Abstract

Silicon slot waveguide Bragg gratings have been designed, fabricated and the experimental data has been analyzed for its slow light properties. Slow light with a group index of 12.38 at a wavelength near 1555 nm and having a low propagation loss of 5.1 dB/mm has been determined for internally corrugated slot waveguide Bragg gratings on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The combination of slow light and low propagation loss make the internally corrugated slot waveguide Bragg gratings especially attractive as a phase shifter section for low drive voltage, high speed and compact electro-optic modulators.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Photolithographically fabricated low-loss asymmetric silicon slot waveguides

Alexander Spott, Tom Baehr-Jones, Ran Ding, Yang Liu, Richard Bojko, Trevor O’Malley, Andrew Pomerene, Craig Hill, Wesley Reinhardt, and Michael Hochberg
Opt. Express 19(11) 10950-10958 (2011)

Low-loss strip-loaded slot waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator

Ran Ding, Tom Baehr-Jones, Woo-Joong Kim, Xugang Xiong, Richard Bojko, Jean-Marc Fedeli, Maryse Fournier, and Michael Hochberg
Opt. Express 18(24) 25061-25067 (2010)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1626–1628 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: Polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1–12 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 8401 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).
  9. X. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, J. Flueckiger, S. Grist, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic slot waveguide Bragg gratings and resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 19029 (2013).
  10. F. Riboli, P. Bettotti, and L. Pavesi, “Band gap characterization and slow light effects in one dimensional photonic crystals based on silicon slot-waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 11769 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. H. Yan, C.-J. Chung, H. Subbaraman, S. Chakravarty, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, S. Chakravarty, and R. T. Chen, “One-dimensional photonic crystal slot waveguide for silicon-organic hybrid electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5466 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. X. Zhang, C.-J. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Y.-C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High Performance Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer Filled Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 2941–2951 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r_33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 882 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1536–1541 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. Bogaerts, M. Fiers, and P. Dumon, “Design Challenges in Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Chrostowski, Z. Lu, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, J. Klein, A. Liu, J. Jhoja, and J. Pond, “Design and simulation of silicon photonic schematics and layouts,” in “Silicon Photonics Photonic Integr. Circuits V,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), p. 989114.
  17. A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Slow-Light-Enhanced Silicon Optical Modulators Under Low-Drive-Voltage Operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1306–1315 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  18. Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, T.-Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. J. Bojko, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Aida, L. He, M. Hochberg, and J. Li, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. B 29, 063F09 (2011).
  20. L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics Design: from devices to systems (Cambridge University Press, 2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22, 20652–20662 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2007).
  23. S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.
  24. H. Tazawa, Y.-h. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, W. H. Steier, and L. Fellow, “Ring Resonator-Based Electrooptic Polymer Traveling-Wave Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514–3519 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  25. B. Hong Ma, A. K-Y Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  26. X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based hybrid-integrated photonic devices for silicon on-chip modulation and board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 196 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. C.-J. Chung, X. Xu, Z. Pan, F. Mokhtari-Koushyar, R. Wang, H. Yan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon-Based Hybrid Integrated Photonic Chip for Ku band Electromagnetic Wave Sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1568–1575 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  28. G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 2005–2008 (2007).
  29. J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 4177 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

X. Zhang, C.-J. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Y.-C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High Performance Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer Filled Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 2941–2951 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

W. Bogaerts, M. Fiers, and P. Dumon, “Design Challenges in Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22, 20652–20662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based hybrid-integrated photonic devices for silicon on-chip modulation and board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 196 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).

X. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, J. Flueckiger, S. Grist, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic slot waveguide Bragg gratings and resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 19029 (2013).

2012 (3)

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: Polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Slow-Light-Enhanced Silicon Optical Modulators Under Low-Drive-Voltage Operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1306–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r_33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 882 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, T.-Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. J. Bojko, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Aida, L. He, M. Hochberg, and J. Li, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. B 29, 063F09 (2011).

2008 (2)

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 4177 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

B. Hong Ma, A. K-Y Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aamer, M.

A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Slow-Light-Enhanced Silicon Optical Modulators Under Low-Drive-Voltage Operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1306–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Aida, Y.

R. J. Bojko, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Aida, L. He, M. Hochberg, and J. Li, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. B 29, 063F09 (2011).

Alloatti, L.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

Andreani, L. C.

Baehr-Jones, T.

R. J. Bojko, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Aida, L. He, M. Hochberg, and J. Li, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. B 29, 063F09 (2011).

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 2005–2008 (2007).

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 8401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauters, J.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: Polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bettotti, P.

