Abstract

Modified by special feature engineering, a powerful and low-order equalizer based on K-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifier is applied to improve performance of high-speed system with bandwidth-limited optics. The feature construction and feature weighting are specially designed to conduct an appropriate a feature engineering-based KNN (FE-KNN) scheme, which contains more data characteristics to enhance the equalization performance. Experimental comparisons of KNN classifier with/without feature engineering, decision feedback equalizer (DFE) and feed-forward equalizer (FFE) are implemented to prove the feasibility of our scheme in both 25-Gb/s NRZ and 50-Gb/s PAM-4 transmission experiments with 10-G optics system. The corresponding results show that, without the feature engineering, the performance achieved by the common KNN is not improved even in the case of hard decision (HD). In contrast, compared to the common 11-taps DFE, the performance achieved by FE-KNN with only 5 taps is improved by 1-dB at KP4-FEC threshold (BER=2.2E-4) for 25-Gb/s NRZ transmission. While, for 50-Gb/s PAM-4 case, 0.5-dB sensitivity improvement is achieved by our scheme compared to the common 11-taps DFE under the HD-FEC limit (BER=3.8E-3).

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (4)

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, T. Xu, L. Liang, W. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “50-km C-Band Transmission of 50-Gb/s PAM4 Using 10-G EML and Complexity-Reduced Adaptive Equalization,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Lavery, T. Gerard, S. Erkilinç, Z. Liu, L. Galdino, P. Bayvel, and R. I. Killey, “Opportunities for optical access network transceivers beyond OOK [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 11(2), A186–A195 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Diamantopoulos, H. Nishi, W. Kobayashi, K. Takeda, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “On the Complexity Reduction of the 2nd-order Volterra Nonlinear Equalizer for IM/DD systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(4), 1214–1224 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Peng, H. Jiang, H. Wang, H. Alwageed, and Y. Zhou, “Modulation Classification Based on Signal Constellation Diagrams and Deep Learning,” IEEE T. Neur. Net. Lear. 30(3), 718–727 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

J. Zhang, M. Gao, W. Chen, and G. Shen, “Non-Data-Aided k-Nearest Neighbors Technique for Optical Fiber Nonlinearity Mitigation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(17), 3564–3572 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, J. Du, L. Sun, L. Zheng, K. Xu, H. Ki Tsang, X. Chen, G. T. Reed, and Z. He, “Machine learning Adaptive Receiver for PAM-4 Modulated Optical Interconnection based on Silicon Microring Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(18), 4106–4113 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, J. Du, L. Sun, L. Zheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, X. Chen, G. T. Reed, and Z. He, “Nonlinear Distortion Mitigation by Machine learning of SVM classification for PAM-4 and PAM-8 modulated optical interconnection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(3), 650–657 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Xue, L. Yi, H. Ji, P. Li, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 100-Gb/s TWDM-PON in O-Band Based on 10G-Class Optical Devices Enabled by Dispersion-Supported Equalization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 580–586 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Lin, J. V. Kerrebrouck, X. Pang, M. Verplaetse, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, L. Zhang, L. Gan, M. Tang, S. Fu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, S. Popov, D. Liu, W. Tong, T. D. Keulenaer, G. Torfs, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, and J. Chen, “Real-time 100 Gbps/λ/core NRZ and EDB IM/DD transmission over multicore fiber for intra-datacenter communication networks,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10519–10526 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, A. Tan, Y. Song, Y. Li, J. Chen, and M. Wang, “OOK-Assisted Adaptive Equalization and Timing Recovery for PAM4 Demodulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (1)

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, H. Han, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “Nonlinearity Mitigation Using a Machine Learning Detector Based on k-Nearest Neighbors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2102–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

W. R. Bennett, “Statistics of regenerative digital transmission,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 37(6), 1501–1542 (1958).
[Crossref]

Alwageed, H.

