Abstract

A switchable metamaterial with bifunctionality of absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency is proposed based on the phase-transition characteristic of phase change material-vanadium dioxide. When vanadium dioxide is in the metallic state, an isotropic narrow absorber is obtained in the terahertz region, which consists of a top metallic cross, a middle dielectric layer, and a bottom vanadium dioxide film. By adjusting structure parameters, perfect absorption is realized at the frequency of 0.498 THz. This designed narrow absorber is insensitive to polarization and incident angle. Absorptance can still reach 75% for transverse electric polarization and transverse magnetic polarization at the incident angle of ${65^\circ }$. When vanadium dioxide is in the insulating state, the top metallic cross will interact with the bottom split ring resonator, and the interaction between them will lead to the appearance of electromagnetically induced transparency. The behavior of electromagnetically induced transparency works well for transverse electric polarization and transverse magnetic polarization at the small incident angle. The designed hybrid metamaterial opens possible avenues for achieving switchable functionalities in a single device.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

M. Wei, Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Liu, and Q. Chen, “Large-angle mid-infrared absorption switch enabled by polarization-independent GST metasurfaces,” Mater. Lett. 236, 350–353 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Terahertz toroidal metamaterial with tunable properties,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5792–5797 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

Q. Chu, Z. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Omnidirectional tunable terahertz analog of electromagnetically induced transparency realized by isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(8), 082203 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Jia, J. Grenzer, H. He, W. Anwand, Y. Ji, Y. Yuan, K. Huang, T. You, W. Yu, W. Ren, X. Chen, M. Liu, S. Facsko, X. Wang, and X. Ou, “3D local manipulation of the metal-insulator transition behavior in VO2 thin film by defect-induced lattice engineering,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 5(8), 1701268 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. A. Butakov, M. W. Knight, T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, D. Higgs, H. T. Chorsi, J. Trastoy, J. D. V. Granda, I. Valmianski, C. Urban, Y. Kalcheim, P. Y. Wang, P. W. C. Hon, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Broadband electrically tunable dielectric resonators using metal-insulator transitions,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4056–4060 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. J. Park, J. H. Shin, K. H. Park, and H. C. Ryu, “Electrically controllable THz asymmetric split-loop resonator with an outer square loop based on VO2,” Opt. Express 26(13), 17397–17406 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Tian and Z. Y. Li, “An optically-triggered switchable mid-infrared perfect absorber based on phase-change material of vanadium dioxide,” Plasmonics 13(4), 1393–1402 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Hao, W. Li, H. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yin, H. Wang, L. Ma, F. Ma, X. Jiang, O. G. Schmidt, and P. K. Chu, “VO2/TiN plasmonic thermochromic smart coatings for room-temperature applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705421 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Wang and Z. Song, “Multipole plasmons in graphene nanoellipses,” Phys. B 530, 142–146 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

G. Deng, T. Xia, S. Jing, J. Yang, H. Lu, and Z. Yin, “A tunable metamaterial absorber based on liquid crystal intended for F frequency band,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 16, 2062–2065 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, S. Ge, W. Hu, M. Nakajima, and Y. Lu, “Graphene-assisted high-efficiency liquid crystal tunable terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23873–23879 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Y. Chen, J. Yao, Z. Song, L. Ye, G. Cai, and Q. H. Liu, “Independent tuning of double plasmonic waves in a free-standing graphene-spacer-grating-spacer-graphene hybrid slab,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16961–16972 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, L. B. Mao, D. L. Gao, W. Q. Ding, and C. W. Qiu, “Fano resonant Ge2Sb2Te5 nanoparticles realize switchable lateral optical force,” Nanoscale 8(10), 5657–5666 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. W. Liang, L. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Cao, A. Alu, S. C. Ruan, and C. W. Qiu, “Gate-programmable electro-optical addressing array of graphene-coated nanowires with sub-10 nm resolution,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1847–1853 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. Matsui, Y. L. Ho, T. Kanki, H. Tanaka, J. J. Delaunay, and H. Tabata, “Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances in 2D VO2 nanosquare arrays,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1759–1767 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Ríos, M. Stegmaier, P. Hosseini, D. Wang, T. Scherer, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Integrated all-photonic non-volatile multi-level memory,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 725–732 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

R. Kowerdziej, M. Olifierczuk, J. Parka, and J. Wrobel, “Terahertz characterization of tunable metamaterial based on electrically controlled nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 022908 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Fast tuning of Fano resonance in metal/phase-change materials/metal metamaterials,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(9), 1775–1786 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Malureanu, M. Zalkovskij, Z. Song, C. Gritti, A. Andryieuski, Q. He, L. Zhou, P. U. Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22770–22782 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, M. B. Pu, C. G. Hu, and X. G. Luo, “Engineering the dispersion of metamaterial surface for broadband infrared absorption,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2133–2135 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. B. Pu, C. G. Hu, M. Wang, C. Huang, Z. Y. Zhao, C. T. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. G. Luo, “Design principles for infrared wide-angle perfect absorber based on plasmonic structure,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17413–17420 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. L. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207403 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(4), 043517 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221103 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alu, A.

H. W. Liang, L. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Cao, A. Alu, S. C. Ruan, and C. W. Qiu, “Gate-programmable electro-optical addressing array of graphene-coated nanowires with sub-10 nm resolution,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1847–1853 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andryieuski, A.

Anwand, W.

