Abstract

This paper first reports random laser action in dye-doped ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystals, which act as a randomly distributed cavity. The random laser intensity of the ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystals can be controlled by a weak magnetic field (∼1 mT). Moreover, the magnetic switching of random laser is attributed to the direction and polarization dependent emission of light in the ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystals in an external magnetic field.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

13 September 2019: Typographical corrections were made to Eq. (1) and the funding section.


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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  34. S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

S. Nakagami, T. Akita, D. Kiyohara, Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, and N. Nishiyama, “Molecular Mobility Effect on Magnetic Interactions in All-Organic Paramagnetic Liquid Crystal with Nitroxide Radical as a Hydrogen-Bonding Acceptor,” J. Phys. Chem. B 122(29), 7409–7415 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Potisk, A. Mertelj, N. Sebastián, N. Osterman, D. Lisjak, H. R. Brand, H. Pleiner, and D. Svenšek, “Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E 97(1), 012701 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

M. Mur, J. A. Sofi, I. Kvasić, A. Mertelj, D. Lisjak, V. Niranjan, I. Muševič, and S. Dhara, “Magnetic-field tuning of whispering gallery mode lasing from ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal microdroplets,” Opt. Express 25(2), 1073–1083 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Tsai, Y. M. Liao, W. C. Liao, W. J. Lin, P. Perumal, H. H. Hu, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chang, S. Y. Cai, T. M. Sun, H. I. Lin, G. Haider, and Y. F. Chen, “Magnetically Controllable Random Lasers,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(12), 1700170 (2017).
[Crossref]

C.-W. Chen, H.-P. Huang, H.-C. Jau, C.-Y. Wang, C.-W. Wu, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, S. Y. Tsay, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. Shasti, P. Coutino, S. Mukherjee, A. Varanytsia, T. Smith, A. P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. Kosa, A. Munoz, and B. Taheri, “Reverse mode switching of the random laser emission in dye doped liquid crystals under homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 7–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Y. Wan, L. Shi, H. Zhong, and L. Deng, “Electrically controllable plasmonic enhanced coherent random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals containing Au nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17593–17602 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

J.-L. Zhu, W.-H. Li, Y. Sun, J.-G. Lu, X.-L. Song, C.-Y. Chen, Z. Zhang, and Y. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

L. Ye, B. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “The electrically and magnetically controllable random laser from dye-doped liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(5), 053103 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

T. Hisch, M. Liertzer, D. Pogany, F. Mintert, and S. Rotter, “Pump-Controlled Directional Light Emission from Random Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 023902 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Yao, W. Zhou, H. Bian, Y. Zhang, Y. Pei, X. Sun, and Z. Lv, “Polarization and polarization control of random lasers from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1557–1559 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Mertelj, D. Lisjak, M. Drofenik, and M. Copič, “Ferromagnetism in suspensions of magnetic platelets in liquid crystal,” Nature 504(7479), 237–241 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

V. Barna, G. Strangi, A. de Luca, and S. Ferjani, “Amplification of light and random laser action in partially ordered dye-doped nematics,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. – RAPID Commun. 5(11), 1154–1158 (2011).

N. Kaya, F. Akkurt, and A. Alicilar, “Alignment and Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Red Dye and Carbon Nanotube,” Fullerenes, Nanotubes, Carbon Nanostruct. 19(4), 262–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Lisjak and S. Ovtar, “Directed Assembly of BaFe12O19Particles and the Formation of Magnetically Oriented Films,” Langmuir 27(23), 14014–14024 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, V. Barna, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, “Thermo-recurrent nematic random laser,” Opt. Express 17(3), 2042–2047 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, N. Ikuma, S. Shimono, J. Yamauchi, Y. Shimbo, H. Takezoe, Y. Aoki, and H. Nohira, “Magnetic-field-induced molecular alignment in an achiral liquid crystal spin-labeled by a nitroxyl group in the mesogen core,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(3), 415–418 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Tamura, Y. Uchida, and N. Ikuma, “Paramagnetic all-organic chiral liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(25), 2872–2876 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121109 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light indye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141103 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. B. Prieto, F. L. Arbeloa, V. M. Martínez, T. A. López, and I. L. Arbeloa, “Photophysical properties of the pyrromethene 597 dye: Solvent effect,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108(26), 5503–5508 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, “Localization of light in a disordered medium,” Nature 390(6661), 671–673 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. K. M. Vithana, L. Asfaw, and L.D. Johnson, “Coherent Backscattering of Light in a Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(23), 3561–3564 (1993).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

S. Letokhov, “Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance,” Sov. Phys. JETP 26(4), 835–840 (1968).

Akita, T.