S. Peng, H. Jiang, H. Wang, H. Alwageed, and Y. Zhou, “Modulation Classification Based on Signal Constellation Diagrams and Deep Learning,” IEEE T. Neur. Net. Lear. 30(3), 718–727 (2019).
[Crossref]

Anet Neto, L.

S. Barthomeuf, F. Saliou, L. Anet Neto, G. Simon, F. Bourgart, P. Chanclou, and D. Erasme, “Equalization and Interoperability Challenges in Next Generation Passive Optical Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W4J.4.

Barthomeuf, S.

S. Barthomeuf, F. Saliou, L. Anet Neto, G. Simon, F. Bourgart, P. Chanclou, and D. Erasme, “Equalization and Interoperability Challenges in Next Generation Passive Optical Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W4J.4.

Bauwelinck, J.

Bayvel, P.

Bennett, W. R.

W. R. Bennett, “Statistics of regenerative digital transmission,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 37(6), 1501–1542 (1958).
[Crossref]

Bourgart, F.

S. Barthomeuf, F. Saliou, L. Anet Neto, G. Simon, F. Bourgart, P. Chanclou, and D. Erasme, “Equalization and Interoperability Challenges in Next Generation Passive Optical Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W4J.4.

Cai, P.

Y. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Song, M. Huang, Y. Li, G. Kuang, Z. Fu, X. Huang, P. Cai, Z. Ma, M. Li, and D. Pan, “Demonstration of 25Gbit/s per channel NRZ transmission with 35 dB power budget using 25G Ge/Si APD for next generation 100G-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M3H.6.

Cai, Z.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, H. Han, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “Nonlinearity Mitigation Using a Machine Learning Detector Based on k-Nearest Neighbors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2102–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “KNN-based detector for coherent optical systems in presence of nonlinear phase noise,” in Opto Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC), (IEEE, 2016), paper TuB3-4.

Chanclou, P.

S. Barthomeuf, F. Saliou, L. Anet Neto, G. Simon, F. Bourgart, P. Chanclou, and D. Erasme, “Equalization and Interoperability Challenges in Next Generation Passive Optical Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W4J.4.

Chen, G.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, T. Xu, L. Liang, W. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “50-km C-Band Transmission of 50-Gb/s PAM4 Using 10-G EML and Complexity-Reduced Adaptive Equalization,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, A. Tan, Y. Song, Y. Li, J. Chen, and M. Wang, “OOK-Assisted Adaptive Equalization and Timing Recovery for PAM4 Demodulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Lin, J. V. Kerrebrouck, X. Pang, M. Verplaetse, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, L. Zhang, L. Gan, M. Tang, S. Fu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, S. Popov, D. Liu, W. Tong, T. D. Keulenaer, G. Torfs, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, and J. Chen, “Real-time 100 Gbps/λ/core NRZ and EDB IM/DD transmission over multicore fiber for intra-datacenter communication networks,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10519–10526 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, J. Xia, Y. Guo, Y. Li, Y. Song, J. Chen, and M. Wang, “Investigation on the equalization techniques for 10G-class optics enabled 25G-EPON,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16228–16234 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, Y. Yin, Q. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Li, and M. Wang, “Adaptive Equalization Enabled 25Gb/s NRZ Modulation Based on 10-G Class Optics for Upstream Burst-Mode Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper M1B.8.

Chen, W.

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, T. Xu, L. Liang, W. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “50-km C-Band Transmission of 50-Gb/s PAM4 Using 10-G EML and Complexity-Reduced Adaptive Equalization,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, M. Gao, W. Chen, and G. Shen, “Non-Data-Aided k-Nearest Neighbors Technique for Optical Fiber Nonlinearity Mitigation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(17), 3564–3572 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Man, W. Chen, X. Song, and L. Zeng, “30 km Downstream Transmission Using 4×25Gb/s 4-PAM Modulation with Commercial 10Gbps TOSA and ROSA for 100Gb/s-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2I.3.

Chen, X.

Cheng, M.

D. Li, L. Deng, Y. Ye, Y. Zhang, M. Cheng, S. Fu, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “4×96 Gbit/s PAM8 for short-reach applications employing low-cost DML without pre-equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.33.

