and K. Osvay, “What we can learn about ultrashort pulses by linear optical methods,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 3(2), 515–544 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

R. Soulard, R. Moncorgé, A. Zinoviev, K. Petermann, O. Antipov, and A. Brignon, “Nonlinear spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped sesquioxides Lu2O3 and Sc2O3.,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11173–11180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Margerie, R. Moncorgé, and P. Nagtegaele, “Spectroscopic investigation of the variations in refractive index of a Nd:YAG laser crystal: experiments and crystal-field calculations,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 74(23), 235108 (2006).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

Dorrer and F. Salin, “Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(8), 2331–2337 (1998).

O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, A. Y. Luk’yanov, and A. P. Zinovev, “Changes in the refractive index of an Nd: YAG laser crystal on excitation of the Nd3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 28(10), 867–874 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

T. Danger, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Polarized and time-resolved measurements of excited-state absorption and stimulated emission in Ti:YAIO3 and Ti:Al203,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 57(4), 309–313 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1986 (2)

1985 (1)

E. Byvik and A. M. Buoncristiani, “Analysis of vibronic transitions in titanium doped sapphire using the temperature of the fluorescence spectra,” IEEE J. of Quant. El. 21(10), 1619–1624 (1985).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

M. G. Holland, “Thermal conductivity of several optical maser materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 33(9), 2910–2911 (1962).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, R. L.

Albers, P.

Amir, W.

Anderson, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Antipov, O.

Antipov, O. L.

Arnold, C. L.

S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Assion, A.

F. Lücking, V. Crozatier, N. Forget, A. Assion, and F. Krausz, “Approaching the limits of carrier-envelope phase stability in a millijoule-class amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 3884–3887 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Audebert, P.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Chériaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Fréneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Science and Engineering 4, e34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beluze, A.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Chériaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Fréneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Science and Engineering 4, e34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bocoum, M.

S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boehle, F.

S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Borzsonyi, A.

Brignon, A.

Buoncristiani, A. M.

E. Byvik and A. M. Buoncristiani, “Analysis of vibronic transitions in titanium doped sapphire using the temperature of the fluorescence spectra,” IEEE J. of Quant. El. 21(10), 1619–1624 (1985).
[Crossref]

Burton, H.

Bussière, B.

Byvik, E.

E. Byvik and A. M. Buoncristiani, “Analysis of vibronic transitions in titanium doped sapphire using the temperature of the fluorescence spectra,” IEEE J. of Quant. El. 21(10), 1619–1624 (1985).
[Crossref]

Calegari, F.

S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Campi, F.

S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

Charalambidis, D.

S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chausov, D. V.

Chen, X.

Cheriaux, G.

Chériaux, G.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Chériaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Fréneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Science and Engineering 4, e34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chvykov, V.

Cormier, E.

S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Crozatier, V.

Csizmadia, T.

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Devetta, M.

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Dressel, M.

Druon, F.

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Faltermeier, D.

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Farkas, B.

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Forget, N.

Fotiadi, A. A.

Frassetto, F.

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Füle, M.

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Georges, P.

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Johnsson, P.

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Kahaly, S.

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Khodakovskiy, N.

H. Cao, M. Kalashnikov, K. Osvay, N. Khodakovskiy, R. S. Nagymihaly, and V. Chvykov, “Active spectral shaping with polarization-encoded Ti:sapphire amplifiers for sub-20 fs multi-terrawatt systems,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(4), 045003 (2018).
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L’Huillier, A.

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Lebas, N.

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Lépine, F.

S. Kühn, M. Dumergue, S. Kahaly, S. Mondal, M. Füle, T. Csizmadia, B. Farkas, B. Major, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, M. Kalashnikov, F. Calegari, M. Devetta, F. Frassetto, E. Månsson, L. Poletto, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, P. Rudawski, S. Maclot, F. Campi, H. Wikmark, C. L. Arnold, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, R. Lopez-Martens, S. Haessler, M. Bocoum, F. Boehle, A. Vernier, G. Iaquaniello, E. Skantzakis, N. Papadakis, C. Kalpouzos, P. Tzallas, F. Lépine, D. Charalambidis, K. Varjú, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B 50(13), 132002 (2017).
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Li, S.

Li, W.

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Liu, Z.

Lopez-Martens, R.

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Lu, J.

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Månsson, E.

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H. Cao, M. Kalashnikov, K. Osvay, N. Khodakovskiy, R. S. Nagymihaly, and V. Chvykov, “Active spectral shaping with polarization-encoded Ti:sapphire amplifiers for sub-20 fs multi-terrawatt systems,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(4), 045003 (2018).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic layout of the experimental setup, highlighting the Jamin interferometer with more details in the bottom left inset. I1, I2 and I3 are irises, PH is a pinhole, Sa is a sapphire plate, FS is a fused silica plate, SF + SPM are spatial filtering and self-phase modulation, GP’s are Glan polarizers, HWP is a broadband halfwave plate, BSP1 and BSP2 are beam splitter plates, D is a beam damper, VC is the vacuum chamber for cryogenic environment, SaC is a sapphire crystal, FW is reflective neutral density filter wheel, SM is spectrometer, while W1 and W2 are vacuum windows.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Typical spectral interference fringe (green) and spectral phase error of a single measurement.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electronic phase shifts for different pump fluence values for π- (a) and σ-polarized (b) pulses at 296 K temperature. Color coding refers to the pump fluence in J/cm2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electronic phase shifts for different pump fluence values for π- (a) and σ-polarized (b) pulses at 30 K temperature. Color coding refers to the pump fluence in J/cm2, which is identical for the two polarizations.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Electronic RIC in the function of the inverted population density for π- (a,c) and σ-polarized (b,d) pulses at room and 30 K temperatures, respectively. The inversion density range corresponds to absorbed pump fluence values from 0 to 2 J/cm2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Slope of linear fit to the RICs along the inverted population density in the investigated spectral range, for different polarizations and temperatures.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The cross-sections for emissions σ em π,σ minus the exited state absorption cross sections σ abs ESA,π,σ (solid curves, blue for π-polarized transitions and red for σ- polarized transitions); and the cross-sections for the ground-state absorptions σ ab gr,π,σ (dashed curves, blue for π-polarized transitions and red for σ- polarized transitions). These cross-sections were used for numerical calculations of the electronic RICs.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The numerically calculated parameter Cπ,σ in the investigated spectral range for room temperature, where KK refers to the Kramers-Kronig theory.

Equations (3)

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C π,σ = 2π F L 2 n 0 π,σ Δ P π,σ ,
δ n e π,σ (λ)= δ N up 2 π 2 P 0 Δ σ m π,σ ( λ ' ) ( λ '2 / λ 2 )1 d λ ' ,
Δ σ m π,σ (λ)= σ ab gr,π,σ (λ)+ σ em π,σ (λ) σ ab ESA,π,σ (λ),

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