S. Nakagami, T. Akita, D. Kiyohara, Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, and N. Nishiyama, “Molecular Mobility Effect on Magnetic Interactions in All-Organic Paramagnetic Liquid Crystal with Nitroxide Radical as a Hydrogen-Bonding Acceptor,” J. Phys. Chem. B 122(29), 7409–7415 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akkurt, F.

N. Kaya, F. Akkurt, and A. Alicilar, “Alignment and Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Red Dye and Carbon Nanotube,” Fullerenes, Nanotubes, Carbon Nanostruct. 19(4), 262–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alicilar, A.

N. Kaya, F. Akkurt, and A. Alicilar, “Alignment and Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Red Dye and Carbon Nanotube,” Fullerenes, Nanotubes, Carbon Nanostruct. 19(4), 262–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aoki, Y.

Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, N. Ikuma, S. Shimono, J. Yamauchi, Y. Shimbo, H. Takezoe, Y. Aoki, and H. Nohira, “Magnetic-field-induced molecular alignment in an achiral liquid crystal spin-labeled by a nitroxyl group in the mesogen core,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(3), 415–418 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arbeloa, F. L.

J. B. Prieto, F. L. Arbeloa, V. M. Martínez, T. A. López, and I. L. Arbeloa, “Photophysical properties of the pyrromethene 597 dye: Solvent effect,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108(26), 5503–5508 (2004).
[Crossref]

Arbeloa, I. L.

J. B. Prieto, F. L. Arbeloa, V. M. Martínez, T. A. López, and I. L. Arbeloa, “Photophysical properties of the pyrromethene 597 dye: Solvent effect,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108(26), 5503–5508 (2004).
[Crossref]

Asfaw, L.

H. K. M. Vithana, L. Asfaw, and L.D. Johnson, “Coherent Backscattering of Light in a Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(23), 3561–3564 (1993).
[Crossref]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Barna, V.

V. Barna, G. Strangi, A. de Luca, and S. Ferjani, “Amplification of light and random laser action in partially ordered dye-doped nematics,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. – RAPID Commun. 5(11), 1154–1158 (2011).

S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, V. Barna, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, “Thermo-recurrent nematic random laser,” Opt. Express 17(3), 2042–2047 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light indye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bartolini, P.

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, “Localization of light in a disordered medium,” Nature 390(6661), 671–673 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bartolino, R.

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121109 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light indye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bian, H.

Brand, H. R.

T. Potisk, A. Mertelj, N. Sebastián, N. Osterman, D. Lisjak, H. R. Brand, H. Pleiner, and D. Svenšek, “Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E 97(1), 012701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cai, S. Y.

C. Y. Tsai, Y. M. Liao, W. C. Liao, W. J. Lin, P. Perumal, H. H. Hu, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chang, S. Y. Cai, T. M. Sun, H. I. Lin, G. Haider, and Y. F. Chen, “Magnetically Controllable Random Lasers,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(12), 1700170 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cavalieri, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

C. Y. Tsai, Y. M. Liao, W. C. Liao, W. J. Lin, P. Perumal, H. H. Hu, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chang, S. Y. Cai, T. M. Sun, H. I. Lin, G. Haider, and Y. F. Chen, “Magnetically Controllable Random Lasers,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(12), 1700170 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-H.

Chen, C. H.

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, S. Y. Tsay, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-W.

C.-W. Chen, H.-P. Huang, H.-C. Jau, C.-Y. Wang, C.-W. Wu, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-Y.

J.-L. Zhu, W.-H. Li, Y. Sun, J.-G. Lu, X.-L. Song, C.-Y. Chen, Z. Zhang, and Y. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. Y.

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, S. Y. Tsay, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

C. Y. Tsai, Y. M. Liao, W. C. Liao, W. J. Lin, P. Perumal, H. H. Hu, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chang, S. Y. Cai, T. M. Sun, H. I. Lin, G. Haider, and Y. F. Chen, “Magnetically Controllable Random Lasers,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(12), 1700170 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. H.

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, S. Y. Tsay, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choma, M. A.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.-C.