Chou, E.

V. Houtsma, E. Chou, and D. V. Veen, “92 and 50 Gbps TDM-PON using Neural Network Enabled Receiver Equalization Specialized for PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper M2B.6.

Cui, Y.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, H. Han, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “Nonlinearity Mitigation Using a Machine Learning Detector Based on k-Nearest Neighbors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2102–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “KNN-based detector for coherent optical systems in presence of nonlinear phase noise,” in Opto Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC), (IEEE, 2016), paper TuB3-4.

Deng, L.

D. Li, L. Deng, Y. Ye, Y. Zhang, M. Cheng, S. Fu, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “4×96 Gbit/s PAM8 for short-reach applications employing low-cost DML without pre-equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.33.

Diamantopoulos, N.

Du, J.

El-fiky, E.

Erasme, D.

S. Barthomeuf, F. Saliou, L. Anet Neto, G. Simon, F. Bourgart, P. Chanclou, and D. Erasme, “Equalization and Interoperability Challenges in Next Generation Passive Optical Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W4J.4.

Erkilinç, S.

Fu, M.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, H. Han, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “Nonlinearity Mitigation Using a Machine Learning Detector Based on k-Nearest Neighbors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2102–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “KNN-based detector for coherent optical systems in presence of nonlinear phase noise,” in Opto Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC), (IEEE, 2016), paper TuB3-4.

Fu, S.

R. Lin, J. V. Kerrebrouck, X. Pang, M. Verplaetse, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, L. Zhang, L. Gan, M. Tang, S. Fu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, S. Popov, D. Liu, W. Tong, T. D. Keulenaer, G. Torfs, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, and J. Chen, “Real-time 100 Gbps/λ/core NRZ and EDB IM/DD transmission over multicore fiber for intra-datacenter communication networks,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10519–10526 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Li, L. Deng, Y. Ye, Y. Zhang, M. Cheng, S. Fu, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “4×96 Gbit/s PAM8 for short-reach applications employing low-cost DML without pre-equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.33.

H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Man, W. Chen, X. Song, and L. Zeng, “30 km Downstream Transmission Using 4×25Gb/s 4-PAM Modulation with Commercial 10Gbps TOSA and ROSA for 100Gb/s-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2I.3.

Fu, Z.

Y. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Song, M. Huang, Y. Li, G. Kuang, Z. Fu, X. Huang, P. Cai, Z. Ma, M. Li, and D. Pan, “Demonstration of 25Gbit/s per channel NRZ transmission with 35 dB power budget using 25G Ge/Si APD for next generation 100G-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M3H.6.

Galdino, L.

Gan, L.

Gao, M.

Gerard, T.

Guo, M.

X. Tang, S. Liu, X. Xu, J. Qi, M. Guo, J. Zhou, and Y. Qiao, “50-Gb/s PAM4 over 50-km Single Mode Fiber Transmission Using Efficient Equalization Technique,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.45.

X. Tang, J. Zhou, M. Guo, J. Qi, T. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Lu, and Y. Qiao, “An Efficient Nonlinear Equalizer for 40-Gb/s PAM4-PON Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper W2A.62.

Guo, Y.

Z. Li, J. Xia, Y. Guo, Y. Li, Y. Song, J. Chen, and M. Wang, “Investigation on the equalization techniques for 10G-class optics enabled 25G-EPON,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16228–16234 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Song, M. Huang, Y. Li, G. Kuang, Z. Fu, X. Huang, P. Cai, Z. Ma, M. Li, and D. Pan, “Demonstration of 25Gbit/s per channel NRZ transmission with 35 dB power budget using 25G Ge/Si APD for next generation 100G-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M3H.6.

Han, H.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, H. Han, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “Nonlinearity Mitigation Using a Machine Learning Detector Based on k-Nearest Neighbors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2102–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, Z.

Houtsma, V.

