Abstract

With their unprecedented flexibility in manipulating electromagnetic waves, metamaterials provide a pathway to structural materials that can fill the so-called “THz gap”. It has been reported that vanadium dioxide (VO2) experiences a three orders of magnitude increase in THz electrical conductivity when it undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition. Here, we propose a VO2 based THz metamaterial absorber exhibiting broadband absorptivity that arises from the multiple resonances supported by a delicately balanced doubly periodic array of VO2 structures and numerically demonstrate that the corresponding absorption behavior is highly dependent on the VO2’s THz electrical properties. Considering the phase transition induced dramatic change in VO2’s material property, the proposed metamaterial absorbers have the potential for strong modulation and switching of broadband THz radiation.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

Z. Song, M. Wei, Z. Wang, G. Cai, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhou, “Terahertz absorber with reconfigurable bandwidth based on isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (8)

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 97(3), 035128 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. T. Nouman, J. H. Hwang, M. Faiyaz, K.-J. Lee, D.-Y. Noh, and J.-H. Jang, “Vanadium dioxide based frequency tunable metasurface filters for realizing reconfigurable terahertz optical phase and polarization control,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12922–12929 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Song, K. Wang, J. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband tunable terahertz absorber based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Active terahertz chiral metamaterials based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 189 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Pogrebnyakov, J. A. Bossard, J. P. Turpin, J. D. Musgraves, H. J. Shin, C. Rivero-Baleine, N. Podraza, K. A. Richardson, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Reconfigurable near-IR metasurface based on Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2264–2275 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. X. Lim, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, A. Kumar, K. F. MacDonald, and R. Singh, “Ultrafast all-optical switching of germanium-based flexible metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1705331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, M. Manjappa, L. Cong, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, V. Savinov, P. Pitchappa, and R. Singh, “A superconducting dual-channel photonic switch,” Adv. Mater. 30(29), e1801257 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, P. Pitchappa, N. Singh, N. Wang, N. I. Zheludev, C. Lee, and R. Singh, “Reconfigurable MEMS Fano metasurfaces with multiple-input-output states for logic operations at terahertz frequencies,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4056 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (7)

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “active photoswitching of sharp fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, A. Solanki, A. Kumar, T. C. Sum, and R. Singh, “Hybrid lead halide perovskites for ultrasensitive photoactive switching in terahertz metamaterial devices,” Adv. Mater. 29(32), 1605881 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Srivastava, A. Chaturvedi, M. Manjappa, A. Kumar, G. Dayal, C. Kloc, and R. Singh, “MoS2 for ultrafast all-optical switching and modulation of THz fano metaphotonic devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700762 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, Y. Cui, F. Ding, K. H. Fung, T. Ji, D. Li, and Y. Hao, “Tungsten based anisotropic metamaterial as an ultra-broadband absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(2), 606–617 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide (VO 2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. H. Woo, I. C. Seo, E. Lee, S.-C. An, H. Y. Jeong, and Y. C. Jun, “Angle-dependent optical perfect absorption and enhanced photoluminescence in excitonic thin films,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28619 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13236 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liang, M. Wei, X. Yan, D. Wei, D. Liang, J. Han, X. Ding, G. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Broadband and wide-angle RCS reduction using a 2-bit coding ultrathin metasurface at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “A tunable dispersion-free terahertz metadevice with pancharatnam–berry-phase-enabled modulation and polarization control,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6630–6636 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bossard, L. Lin, S. Yun, L. Liu, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Near-ideal optical metamaterial absorbers with super-octave bandwidth,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1517–1524 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Han, K. Kohno, H. Fujita, K. Hirakawa, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS reconfigurable metamaterial for terahertz switchable filter and modulator,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21326–21339 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 021102 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

D. Shrekenhamer, W.-C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Chiang and T.-J. Yen, “A composite-metamaterial-based terahertz-wave polarization rotator with an ultrathin thickness, an excellent conversion ratio, and enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011129 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, F. Garet, É. Lheurette, M. Astic, J.-L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Giant rotary power of a fishnet-like metamaterial,” APL Mater. 1(3), 032116 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Thermal tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic antenna arrays using a phase change material,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 368–370 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A Circuit-Based Model for the Interpretation of Perfect Metamaterial Absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, M. Holtz, Z. Fan, and A. A. Bernussi, “Effect of substrate orientation on terahertz optical transmission through VO2 thin films and application to functional antireflection coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2373–2378 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 523–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 513–533 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N.-H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J.-M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Q.-Y. Wen, H.-W. Zhang, Q.-H. Yang, Y.-S. Xie, K. Chen, and Y.-L. Liu, “Terahertz metamaterials with VO2 cut-wires for thermal tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021111 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Z. Wang, C. Huang, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with wide incidence angle,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 101, 231–239 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” New J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 910–928 (2002).
[Crossref]

Abernathy, D. L.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, K.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Naib, I.