Coles, H. J.

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C. Y. Tsai, Y. M. Liao, W. C. Liao, W. J. Lin, P. Perumal, H. H. Hu, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chang, S. Y. Cai, T. M. Sun, H. I. Lin, G. Haider, and Y. F. Chen, “Magnetically Controllable Random Lasers,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(12), 1700170 (2017).
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C. Y. Tsai, Y. M. Liao, W. C. Liao, W. J. Lin, P. Perumal, H. H. Hu, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chang, S. Y. Cai, T. M. Sun, H. I. Lin, G. Haider, and Y. F. Chen, “Magnetically Controllable Random Lasers,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(12), 1700170 (2017).
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Lin, T.-H.

C.-W. Chen, H.-P. Huang, H.-C. Jau, C.-Y. Wang, C.-W. Wu, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
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C. Y. Tsai, Y. M. Liao, W. C. Liao, W. J. Lin, P. Perumal, H. H. Hu, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chang, S. Y. Cai, T. M. Sun, H. I. Lin, G. Haider, and Y. F. Chen, “Magnetically Controllable Random Lasers,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(12), 1700170 (2017).
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A. Mertelj, D. Lisjak, M. Drofenik, and M. Copič, “Ferromagnetism in suspensions of magnetic platelets in liquid crystal,” Nature 504(7479), 237–241 (2013).
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L. Ye, B. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “The electrically and magnetically controllable random laser from dye-doped liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(5), 053103 (2014).
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J.-L. Zhu, W.-H. Li, Y. Sun, J.-G. Lu, X.-L. Song, C.-Y. Chen, Z. Zhang, and Y. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
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L. Ye, B. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “The electrically and magnetically controllable random laser from dye-doped liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(5), 053103 (2014).
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M. Shasti, P. Coutino, S. Mukherjee, A. Varanytsia, T. Smith, A. P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. Kosa, A. Munoz, and B. Taheri, “Reverse mode switching of the random laser emission in dye doped liquid crystals under homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 7–12 (2016).
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Martínez, V. M.

J. B. Prieto, F. L. Arbeloa, V. M. Martínez, T. A. López, and I. L. Arbeloa, “Photophysical properties of the pyrromethene 597 dye: Solvent effect,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108(26), 5503–5508 (2004).
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T. Potisk, A. Mertelj, N. Sebastián, N. Osterman, D. Lisjak, H. R. Brand, H. Pleiner, and D. Svenšek, “Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E 97(1), 012701 (2018).
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M. Mur, J. A. Sofi, I. Kvasić, A. Mertelj, D. Lisjak, V. Niranjan, I. Muševič, and S. Dhara, “Magnetic-field tuning of whispering gallery mode lasing from ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal microdroplets,” Opt. Express 25(2), 1073–1083 (2017).
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A. Mertelj, D. Lisjak, M. Drofenik, and M. Copič, “Ferromagnetism in suspensions of magnetic platelets in liquid crystal,” Nature 504(7479), 237–241 (2013).
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T. Hisch, M. Liertzer, D. Pogany, F. Mintert, and S. Rotter, “Pump-Controlled Directional Light Emission from Random Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 023902 (2013).
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Morris, S. M.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141103 (2005).
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M. Shasti, P. Coutino, S. Mukherjee, A. Varanytsia, T. Smith, A. P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. Kosa, A. Munoz, and B. Taheri, “Reverse mode switching of the random laser emission in dye doped liquid crystals under homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 7–12 (2016).
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M. Shasti, P. Coutino, S. Mukherjee, A. Varanytsia, T. Smith, A. P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. Kosa, A. Munoz, and B. Taheri, “Reverse mode switching of the random laser emission in dye doped liquid crystals under homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 7–12 (2016).
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Nishiyama, N.

S. Nakagami, T. Akita, D. Kiyohara, Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, and N. Nishiyama, “Molecular Mobility Effect on Magnetic Interactions in All-Organic Paramagnetic Liquid Crystal with Nitroxide Radical as a Hydrogen-Bonding Acceptor,” J. Phys. Chem. B 122(29), 7409–7415 (2018).
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Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, N. Ikuma, S. Shimono, J. Yamauchi, Y. Shimbo, H. Takezoe, Y. Aoki, and H. Nohira, “Magnetic-field-induced molecular alignment in an achiral liquid crystal spin-labeled by a nitroxyl group in the mesogen core,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(3), 415–418 (2009).
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H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
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T. Potisk, A. Mertelj, N. Sebastián, N. Osterman, D. Lisjak, H. R. Brand, H. Pleiner, and D. Svenšek, “Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E 97(1), 012701 (2018).
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D. Lisjak and S. Ovtar, “Directed Assembly of BaFe12O19Particles and the Formation of Magnetically Oriented Films,” Langmuir 27(23), 14014–14024 (2011).
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Pei, Y.