V. Houtsma, E. Chou, and D. V. Veen, “92 and 50 Gbps TDM-PON using Neural Network Enabled Receiver Equalization Specialized for PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper M2B.6.

Hu, W.

Huang, M.

Y. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Song, M. Huang, Y. Li, G. Kuang, Z. Fu, X. Huang, P. Cai, Z. Ma, M. Li, and D. Pan, “Demonstration of 25Gbit/s per channel NRZ transmission with 35 dB power budget using 25G Ge/Si APD for next generation 100G-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M3H.6.

Huang, X.

Y. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Song, M. Huang, Y. Li, G. Kuang, Z. Fu, X. Huang, P. Cai, Z. Ma, M. Li, and D. Pan, “Demonstration of 25Gbit/s per channel NRZ transmission with 35 dB power budget using 25G Ge/Si APD for next generation 100G-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M3H.6.

Ji, H.

Jiang, H.

S. Peng, H. Jiang, H. Wang, H. Alwageed, and Y. Zhou, “Modulation Classification Based on Signal Constellation Diagrams and Deep Learning,” IEEE T. Neur. Net. Lear. 30(3), 718–727 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kakitsuka, T.

Kerrebrouck, J. V.

Keulenaer, T. D.

Ki Tsang, H.

Killey, R. I.

Kobayashi, W.

Kuang, G.

Y. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Song, M. Huang, Y. Li, G. Kuang, Z. Fu, X. Huang, P. Cai, Z. Ma, M. Li, and D. Pan, “Demonstration of 25Gbit/s per channel NRZ transmission with 35 dB power budget using 25G Ge/Si APD for next generation 100G-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M3H.6.

Lavery, D.

Li, D.

D. Li, L. Deng, Y. Ye, Y. Zhang, M. Cheng, S. Fu, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “4×96 Gbit/s PAM8 for short-reach applications employing low-cost DML without pre-equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.33.

Li, M.

Y. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Song, M. Huang, Y. Li, G. Kuang, Z. Fu, X. Huang, P. Cai, Z. Ma, M. Li, and D. Pan, “Demonstration of 25Gbit/s per channel NRZ transmission with 35 dB power budget using 25G Ge/Si APD for next generation 100G-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M3H.6.

Li, P.

Li, Y.

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, T. Xu, L. Liang, W. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “50-km C-Band Transmission of 50-Gb/s PAM4 Using 10-G EML and Complexity-Reduced Adaptive Equalization,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
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Z. Li, A. Tan, Y. Song, Y. Li, J. Chen, and M. Wang, “OOK-Assisted Adaptive Equalization and Timing Recovery for PAM4 Demodulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, J. Xia, Y. Guo, Y. Li, Y. Song, J. Chen, and M. Wang, “Investigation on the equalization techniques for 10G-class optics enabled 25G-EPON,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16228–16234 (2017).
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Y. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Song, M. Huang, Y. Li, G. Kuang, Z. Fu, X. Huang, P. Cai, Z. Ma, M. Li, and D. Pan, “Demonstration of 25Gbit/s per channel NRZ transmission with 35 dB power budget using 25G Ge/Si APD for next generation 100G-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M3H.6.

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, Y. Yin, Q. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Li, and M. Wang, “Adaptive Equalization Enabled 25Gb/s NRZ Modulation Based on 10-G Class Optics for Upstream Burst-Mode Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper M1B.8.

Li, Z.

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, T. Xu, L. Liang, W. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “50-km C-Band Transmission of 50-Gb/s PAM4 Using 10-G EML and Complexity-Reduced Adaptive Equalization,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, A. Tan, Y. Song, Y. Li, J. Chen, and M. Wang, “OOK-Assisted Adaptive Equalization and Timing Recovery for PAM4 Demodulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, J. Xia, Y. Guo, Y. Li, Y. Song, J. Chen, and M. Wang, “Investigation on the equalization techniques for 10G-class optics enabled 25G-EPON,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16228–16234 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, H. Han, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “Nonlinearity Mitigation Using a Machine Learning Detector Based on k-Nearest Neighbors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2102–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “KNN-based detector for coherent optical systems in presence of nonlinear phase noise,” in Opto Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC), (IEEE, 2016), paper TuB3-4.