Q. Jia, J. Grenzer, H. He, W. Anwand, Y. Ji, Y. Yuan, K. Huang, T. You, W. Yu, W. Ren, X. Chen, M. Liu, S. Facsko, X. Wang, and X. Ou, “3D local manipulation of the metal-insulator transition behavior in VO2 thin film by defect-induced lattice engineering,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 5(8), 1701268 (2018).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barnard, E. S.

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, H.

C. Ríos, M. Stegmaier, P. Hosseini, D. Wang, T. Scherer, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Integrated all-photonic non-volatile multi-level memory,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 725–732 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Butakov, N. A.

N. A. Butakov, M. W. Knight, T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, D. Higgs, H. T. Chorsi, J. Trastoy, J. D. V. Granda, I. Valmianski, C. Urban, Y. Kalcheim, P. Y. Wang, P. W. C. Hon, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Broadband electrically tunable dielectric resonators using metal-insulator transitions,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4056–4060 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cai, G.

Cai, W.

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(24), 243902 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, T.

Chen, Q.

M. Wei, Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Liu, and Q. Chen, “Large-angle mid-infrared absorption switch enabled by polarization-independent GST metasurfaces,” Mater. Lett. 236, 350–353 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Q. Jia, J. Grenzer, H. He, W. Anwand, Y. Ji, Y. Yuan, K. Huang, T. You, W. Yu, W. Ren, X. Chen, M. Liu, S. Facsko, X. Wang, and X. Ou, “3D local manipulation of the metal-insulator transition behavior in VO2 thin film by defect-induced lattice engineering,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 5(8), 1701268 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. G.

Chigrin, D. N.

A. K. U. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Mass, K. Schonauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chorsi, H. T.

N. A. Butakov, M. W. Knight, T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, D. Higgs, H. T. Chorsi, J. Trastoy, J. D. V. Granda, I. Valmianski, C. Urban, Y. Kalcheim, P. Y. Wang, P. W. C. Hon, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Broadband electrically tunable dielectric resonators using metal-insulator transitions,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4056–4060 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. K.

Q. Hao, W. Li, H. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yin, H. Wang, L. Ma, F. Ma, X. Jiang, O. G. Schmidt, and P. K. Chu, “VO2/TiN plasmonic thermochromic smart coatings for room-temperature applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705421 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, Q.

Q. Chu, Z. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Omnidirectional tunable terahertz analog of electromagnetically induced transparency realized by isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(8), 082203 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cryan, M. J.

De Angelis, F.

Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143105 (2010).
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Zhang, H.

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Zhang, S.

H. W. Liang, L. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Cao, A. Alu, S. C. Ruan, and C. W. Qiu, “Gate-programmable electro-optical addressing array of graphene-coated nanowires with sub-10 nm resolution,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1847–1853 (2016).
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Zhao, Z. Y.

Zheludev, N. I.

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J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(22), 221103 (2006).
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Zhou, L.

Zhou, Y.

ACS Photonics (2)

N. A. Butakov, M. W. Knight, T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, D. Higgs, H. T. Chorsi, J. Trastoy, J. D. V. Granda, I. Valmianski, C. Urban, Y. Kalcheim, P. Y. Wang, P. W. C. Hon, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Broadband electrically tunable dielectric resonators using metal-insulator transitions,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4056–4060 (2018).
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H. W. Liang, L. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Cao, A. Alu, S. C. Ruan, and C. W. Qiu, “Gate-programmable electro-optical addressing array of graphene-coated nanowires with sub-10 nm resolution,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1847–1853 (2016).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

Q. Hao, W. Li, H. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Yin, H. Wang, L. Ma, F. Ma, X. Jiang, O. G. Schmidt, and P. K. Chu, “VO2/TiN plasmonic thermochromic smart coatings for room-temperature applications,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705421 (2018).
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Adv. Mater. Interfaces (1)

Q. Jia, J. Grenzer, H. He, W. Anwand, Y. Ji, Y. Yuan, K. Huang, T. You, W. Yu, W. Ren, X. Chen, M. Liu, S. Facsko, X. Wang, and X. Ou, “3D local manipulation of the metal-insulator transition behavior in VO2 thin film by defect-induced lattice engineering,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 5(8), 1701268 (2018).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

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Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Q. Chu, Z. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Omnidirectional tunable terahertz analog of electromagnetically induced transparency realized by isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(8), 082203 (2018).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

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IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. (1)

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Nature (1)

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Opt. Express (7)

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Plasmonics (1)

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Sci. Rep. (1)

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Science (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Three dimensional schematic of the unit cell of the designed switchable terahertz metamaterial. (b) The top view of the unit cell. (c) The side view of the unit cell.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simulated reflectance and absorptance of the designed system at normal incidence when VO2 is in the metallic state.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Retrieved effective physical parameters (a) permittivity, (b) permeability, (c) refractive index, and (d) impedance in the case of perfect absorption.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The distributions of electric currents in the top surface of the metallic cross (a) and the VO2 film (b) for the magnetic resonance. The directions of them are opposite. The enhanced magnetic field in the spacer layer (c).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Polarization dependence at normal incidence (a) and angle dependence of absorber for TE (b) and TM (c) polarizations when VO2 is in the metallic state.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Simulated transmission spectra for a single gold cross, a single gold SRR, and the whole structure at normal incidence when VO2 is in the insulating state.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Surface current distributions at the frequencies of 0.477 THz (a), 0.505 THz (b), and 0.6175 THz (c).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Simulated transmission of the designed metamaterial with different polarization angles at normal incidence (a) and incident angles of TE polarization (b) and TM polarization (c) when VO2 is in the insulating state.

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