Perumal, P.

C. Y. Tsai, Y. M. Liao, W. C. Liao, W. J. Lin, P. Perumal, H. H. Hu, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chang, S. Y. Cai, T. M. Sun, H. I. Lin, G. Haider, and Y. F. Chen, “Magnetically Controllable Random Lasers,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(12), 1700170 (2017).
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S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141103 (2005).
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T. Potisk, A. Mertelj, N. Sebastián, N. Osterman, D. Lisjak, H. R. Brand, H. Pleiner, and D. Svenšek, “Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E 97(1), 012701 (2018).
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T. Hisch, M. Liertzer, D. Pogany, F. Mintert, and S. Rotter, “Pump-Controlled Directional Light Emission from Random Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 023902 (2013).
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T. Potisk, A. Mertelj, N. Sebastián, N. Osterman, D. Lisjak, H. R. Brand, H. Pleiner, and D. Svenšek, “Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E 97(1), 012701 (2018).
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J. B. Prieto, F. L. Arbeloa, V. M. Martínez, T. A. López, and I. L. Arbeloa, “Photophysical properties of the pyrromethene 597 dye: Solvent effect,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108(26), 5503–5508 (2004).
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D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, “Localization of light in a disordered medium,” Nature 390(6661), 671–673 (1997).
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Rotter, S.

T. Hisch, M. Liertzer, D. Pogany, F. Mintert, and S. Rotter, “Pump-Controlled Directional Light Emission from Random Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 023902 (2013).
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N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Scaramuzza, N.

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121109 (2006).
[Crossref]

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T. Potisk, A. Mertelj, N. Sebastián, N. Osterman, D. Lisjak, H. R. Brand, H. Pleiner, and D. Svenšek, “Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E 97(1), 012701 (2018).
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M. Shasti, P. Coutino, S. Mukherjee, A. Varanytsia, T. Smith, A. P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. Kosa, A. Munoz, and B. Taheri, “Reverse mode switching of the random laser emission in dye doped liquid crystals under homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 7–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shi, L.

Shimbo, Y.

Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, N. Ikuma, S. Shimono, J. Yamauchi, Y. Shimbo, H. Takezoe, Y. Aoki, and H. Nohira, “Magnetic-field-induced molecular alignment in an achiral liquid crystal spin-labeled by a nitroxyl group in the mesogen core,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(3), 415–418 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shimono, S.

Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, N. Ikuma, S. Shimono, J. Yamauchi, Y. Shimbo, H. Takezoe, Y. Aoki, and H. Nohira, “Magnetic-field-induced molecular alignment in an achiral liquid crystal spin-labeled by a nitroxyl group in the mesogen core,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(3), 415–418 (2009).
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M. Shasti, P. Coutino, S. Mukherjee, A. Varanytsia, T. Smith, A. P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. Kosa, A. Munoz, and B. Taheri, “Reverse mode switching of the random laser emission in dye doped liquid crystals under homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 7–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sofi, J. A.

Song, X.-L.

J.-L. Zhu, W.-H. Li, Y. Sun, J.-G. Lu, X.-L. Song, C.-Y. Chen, Z. Zhang, and Y. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Strangi, G.

V. Barna, G. Strangi, A. de Luca, and S. Ferjani, “Amplification of light and random laser action in partially ordered dye-doped nematics,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. – RAPID Commun. 5(11), 1154–1158 (2011).

S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, V. Barna, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, “Thermo-recurrent nematic random laser,” Opt. Express 17(3), 2042–2047 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light indye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Su, Y.

J.-L. Zhu, W.-H. Li, Y. Sun, J.-G. Lu, X.-L. Song, C.-Y. Chen, Z. Zhang, and Y. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sukhomlinova, L.

M. Shasti, P. Coutino, S. Mukherjee, A. Varanytsia, T. Smith, A. P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. Kosa, A. Munoz, and B. Taheri, “Reverse mode switching of the random laser emission in dye doped liquid crystals under homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 7–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, T. M.