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, Y. Yin, Q. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Li, and M. Wang, “Adaptive Equalization Enabled 25Gb/s NRZ Modulation Based on 10-G Class Optics for Upstream Burst-Mode Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper M1B.8.

Liang, L.

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, T. Xu, L. Liang, W. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “50-km C-Band Transmission of 50-Gb/s PAM4 Using 10-G EML and Complexity-Reduced Adaptive Equalization,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
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Liu, D.

R. Lin, J. V. Kerrebrouck, X. Pang, M. Verplaetse, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, L. Zhang, L. Gan, M. Tang, S. Fu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, S. Popov, D. Liu, W. Tong, T. D. Keulenaer, G. Torfs, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, and J. Chen, “Real-time 100 Gbps/λ/core NRZ and EDB IM/DD transmission over multicore fiber for intra-datacenter communication networks,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10519–10526 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Li, L. Deng, Y. Ye, Y. Zhang, M. Cheng, S. Fu, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “4×96 Gbit/s PAM8 for short-reach applications employing low-cost DML without pre-equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.33.

Liu, S.

X. Tang, S. Liu, X. Xu, J. Qi, M. Guo, J. Zhou, and Y. Qiao, “50-Gb/s PAM4 over 50-km Single Mode Fiber Transmission Using Efficient Equalization Technique,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.45.

Liu, Z.

Lu, Y.

X. Tang, J. Zhou, M. Guo, J. Qi, T. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Lu, and Y. Qiao, “An Efficient Nonlinear Equalizer for 40-Gb/s PAM4-PON Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper W2A.62.

Luo, B.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, H. Han, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “Nonlinearity Mitigation Using a Machine Learning Detector Based on k-Nearest Neighbors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2102–2105 (2016).
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D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “KNN-based detector for coherent optical systems in presence of nonlinear phase noise,” in Opto Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC), (IEEE, 2016), paper TuB3-4.

Ma, Z.

Y. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Song, M. Huang, Y. Li, G. Kuang, Z. Fu, X. Huang, P. Cai, Z. Ma, M. Li, and D. Pan, “Demonstration of 25Gbit/s per channel NRZ transmission with 35 dB power budget using 25G Ge/Si APD for next generation 100G-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M3H.6.

Man, J.

H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Man, W. Chen, X. Song, and L. Zeng, “30 km Downstream Transmission Using 4×25Gb/s 4-PAM Modulation with Commercial 10Gbps TOSA and ROSA for 100Gb/s-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2I.3.

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P. Miguelez, “What Applications Are Driving Higher Capacity In Access?” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper M2B.1.

Morsyosman, M.

Nishi, H.

Ozolins, O.

Pan, D.

Y. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Song, M. Huang, Y. Li, G. Kuang, Z. Fu, X. Huang, P. Cai, Z. Ma, M. Li, and D. Pan, “Demonstration of 25Gbit/s per channel NRZ transmission with 35 dB power budget using 25G Ge/Si APD for next generation 100G-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M3H.6.

Pang, X.

Peng, S.

S. Peng, H. Jiang, H. Wang, H. Alwageed, and Y. Zhou, “Modulation Classification Based on Signal Constellation Diagrams and Deep Learning,” IEEE T. Neur. Net. Lear. 30(3), 718–727 (2019).
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Popov, S.

Prodaniuc, C.

J. L. Wei, C. Prodaniuc, L. Zhang, and N. Stojanovic, “225 Gb/s per Lambda IMDD PAM Short Reach Links Using Only Commercial Components,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (IEEE, 2018), PDP.

Qi, J.

X. Tang, S. Liu, X. Xu, J. Qi, M. Guo, J. Zhou, and Y. Qiao, “50-Gb/s PAM4 over 50-km Single Mode Fiber Transmission Using Efficient Equalization Technique,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.45.

