Abstract

Chip-scale implementations of second-order nonlinear optics benefit from increased optical confinement that can lead to nonlinear interaction strengths that are orders of magnitude higher than bulk free-space configurations. Here, we present thin-film-based ultraefficient periodically-poled lithium niobate nonlinear waveguides, leveraging actively-monitored ferroelectric domain reversal engineering and nanophotonic confinement. The devices exhibit up to 4600 %W−1cm−2 conversion efficiency for second-harmonic generation, pumped around 1540 nm. In addition, we measure broadband sum-frequency generation across multiple telecom bands, from 1460 to 1620 nm. As an immediate application of the devices, we use pulses of picojoule-level energy to demonstrate second-harmonic generation with over 10% conversion in a 0.6-mm-long waveguide. Our ultracompact and highly efficient devices address growing demands in integrated-photonic frequency conversion, frequency metrology, atomic physics, and quantum optics, while offering a coherent link between the telecom and visible bands.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (4)

2018 (10)

S. Fathpour, “Heterogeneous nonlinear integrated photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54(6), 1–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Krasnokutska, J.-L. J. Tambasco, X. Li, and A. Peruzzo, “Ultra-low loss photonic circuits in lithium niobate on insulator,” Opt. Express 26(2), 897–904 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Rao and S. Fathpour, “Heterogeneous thin-film lithium niobate integrated photonics for electrooptics and nonlinear optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Rao and S. Fathpour, “Compact lithium niobate electrooptic modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–14 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4(3), e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, F. D. Ros, M. Pu, F. Ye, K. Ingerslev, E. P. da Silva, M. Nooruzzaman, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, P. Guan, D. Zibar, M. Galili, K. Yvind, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Single-source chip-based frequency comb enabling extreme parallel data transmission,” Nat. Photonics 12(8), 469–473 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. B. Surya, X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “Efficient third-harmonic generation in composite aluminum nitride/silicon nitride microrings,” Optica 5(2), 103–108 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Langrock, A. Marandi, M. Jankowski, M. Zhang, B. Desiatov, M. M. Fejer, and M. Lončar, “Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 5(11), 1438–1441 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (11)

A. Billat, D. Grassani, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, S. Kharitonov, T. J. Kippenberg, and C.-S. Brés, “Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasi-phase-matching,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1016 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111109 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Wolf, I. Breunig, H. Zappe, and K. Buse, “Cascaded second-order optical nonlinearities in on-chip micro rings,” Opt. Express 25(24), 29927–29933 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, S. Rogers, H. Liang, Y. He, and Q. Lin, “On-chip second-harmonic generation and broadband parametric down-conversion in a lithium niobate microresonator,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24531–24539 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hickstein, D. R. Carlson, A. Kowligy, M. Kirchner, S. R. Domingue, N. Nader, H. Timmers, A. Lind, G. G. Ycas, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “High-harmonic generation in periodically poled waveguides,” Optica 4(12), 1538–1544 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Kues, C. Reimer, P. Roztocki, L. R. Cortés, S. Sciara, B. Wetzel, Y. Zhang, A. Cino, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, D. J. Moss, L. Caspani, J. Azaña, and R. Morandotti, “On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control,” Nature 546(7660), 622–626 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, R. Luo, Y. He, H. Jiang, and Q. Lin, “High-quality lithium niobate photonic crystal nanocavities,” Optica 4(10), 1251–1258 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. A. Baghban, J. Schollhammer, C. E. Herranz, K. B. Gylfason, and K. Gallo, “Bragg gratings in thin-film LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(26), 32323–32332 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, R. Peng, Y. Wang, H. Zhu, and H. Hu, “Grating coupler on lithium niobate thin film waveguide with a metal bottom reflector,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(11), 4010–4017 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, H. Liang, Y. Chen, and Q. Lin, “Self-referenced temperature sensing with a lithium niobate microdisk resonator,” Opt. Lett. 42(7), 1281–1284 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (10)

A. Rao, A. Patil, P. Rabiei, A. Honardoost, R. DeSalvo, A. Paolella, and S. Fathpour, “High-performance and linear thin-film lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators on silicon up to 50 GHz,” Opt. Lett. 41(24), 5700–5703 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. S. Bullena, H.-C. Huangb, H. Yangb, J. I. Dadapb, I. Kymissisb, and R. M. Osgood, “Microscopy and microRaman study of periodically poled domains in deeply thinned lithium niobate wafers,” Opt. Mater. 57, 243–248 (2016).
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2015 (2)