C. Y. Tsai, Y. M. Liao, W. C. Liao, W. J. Lin, P. Perumal, H. H. Hu, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chang, S. Y. Cai, T. M. Sun, H. I. Lin, G. Haider, and Y. F. Chen, “Magnetically Controllable Random Lasers,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(12), 1700170 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Sun, Y.

J.-L. Zhu, W.-H. Li, Y. Sun, J.-G. Lu, X.-L. Song, C.-Y. Chen, Z. Zhang, and Y. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, K.

R. Tamura, Y. Uchida, and K. Suzuki, “Magnetic Liquid Crystals,” in Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications, L. Quan, ed. (Wiley, 2012).

Svenšek, D.

T. Potisk, A. Mertelj, N. Sebastián, N. Osterman, D. Lisjak, H. R. Brand, H. Pleiner, and D. Svenšek, “Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E 97(1), 012701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Taheri, B.

M. Shasti, P. Coutino, S. Mukherjee, A. Varanytsia, T. Smith, A. P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. Kosa, A. Munoz, and B. Taheri, “Reverse mode switching of the random laser emission in dye doped liquid crystals under homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 7–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, N. Ikuma, S. Shimono, J. Yamauchi, Y. Shimbo, H. Takezoe, Y. Aoki, and H. Nohira, “Magnetic-field-induced molecular alignment in an achiral liquid crystal spin-labeled by a nitroxyl group in the mesogen core,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(3), 415–418 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tamura, R.

S. Nakagami, T. Akita, D. Kiyohara, Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, and N. Nishiyama, “Molecular Mobility Effect on Magnetic Interactions in All-Organic Paramagnetic Liquid Crystal with Nitroxide Radical as a Hydrogen-Bonding Acceptor,” J. Phys. Chem. B 122(29), 7409–7415 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, N. Ikuma, S. Shimono, J. Yamauchi, Y. Shimbo, H. Takezoe, Y. Aoki, and H. Nohira, “Magnetic-field-induced molecular alignment in an achiral liquid crystal spin-labeled by a nitroxyl group in the mesogen core,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(3), 415–418 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Tamura, Y. Uchida, and N. Ikuma, “Paramagnetic all-organic chiral liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(25), 2872–2876 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Tamura, Y. Uchida, and K. Suzuki, “Magnetic Liquid Crystals,” in Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications, L. Quan, ed. (Wiley, 2012).

Tsai, C. Y.

C. Y. Tsai, Y. M. Liao, W. C. Liao, W. J. Lin, P. Perumal, H. H. Hu, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chang, S. Y. Cai, T. M. Sun, H. I. Lin, G. Haider, and Y. F. Chen, “Magnetically Controllable Random Lasers,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(12), 1700170 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tsay, S. Y.

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, S. Y. Tsay, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Uchida, Y.

S. Nakagami, T. Akita, D. Kiyohara, Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, and N. Nishiyama, “Molecular Mobility Effect on Magnetic Interactions in All-Organic Paramagnetic Liquid Crystal with Nitroxide Radical as a Hydrogen-Bonding Acceptor,” J. Phys. Chem. B 122(29), 7409–7415 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, N. Ikuma, S. Shimono, J. Yamauchi, Y. Shimbo, H. Takezoe, Y. Aoki, and H. Nohira, “Magnetic-field-induced molecular alignment in an achiral liquid crystal spin-labeled by a nitroxyl group in the mesogen core,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(3), 415–418 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Tamura, Y. Uchida, and N. Ikuma, “Paramagnetic all-organic chiral liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(25), 2872–2876 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Uchida, T. Narushima, and J. Yuasa, “Molecular Technology for Chirality Control: From Structure to Circular Polarization,” in Molecular Technology, Volume 1: Energy Innovation, H. Yamamoto and T. Kato, eds. (Wiley-Vch, 2018).

R. Tamura, Y. Uchida, and K. Suzuki, “Magnetic Liquid Crystals,” in Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications, L. Quan, ed. (Wiley, 2012).

Varanytsia, A.

M. Shasti, P. Coutino, S. Mukherjee, A. Varanytsia, T. Smith, A. P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. Kosa, A. Munoz, and B. Taheri, “Reverse mode switching of the random laser emission in dye doped liquid crystals under homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 7–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Versace, C.