X. Tang, J. Zhou, M. Guo, J. Qi, T. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Lu, and Y. Qiao, “An Efficient Nonlinear Equalizer for 40-Gb/s PAM4-PON Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper W2A.62.

Qiao, Y.

X. Tang, J. Zhou, M. Guo, J. Qi, T. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Lu, and Y. Qiao, “An Efficient Nonlinear Equalizer for 40-Gb/s PAM4-PON Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper W2A.62.

X. Tang, S. Liu, X. Xu, J. Qi, M. Guo, J. Zhou, and Y. Qiao, “50-Gb/s PAM4 over 50-km Single Mode Fiber Transmission Using Efficient Equalization Technique,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.45.

Qiu, K.

J. Zhang, T. Ye, X. Yi, C. Yu, and K. Qiu, “An Efficient Hybrid Equalizer for 50 Gb/s PAM-4 Signal Transmission Over 50 km SSMF in a 10-GHz DML-Based IM/DD system,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Conference (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper SF1L.1.

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Saliou, F.

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H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Man, W. Chen, X. Song, and L. Zeng, “30 km Downstream Transmission Using 4×25Gb/s 4-PAM Modulation with Commercial 10Gbps TOSA and ROSA for 100Gb/s-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2I.3.

Song, Y.

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, T. Xu, L. Liang, W. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “50-km C-Band Transmission of 50-Gb/s PAM4 Using 10-G EML and Complexity-Reduced Adaptive Equalization,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
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Z. Li, A. Tan, Y. Song, Y. Li, J. Chen, and M. Wang, “OOK-Assisted Adaptive Equalization and Timing Recovery for PAM4 Demodulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

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J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, Y. Yin, Q. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Li, and M. Wang, “Adaptive Equalization Enabled 25Gb/s NRZ Modulation Based on 10-G Class Optics for Upstream Burst-Mode Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper M1B.8.

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J. L. Wei, C. Prodaniuc, L. Zhang, and N. Stojanovic, “225 Gb/s per Lambda IMDD PAM Short Reach Links Using Only Commercial Components,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (IEEE, 2018), PDP.

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Takeda, K.

Tan, A.

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, T. Xu, L. Liang, W. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “50-km C-Band Transmission of 50-Gb/s PAM4 Using 10-G EML and Complexity-Reduced Adaptive Equalization,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
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Z. Li, A. Tan, Y. Song, Y. Li, J. Chen, and M. Wang, “OOK-Assisted Adaptive Equalization and Timing Recovery for PAM4 Demodulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–7 (2018).
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J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, Y. Yin, Q. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Li, and M. Wang, “Adaptive Equalization Enabled 25Gb/s NRZ Modulation Based on 10-G Class Optics for Upstream Burst-Mode Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper M1B.8.

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Z. Tan, C. Yang, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, K. Zou, F. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “High Speed Band-Limited 850-nm VCSEL Link Based on Time-Domain Interference Elimination,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 751–754 (2017).
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R. Lin, J. V. Kerrebrouck, X. Pang, M. Verplaetse, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, L. Zhang, L. Gan, M. Tang, S. Fu, R. Schatz, U. Westergren, S. Popov, D. Liu, W. Tong, T. D. Keulenaer, G. Torfs, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, and J. Chen, “Real-time 100 Gbps/λ/core NRZ and EDB IM/DD transmission over multicore fiber for intra-datacenter communication networks,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10519–10526 (2018).
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Tang, X.

X. Tang, J. Zhou, M. Guo, J. Qi, T. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Lu, and Y. Qiao, “An Efficient Nonlinear Equalizer for 40-Gb/s PAM4-PON Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper W2A.62.

X. Tang, S. Liu, X. Xu, J. Qi, M. Guo, J. Zhou, and Y. Qiao, “50-Gb/s PAM4 over 50-km Single Mode Fiber Transmission Using Efficient Equalization Technique,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.45.

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Torfs, G.