Bogaerts, W.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, M. Fiers, and P. Dumon, “Design Challenges in Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Bojko, R.

Bojko, R. J.

R. J. Bojko, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Aida, L. He, M. Hochberg, and J. Li, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. B 29, 063F09 (2011).

Bowers, J. E.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: Polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brimont, A.

A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Slow-Light-Enhanced Silicon Optical Modulators Under Low-Drive-Voltage Operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1306–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brosi, J.-M.

Cai, H.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, T.-Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chakravarty, S.

Chen, B.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

C.-J. Chung, X. Xu, Z. Pan, F. Mokhtari-Koushyar, R. Wang, H. Yan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon-Based Hybrid Integrated Photonic Chip for Ku band Electromagnetic Wave Sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 1568–1575 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, C.-J. Chung, H. Subbaraman, S. Chakravarty, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, S. Chakravarty, and R. T. Chen, “One-dimensional photonic crystal slot waveguide for silicon-organic hybrid electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5466 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, C.-J. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Y.-C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High Performance Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer Filled Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 2941–2951 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based hybrid-integrated photonic devices for silicon on-chip modulation and board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 196 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r_33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 882 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, K. C.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).

Chrostowski, L.

Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22, 20652–20662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, J. Flueckiger, S. Grist, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic slot waveguide Bragg gratings and resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 19029 (2013).

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics Design: from devices to systems (Cambridge University Press, 2015).
[Crossref]

L. Chrostowski, Z. Lu, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, J. Klein, A. Liu, J. Jhoja, and J. Pond, “Design and simulation of silicon photonic schematics and layouts,” in “Silicon Photonics Photonic Integr. Circuits V,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), p. 989114.

Chung, C.-J.

Dai, D.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: Polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 8401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalton, L. R.

B. Hong Ma, A. K-Y Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Davies, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

Delvaux, C.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Diebold, S.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dinu, R.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Doerfler, M.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, M. Fiers, and P. Dumon, “Design Challenges in Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dunayevskiy, I.

Elder, D. L.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Falco, A. Di

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, T.-Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fard, S. T.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).

Fedeli, J.

A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Slow-Light-Enhanced Silicon Optical Modulators Under Low-Drive-Voltage Operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1306–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J. M.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fellow, L.

Fetterman, H. R.

Fiers, M.

W. Bogaerts, M. Fiers, and P. Dumon, “Design Challenges in Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

Flueckiger, J.

Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22, 20652–20662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, J. Flueckiger, S. Grist, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic slot waveguide Bragg gratings and resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 19029 (2013).

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).

L. Chrostowski, Z. Lu, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, J. Klein, A. Liu, J. Jhoja, and J. Pond, “Design and simulation of silicon photonic schematics and layouts,” in “Silicon Photonics Photonic Integr. Circuits V,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), p. 989114.

Fournier, M.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 4177 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardes, F. Y.

A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Slow-Light-Enhanced Silicon Optical Modulators Under Low-Drive-Voltage Operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1306–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grist, S.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).

X. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, J. Flueckiger, S. Grist, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic slot waveguide Bragg gratings and resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 19029 (2013).

Gutierrez, A. M.

A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Slow-Light-Enhanced Silicon Optical Modulators Under Low-Drive-Voltage Operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1306–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, K.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, L.

R. J. Bojko, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Aida, L. He, M. Hochberg, and J. Li, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. B 29, 063F09 (2011).

Heni, W.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

R. J. Bojko, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Aida, L. He, M. Hochberg, and J. Li, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. B 29, 063F09 (2011).

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 2005–2008 (2007).

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 8401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics Design: from devices to systems (Cambridge University Press, 2015).
[Crossref]

Hong Ma, B.

B. Hong Ma, A. K-Y Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, A.

X. Zhang, C.-J. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Y.-C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High Performance Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer Filled Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 2941–2951 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based hybrid-integrated photonic devices for silicon on-chip modulation and board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 196 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 8401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Jen, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K.

Jen, A. K.-Y.

X. Zhang, C.-J. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Y.-C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High Performance Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer Filled Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 2941–2951 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r_33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 882 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jhoja, J.

L. Chrostowski, Z. Lu, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, J. Klein, A. Liu, J. Jhoja, and J. Pond, “Design and simulation of silicon photonic schematics and layouts,” in “Silicon Photonics Photonic Integr. Circuits V,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), p. 989114.

Kee, J. S.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. W.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. D.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kirk, J.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).

Klein, J.

L. Chrostowski, Z. Lu, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, J. Klein, A. Liu, J. Jhoja, and J. Pond, “Design and simulation of silicon photonic schematics and layouts,” in “Silicon Photonics Photonic Integr. Circuits V,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), p. 989114.