Vithana, H. K. M.

H. K. M. Vithana, L. Asfaw, and L.D. Johnson, “Coherent Backscattering of Light in a Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(23), 3561–3564 (1993).
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Wan, Y.

Wang, C.-Y.

C.-W. Chen, H.-P. Huang, H.-C. Jau, C.-Y. Wang, C.-W. Wu, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, Y.

L. Ye, B. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “The electrically and magnetically controllable random laser from dye-doped liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(5), 053103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, “Localization of light in a disordered medium,” Nature 390(6661), 671–673 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-W.

C.-W. Chen, H.-P. Huang, H.-C. Jau, C.-Y. Wang, C.-W. Wu, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. J.

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, S. Y. Tsay, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yamauchi, J.

Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, N. Ikuma, S. Shimono, J. Yamauchi, Y. Shimbo, H. Takezoe, Y. Aoki, and H. Nohira, “Magnetic-field-induced molecular alignment in an achiral liquid crystal spin-labeled by a nitroxyl group in the mesogen core,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(3), 415–418 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yao, F.

Yaroshchuk, O.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ye, L.

L. Ye, B. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “The electrically and magnetically controllable random laser from dye-doped liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(5), 053103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yuasa, J.

Y. Uchida, T. Narushima, and J. Yuasa, “Molecular Technology for Chirality Control: From Structure to Circular Polarization,” in Molecular Technology, Volume 1: Energy Innovation, H. Yamamoto and T. Kato, eds. (Wiley-Vch, 2018).

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z.

J.-L. Zhu, W.-H. Li, Y. Sun, J.-G. Lu, X.-L. Song, C.-Y. Chen, Z. Zhang, and Y. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

L. Ye, B. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “The electrically and magnetically controllable random laser from dye-doped liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(5), 053103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhong, H.

Zhou, W.

Zhu, J.-L.

J.-L. Zhu, W.-H. Li, Y. Sun, J.-G. Lu, X.-L. Song, C.-Y. Chen, Z. Zhang, and Y. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. Technol. (1)

C. Y. Tsai, Y. M. Liao, W. C. Liao, W. J. Lin, P. Perumal, H. H. Hu, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chang, S. Y. Cai, T. M. Sun, H. I. Lin, G. Haider, and Y. F. Chen, “Magnetically Controllable Random Lasers,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(12), 1700170 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Zhu, W.-H. Li, Y. Sun, J.-G. Lu, X.-L. Song, C.-Y. Chen, Z. Zhang, and Y. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121109 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141103 (2005).
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Fullerenes, Nanotubes, Carbon Nanostruct. (1)

N. Kaya, F. Akkurt, and A. Alicilar, “Alignment and Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Red Dye and Carbon Nanotube,” Fullerenes, Nanotubes, Carbon Nanostruct. 19(4), 262–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, S. Y. Tsay, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. Ye, B. Liu, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “The electrically and magnetically controllable random laser from dye-doped liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(5), 053103 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-W. Chen, H.-P. Huang, H.-C. Jau, C.-Y. Wang, C.-W. Wu, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

R. Tamura, Y. Uchida, and N. Ikuma, “Paramagnetic all-organic chiral liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 18(25), 2872–2876 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, N. Ikuma, S. Shimono, J. Yamauchi, Y. Shimbo, H. Takezoe, Y. Aoki, and H. Nohira, “Magnetic-field-induced molecular alignment in an achiral liquid crystal spin-labeled by a nitroxyl group in the mesogen core,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(3), 415–418 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

J. B. Prieto, F. L. Arbeloa, V. M. Martínez, T. A. López, and I. L. Arbeloa, “Photophysical properties of the pyrromethene 597 dye: Solvent effect,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108(26), 5503–5508 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

S. Nakagami, T. Akita, D. Kiyohara, Y. Uchida, R. Tamura, and N. Nishiyama, “Molecular Mobility Effect on Magnetic Interactions in All-Organic Paramagnetic Liquid Crystal with Nitroxide Radical as a Hydrogen-Bonding Acceptor,” J. Phys. Chem. B 122(29), 7409–7415 (2018).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

D. Lisjak and S. Ovtar, “Directed Assembly of BaFe12O19Particles and the Formation of Magnetically Oriented Films,” Langmuir 27(23), 14014–14024 (2011).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
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D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, “Localization of light in a disordered medium,” Nature 390(6661), 671–673 (1997).
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V. Barna, G. Strangi, A. de Luca, and S. Ferjani, “Amplification of light and random laser action in partially ordered dye-doped nematics,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. – RAPID Commun. 5(11), 1154–1158 (2011).