Tsang, H. K.

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Wang, D.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, H. Han, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “Nonlinearity Mitigation Using a Machine Learning Detector Based on k-Nearest Neighbors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2102–2105 (2016).
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S. Peng, H. Jiang, H. Wang, H. Alwageed, and Y. Zhou, “Modulation Classification Based on Signal Constellation Diagrams and Deep Learning,” IEEE T. Neur. Net. Lear. 30(3), 718–727 (2019).
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Z. Li, A. Tan, Y. Song, Y. Li, J. Chen, and M. Wang, “OOK-Assisted Adaptive Equalization and Timing Recovery for PAM4 Demodulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–7 (2018).
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Z. Tan, C. Yang, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, K. Zou, F. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “High Speed Band-Limited 850-nm VCSEL Link Based on Time-Domain Interference Elimination,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 751–754 (2017).
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J. L. Wei, C. Prodaniuc, L. Zhang, and N. Stojanovic, “225 Gb/s per Lambda IMDD PAM Short Reach Links Using Only Commercial Components,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (IEEE, 2018), PDP.

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Xu, T.

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, T. Xu, L. Liang, W. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “50-km C-Band Transmission of 50-Gb/s PAM4 Using 10-G EML and Complexity-Reduced Adaptive Equalization,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–10 (2019).
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Xu, Z.

Z. Tan, C. Yang, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, K. Zou, F. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “High Speed Band-Limited 850-nm VCSEL Link Based on Time-Domain Interference Elimination,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 751–754 (2017).
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Yang, C.

Z. Tan, C. Yang, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, K. Zou, F. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “High Speed Band-Limited 850-nm VCSEL Link Based on Time-Domain Interference Elimination,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 751–754 (2017).
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J. Zhang, T. Ye, X. Yi, C. Yu, and K. Qiu, “An Efficient Hybrid Equalizer for 50 Gb/s PAM-4 Signal Transmission Over 50 km SSMF in a 10-GHz DML-Based IM/DD system,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Conference (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper SF1L.1.

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D. Li, L. Deng, Y. Ye, Y. Zhang, M. Cheng, S. Fu, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “4×96 Gbit/s PAM8 for short-reach applications employing low-cost DML without pre-equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.33.

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Yi, X.

J. Zhang, T. Ye, X. Yi, C. Yu, and K. Qiu, “An Efficient Hybrid Equalizer for 50 Gb/s PAM-4 Signal Transmission Over 50 km SSMF in a 10-GHz DML-Based IM/DD system,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Conference (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper SF1L.1.

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Yin, Y.

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Yu, C.

J. Zhang, T. Ye, X. Yi, C. Yu, and K. Qiu, “An Efficient Hybrid Equalizer for 50 Gb/s PAM-4 Signal Transmission Over 50 km SSMF in a 10-GHz DML-Based IM/DD system,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Conference (CLEO), (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper SF1L.1.

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H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Man, W. Chen, X. Song, and L. Zeng, “30 km Downstream Transmission Using 4×25Gb/s 4-PAM Modulation with Commercial 10Gbps TOSA and ROSA for 100Gb/s-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2I.3.

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Z. Tan, C. Yang, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, K. Zou, F. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “High Speed Band-Limited 850-nm VCSEL Link Based on Time-Domain Interference Elimination,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 751–754 (2017).
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H. Zhang, S. Fu, J. Man, W. Chen, X. Song, and L. Zeng, “30 km Downstream Transmission Using 4×25Gb/s 4-PAM Modulation with Commercial 10Gbps TOSA and ROSA for 100Gb/s-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2I.3.

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J. Zhang, M. Gao, W. Chen, and G. Shen, “Non-Data-Aided k-Nearest Neighbors Technique for Optical Fiber Nonlinearity Mitigation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(17), 3564–3572 (2018).
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Zhang, L.

Zhang, M.