Koeber, S.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 4177 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korn, D.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-h.

Kwong, D.-L.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, T.-Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

K-Y Jen, A.

B. Hong Ma, A. K-Y Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lauermann, M.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. Y.-C.

X. Zhang, C.-J. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Y.-C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High Performance Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer Filled Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 2941–2951 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lepage, G.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Leuthold, J.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 4177 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

R. J. Bojko, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Aida, L. He, M. Hochberg, and J. Li, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. B 29, 063F09 (2011).

Lin, C.-Y.

Lin, X.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based hybrid-integrated photonic devices for silicon on-chip modulation and board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 196 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liow, T.-Y.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, T.-Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, T.-Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

L. Chrostowski, Z. Lu, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, J. Klein, A. Liu, J. Jhoja, and J. Pond, “Design and simulation of silicon photonic schematics and layouts,” in “Silicon Photonics Photonic Integr. Circuits V,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), p. 989114.

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, T.-Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Locorotondo, S.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Lu, Z.

L. Chrostowski, Z. Lu, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, J. Klein, A. Liu, J. Jhoja, and J. Pond, “Design and simulation of silicon photonic schematics and layouts,” in “Silicon Photonics Photonic Integr. Circuits V,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), p. 989114.

Luo, J.

X. Zhang, C.-J. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Y.-C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High Performance Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer Filled Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 2941–2951 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r_33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 882 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tazawa, Y.-h. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, W. H. Steier, and L. Fellow, “Ring Resonator-Based Electrooptic Polymer Traveling-Wave Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514–3519 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marti, J.

A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Slow-Light-Enhanced Silicon Optical Modulators Under Low-Drive-Voltage Operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1306–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Massari, M.

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[Crossref]

Milenin, A.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Mokhtari-Koushyar, F.

Murdoch, G.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Nelson, R. L.

X. Zhang, C.-J. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Y.-C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High Performance Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer Filled Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 2941–2951 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ong, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Pahl, K. P.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pan, Z.

Panepucci, R. R.

Park, M. K.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pathak, S.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Pavesi, L.

Penkov, B.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pond, J.

L. Chrostowski, Z. Lu, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, J. Klein, A. Liu, J. Jhoja, and J. Pond, “Design and simulation of silicon photonic schematics and layouts,” in “Silicon Photonics Photonic Integr. Circuits V,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), p. 989114.

Ratner, D. M.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).

Reed, G. T.

A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Slow-Light-Enhanced Silicon Optical Modulators Under Low-Drive-Voltage Operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1306–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Riboli, F.

Romanato, F.

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saleh, B.

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2007).

Sanchis, P.

A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Slow-Light-Enhanced Silicon Optical Modulators Under Low-Drive-Voltage Operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1306–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 2005–2008 (2007).

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 8401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, S.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).

Schulz, S. A.

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scullion, M. G.

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[Crossref]

Selvaraja, S. K.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Shi, W.

Shin, Y.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, J. F.

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, T.-Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

Steier, W. H.

Sterckx, G.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Subbaraman, H.

H. Yan, C.-J. Chung, H. Subbaraman, S. Chakravarty, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, S. Chakravarty, and R. T. Chen, “One-dimensional photonic crystal slot waveguide for silicon-organic hybrid electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5466 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, C.-J. Chung, H. Subbaraman, S. Chakravarty, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, S. Chakravarty, and R. T. Chen, “One-dimensional photonic crystal slot waveguide for silicon-organic hybrid electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5466 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, C.-J. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Y.-C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High Performance Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer Filled Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 2941–2951 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based hybrid-integrated photonic devices for silicon on-chip modulation and board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 196 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, P.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 8401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takayesu, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tazawa, H.

Teich, M.

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2007).

Thomson, D. J.

A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Slow-Light-Enhanced Silicon Optical Modulators Under Low-Drive-Voltage Operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1306–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Van Thourhout, D.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Waldow, M.

Wang, G.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 8401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 2005–2008 (2007).

Wang, R.

Wang, X.

Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22, 20652–20662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, J. Flueckiger, S. Grist, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic slot waveguide Bragg gratings and resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 19029 (2013).

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r_33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 882 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chrostowski, Z. Lu, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, J. Klein, A. Liu, J. Jhoja, and J. Pond, “Design and simulation of silicon photonic schematics and layouts,” in “Silicon Photonics Photonic Integr. Circuits V,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), p. 989114.

Wang, Y.

Winroth, G.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Woessner, M.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, W.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

Xu, Q.

Xu, X.

Yan, H.