Photonics Res. (1)

M. Shasti, P. Coutino, S. Mukherjee, A. Varanytsia, T. Smith, A. P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. Kosa, A. Munoz, and B. Taheri, “Reverse mode switching of the random laser emission in dye doped liquid crystals under homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 7–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

T. Potisk, A. Mertelj, N. Sebastián, N. Osterman, D. Lisjak, H. R. Brand, H. Pleiner, and D. Svenšek, “Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E 97(1), 012701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. K. M. Vithana, L. Asfaw, and L.D. Johnson, “Coherent Backscattering of Light in a Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(23), 3561–3564 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[Crossref]

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Other (2)

Y. Uchida, T. Narushima, and J. Yuasa, “Molecular Technology for Chirality Control: From Structure to Circular Polarization,” in Molecular Technology, Volume 1: Energy Innovation, H. Yamamoto and T. Kato, eds. (Wiley-Vch, 2018).

R. Tamura, Y. Uchida, and K. Suzuki, “Magnetic Liquid Crystals,” in Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications, L. Quan, ed. (Wiley, 2012).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the optical setup for the laser characterization. Four plates labelled with P n denote polarizers and two plates labelled with (λ/4) n denote quarter wavelength plates. The pump intensity focused on the sample was controlled by using P1, (λ/4)1, P2 and P3. The polarization of the pump beam was controlled by using (λ/4)2 and P4.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Lasing characteristics. (a) The emission spectra for pDFNLC at different pump energies are shown. Discrete sharp peaks emerged when the pump energy is stronger than the lasing threshold (10.16 nJ, black) whereas they could not be observed when the pump energy is weaker than the threshold (7.94 nJ, red). (b) The dependences of emission intensity on pump energy in vDFNLC (red, square), vDNLC (red, reverse triangle), pDFNLC (black, circle) and pDNLC (gray, triangle) are shown.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Switching of ferromagnetic domains in pDFNLC in external magnetic fields as seen by polarizing microscopy. The images seem to be bright because of the fluorescence of the dye. (a) Without a magnetic field ( B  = 0 mT). Polarizing micrographs were taken under a magnetic field ( B ∼50 mT) along R from (b) 0 s to (c) 30 s after application of the field. Polarizing micrographs under a magnetic field (B∼50 mT) normal to the cell plane from (d) 0 s to (e) 30 s after application of the field.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Lasing characteristics for pDNLC and pDFNLC in an external magnetic field normal to the cell plane at the pump energies of 124 nJ and 119 nJ, respectively. Only for this measurement, instead of the lens with a focal length of 35 mm used in the other experiments, a lens with a focal length of 250 mm is used to prepare the optical setup inside an electro-magnet. (a) The emission spectra under different magnetic field intensities. (b) The dependence of emission intensity in an external magnetic field for pDNLC (black, square) and pDFNLC (red, circle), respectively. The emission intensities are normalized based on the maximum intensity for each sample being set to 1. The inset is the magnification in the magnetic field range from 0 to 0.4 mT and in the range of the normalized emission intensity from 0 to 0.2.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Magnetic switching of random laser action in pDFNLC. (a) The random laser emission is spotted on the screen. (b) The random laser emission was extinguished when the magnetic field is applied normal to the cell plane.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Lasing characteristics under an external magnetic field. (a) The emission intensities for vDNLC (black, square) and vDFNLC (red, reverse triangle) in different magnetic field intensities at the pump energy of 20.2 nJ and 14.1 nJ, respectively. The emission intensities are normalized based on the maximum intensity for each sample being set to 1. (b) The dependence of the emission intensity for vDFNLC in an external magnetic field parallel to the cell plane of 250 mT.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The polarization of random laser for vDFNLC under a magnetic field parallel to the cell plane. (a) Polar plot of the polarization of the random laser. The emission intensities are normalized based on the maximum intensity for each sample being set to 1. The direction of the external magnetic field was along 90°. (b) Sketch of the random laser emission in vDFNLC in an external magnetic field parallel to the cell plane.

Equations (1)

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Δ χ = x x

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