D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, H. Han, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “Nonlinearity Mitigation Using a Machine Learning Detector Based on k-Nearest Neighbors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2102–2105 (2016).
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D. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Fu, Z. Cai, Z. Li, Y. Cui, and B. Luo, “KNN-based detector for coherent optical systems in presence of nonlinear phase noise,” in Opto Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC), (IEEE, 2016), paper TuB3-4.

Zhang, Q.

J. Chen, A. Tan, Z. Li, Y. Yin, Q. Zhang, Y. Song, Y. Li, and M. Wang, “Adaptive Equalization Enabled 25Gb/s NRZ Modulation Based on 10-G Class Optics for Upstream Burst-Mode Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper M1B.8.

Zhang, T.

X. Tang, J. Zhou, M. Guo, J. Qi, T. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Lu, and Y. Qiao, “An Efficient Nonlinear Equalizer for 40-Gb/s PAM4-PON Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper W2A.62.

Zhang, Y.

D. Li, L. Deng, Y. Ye, Y. Zhang, M. Cheng, S. Fu, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “4×96 Gbit/s PAM8 for short-reach applications employing low-cost DML without pre-equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.33.

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X. Tang, J. Zhou, M. Guo, J. Qi, T. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Lu, and Y. Qiao, “An Efficient Nonlinear Equalizer for 40-Gb/s PAM4-PON Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper W2A.62.

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Zhou, J.

X. Tang, J. Zhou, M. Guo, J. Qi, T. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Y. Lu, and Y. Qiao, “An Efficient Nonlinear Equalizer for 40-Gb/s PAM4-PON Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper W2A.62.

X. Tang, S. Liu, X. Xu, J. Qi, M. Guo, J. Zhou, and Y. Qiao, “50-Gb/s PAM4 over 50-km Single Mode Fiber Transmission Using Efficient Equalization Technique,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.45.

Zhou, Y.

S. Peng, H. Jiang, H. Wang, H. Alwageed, and Y. Zhou, “Modulation Classification Based on Signal Constellation Diagrams and Deep Learning,” IEEE T. Neur. Net. Lear. 30(3), 718–727 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Z. Tan, C. Yang, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, K. Zou, F. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “High Speed Band-Limited 850-nm VCSEL Link Based on Time-Domain Interference Elimination,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 751–754 (2017).
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Zhuge, Q.

Zou, K.

Z. Tan, C. Yang, Y. Zhu, Z. Xu, K. Zou, F. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “High Speed Band-Limited 850-nm VCSEL Link Based on Time-Domain Interference Elimination,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(9), 751–754 (2017).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Simulation diagram of signal suffered by limited bandwidth.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Scheme flow diagram our proposed FE-KNN equalizer.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) down-sampling data, (b) two-dimensional feature with our proposed feature construction.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) 2-D unweighted data schematic, (b) partial magnification data schematic, (c) feature weighting data schematic.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental setup. Insert: (i) Eye diagram of NRZ signal, (ii) Eye diagram of PAM-4 signal, (iii) System response.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. BER versus (a) number of taps for FE-KNN, (b) number of taps, (c) training length for investigated equalizers at -23-dBm received power.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. BER curves with (a) timing offset, (b) timing jitter and (c) ADC resolution for investigated equalizers at -23-dBm received power, (d) value of the K for FE-KNN.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. BER versus received power in B2B and 20 km transmission case.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. BER versus (a) number of taps for FE-KNN, (b) number of taps at -11-dBm received power, (c) training length for investigated equalizers.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. BER versus received power with different equalization scheme in 20-km transmission case.

Equations (4)

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r ( k ) = i = p p h i s ( k i ) + n ( k ) ,
{ ( X 1 , b 1 ) , ( X 2 , b 2 ) , , ( X N , b N ) } , X i = [ x i ( 1 ) , x i ( 2 ) , , x i ( M ) ] ,
d ( X i , Y j ) = n = 1 M [ x i ( n ) y j ( n ) ] 2 ,
X n = [ u n l 1 , , u n 1 , c × u n , u n  +  1 , , u n + l 2 ] ,

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