2014 (2)

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
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2013 (2)

2012 (2)

L. Chen and R. M. Reano, “Compact electric field sensors based on indirect bonding of lithium niobate to silicon microrings,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4032–4038 (2012).
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S. Zaske, A. Lenhard, C. A. Keßler, J. Kettler, C. Hepp, C. Arend, R. Albrecht, W. M. Schulz, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and C. Becher, “Visible-to-telecom quantum frequency conversion of light from a single quantum emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(14), 147404 (2012).
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2011 (3)

2010 (1)

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153901 (2010).
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2005 (2)

2002 (2)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

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M. Kues, C. Reimer, P. Roztocki, L. R. Cortés, S. Sciara, B. Wetzel, Y. Zhang, A. Cino, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, D. J. Moss, L. Caspani, J. Azaña, and R. Morandotti, “On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control,” Nature 546(7660), 622–626 (2017).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Nonlinear efficiency and nanophotonic periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguide. (a) Comparison of normalized nonlinear conversion efficiency between various collinear geometries. The nonlinear overlap area is an effective interaction area for a given pair of modes that reduces with increasing optical confinement. Nanophotonic waveguides can offer high conversion efficiencies because of their small optical modes and strong nonlinear interaction. (b) Optical and scanning-electron micrographs of a nanophotonic periodically-poled lithium niobate nonlinear waveguide. (c) Schematic showing ridge waveguide and poling electrodes on a X-cut thin film of lithium niobate on an oxidized silicon substrate. (d) Electric field distributions of the fundamental transverse-electric modes at pump and second harmonic wavelengths of 1540 nm and 770 nm. (e) Cross-sections in the y-z and x-z planes extracted from 3-D finite-element method simulations of the electric poling field with an applied poling voltage of 400 V, as used experimentally in this work.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Second-harmonic generation and poling. (a) Experimental setup for optimizing the periodic poling in-situ by measuring the second harmonic power during poling, and false color atomic force micrograph showing regular periodic poling using across the waveguide after wet etching (electrode duty cycle ∼ 0.5). AWG: arbitrary waveform generator, OSC: digital oscilloscope, HVA: high voltage amplifier, PC: polarization controller, PD: calibrated photodetector. (b-d) First device: (b) Increase of SHG efficiency with the number of poling pulses used for ferroelectric domain inversion. (c) Measured peak conversion efficiency of 2800%W−1cm−2. (d) Quadratic power dependence of SHG on pump power. (e-g) Second device: (e) Increase of SHG efficiency with the number of poling cycles used for ferroelectric domain inversion. The efficiency reaches a maximum and then decreases before saturating; (f) Measured peak conversion efficiency of 4600 %W−1cm−2. (g) Quadratic scaling of SHG power with pump power.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Broadband sum-frequency generation. (a) Experimental setup; (b) SFG and SHG signals measured around 1580 nm and 1540 nm respectively. Pump laser II is held at 1501 nm. (c) Linear dependence of the SFG on the pump power of laser I. (d) Wideband two-wavelength SFG response measured across 1460 nm to 1620 nm. The wavelength of pump laser I is swept continuously across 1480 nm to 1620 nm, while the wavelength of pump laser II is incremented by 1 nm from 1460 nm to 1580 nm. The main diagonal corresponds to the SFG response. The horizontal and vertical signals, both near 1540 nm, correspond to SHG from the two pump lasers. (e) Simulation of two-wavelength SFG response in good agreement with the measurement in panel (d).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Low pulse energy second-harmonic generation. (a) Simplified experimental setup. HWP: half-wave plate, NDF: neutral density filter. (b) Nonlinear output spectra in dBm measured over a range of pump pulse energies. (c) Cross-section of panel (b) at maximum pump power. (d) Quadratic average power scaling of pulsed SHG. (e) Pulse energy conversion efficiency in % versus pulse energy of the pump. A conversion efficiency of 10% is obtained with 20 pJ pulses.

Equations (1)

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A eff = [ { | E 2 ω ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y } { | E ω ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y } 2 ] [ { χ ¯ ( 2 ) ( x , y ) E ω 2 ( x , y ) E 2 ω ( x , y ) d x d y } 2 ] ,

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