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “active photoswitching of sharp fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, S.-C.

Astic, M.

S. Wang, F. Garet, É. Lheurette, M. Astic, J.-L. Coutaz, and D. Lippens, “Giant rotary power of a fishnet-like metamaterial,” APL Mater. 1(3), 032116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

Averitt, R. D.

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 287, 21–28 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, J. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B 97(3), 035128 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(1), 136–149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Manipulation of terahertz radiation using metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 513–533 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, H. Yang, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, S. A. Trugman, Q. X. Jia, and A. J. Taylor, “Tuning the resonance in high-temperature superconducting terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 247402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Thermal tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic antenna arrays using a phase change material,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 368–370 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernien, H.

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q.-H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernussi, A. A.

Blanchard, R.

Boatner, L. A.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

Z. Zhang, F. Zuo, C. Wan, A. Dutta, J. Kim, J. Rensberg, R. Nawrodt, H. H. Park, T. J. Larrabee, X. Guan, Y. Zhou, S. M. Prokes, C. Ronning, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, M. A. Kats, and S. Ramanathan, “Evolution of Metallicity in Vanadium Dioxide by Creation of Oxygen Vacancies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(3), 034008 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bossard, J. A.

Boyd, E. M.

Brener, I.

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

Budai, J. D.

J. D. Budai, J. Hong, M. E. Manley, E. D. Specht, C. W. Li, J. Z. Tischler, D. L. Abernathy, A. H. Said, B. M. Leu, L. A. Boatner, R. J. McQueeney, and O. Delaire, “Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy,” Nature 515(7528), 535–539 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, G.

Z. Song, M. Wei, Z. Wang, G. Cai, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhou, “Terahertz absorber with reconfigurable bandwidth based on isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cao, L.

H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Optically modulated multiband terahertz perfect absorber,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(12), 1221–1226 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Thermal tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic antenna arrays using a phase change material,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 368–370 (2013).
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Chae, B.-G.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A vanadium dioxide based broadband THz metamaterial absorber. The schematic depicts the structure of the MMA based on an elaborate VO2 pattern inspired by an earlier demonstration in the mid-infrared regime [56]. The 1-μm-thick VO2 layer is embedded in a SiO2 matrix that is located on top of an optically thick Au film. The schematic on the left shows the unit cell of the metamaterial. The geometric parameters (all unit in μm) are: P = 120, L = R = 48, g = 3, w = 9, Lc = 20, wc = 5.5, d1 = 42 and d2 = 24. The permittivity dispersion of VO2 with conductivity σ 1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1cm−1 in the THz frequency range of interest is shown on the right.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Interference theory based reflection analysis. (a) Schematic of the interference analysis. (b) Simulated complex reflection and transmission coefficients (r12S1 and t12S1) for the structure including the VO2-pattern embedded in a SiO2 matrix at normal incidence when σ1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1 cm−1. (c) Absorption spectra of the MMA at normal incidence at a series of VO2 conductivity (σ1 in unit of Ω−1 cm−1). (d) The corresponding spectra of amplitude modulation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The THz response of the metamaterial absorber. (a) Simulated absorption and (b) reflection modulation amplitude spectra for a series of VO2 conductivity (σ1) values. (c) The corresponding absorption spectra at several frequencies of interest as a function of σ1. The absorption spectrum of a similar metamaterial with a gold patterned layer is shown in (d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The absorption spectra of (a) the MMA with a patterned VO2 structure and (b) a VO2 thin film for a series of VO2 layer thicknesses.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated power loss density (PLD) distribution in the VO2 layer at a series of frequencies when (a)-(e) σ1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1 cm−1 and when (f)-(j) VO2 is in its insulator phase. (k) PLD distribution at 1.73 THz when σ1 = 100 Ω−1 cm−1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The incident angular dependence of absorption in the MMA for (a) transverse electric (TE) and (b) transverse magnetic (TM) polarized illumination when σ1 = 2 × 103 Ω−1 cm−1. Angular dependence for the (c) TE and (d) TM case when σ1 = 100 Ω−1 cm−1.

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