Yoon, Y. J.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yun, H.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, C.-J. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Y.-C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High Performance Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer Filled Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 2941–2951 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based hybrid-integrated photonic devices for silicon on-chip modulation and board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 196 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zwick, T.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. Hong Ma, A. K-Y Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 2005–2008 (2007).

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 23–25 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based hybrid-integrated photonic devices for silicon on-chip modulation and board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 196 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, M. Fiers, and P. Dumon, “Design Challenges in Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Brimont, A. M. Gutierrez, M. Aamer, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Slow-Light-Enhanced Silicon Optical Modulators Under Low-Drive-Voltage Operation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 1306–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, T.-Y. Liow, H. Cai, T.-Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Ultralow Power Silicon Photonics Thermo-Optic Switch With Suspended Phase Arms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 525–527 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Biophotonics (1)

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 828, 821–828 (2013).

J. Light. Technol. (2)

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, C.-J. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Y.-C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High Performance Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer Filled Silicon Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 2941–2951 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. B (1)

R. J. Bojko, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Aida, L. He, M. Hochberg, and J. Li, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. B 29, 063F09 (2011).

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: Polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, 1–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sensors Actuators, B Chem. (1)

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics Design: from devices to systems (Cambridge University Press, 2015).
[Crossref]

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2007).

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193Nm Immersion Lithography for High-Performance Silicon Photonic Circuits,” in “SPIE 9052, Optical Microlithography XXVII,”, vol. 9052 (2014), vol. 9052, p. 90520F.

L. Chrostowski, Z. Lu, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, J. Klein, A. Liu, J. Jhoja, and J. Pond, “Design and simulation of silicon photonic schematics and layouts,” in “Silicon Photonics Photonic Integr. Circuits V,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), p. 989114.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 kLayout screen capture of silicon slot waveguide BG sections with Internal corrugations.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Photonic band structure for internal corrugated slot waveguide with ΔWin = 20 nm. (b) TE mode profile at the band edge for the fundamental mode band (m=1), where the optical mode confinement factor (σ) is 0.36 in the slot region.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) kLayout screen capture of MZI circuit along with strip waveguide and slot waveguide cross sections in two arms with fundamental quasi-TE mode intensity plots. (b) Simulated transmission spectrum for ΔWin = 20 nm along with calculated group index.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Top view SEM image of strip waveguide to slot waveguide mode converter. (b) Top view SEM image of slot waveguide uniform BG with internal corrugation width of ΔWin = 20 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured transmission spectra for input output grating couplers, strip to slot waveguide mode couplers and Y branches connected back to back, which correspond to the kLayout screen capture photonic circuits shown inset as (a), (b), and (c) respectively along with labeled input and output grating couplers.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured transmission spectra for slot BG’s with ΔWin = 20 nm having Bragg periods of 460 nm and 466 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured transmission spectra for the MZI circuits with one arm as strip waveguide and the other arm as slot BG with ΔWin = 20 nm and for Bragg periods of 460 nm and 466 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Measured transmission spectrum for MZI circuit with one arm as slot waveguide (i.e. with ΔWin = 0) and calculated group index for the slot waveguide. (b) kLayout screen capture of the MZI circuit.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measured raw transmission spectra for ΔWin = 20 nm with Bragg period of 460 nm along with calculated group index.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Measured transmission output spectrum and normalized data for slot waveguide BG with ΔWin = 20 nm and Bragg period of 460 nm. (b) kLayout screen capture of photonic circuits with the slot wave BG section and a reference straight strip waveguide section to obtain the normalized data plot.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Combined plot of phase shifter insertion loss and group index along with the measured transmission spectra for slot waveguide BG with ΔWin = 20 nm and Bragg period of 460 nm.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Schematic of Mach Zehnder modulator (MZM) using the internally corrugated slot waveguide Bragg gratings and cross section view in the slot waveguide BG arm.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Predicted transmission spectra in the slow light region for the Mach Zehnder modulator shown in Fig. 12.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Slot Waveguide-Based Phase Shifter Structures

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n g ( λ ) = ± λ 2 [ F S R ( λ ) ] L + n g ( r e f . )
I L ( λ ) = C p ( λ ) + α s w ( λ ) L α f w L + E m e a n ± E ( λ )
E ( λ ) = 20 l o g 10 ( E m a x ( λ ) + E m i n ( λ ) E m a x ( λ ) E m i n ( λ ) )
Δ ϕ = ΓΔ n k 0 L
Γ ( λ ) = ( n g ( λ ) n g ( s l o t ) ( λ ) ) . Γ s l o t ( λ )
Δ n = 1 2 ( n 3 r 33 E ) , E = V g

Metrics