Abstract

A metasurface is a planar optical device that controls the phase, amplitude, and polarization of light through subwavelength-scale unit elements, called meta-atom. The tunability of plasmonic vortex lens (PVL) which generates surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) carrying orbital angular momentum can be improved by using meta-atom. However, conventional PVLs exhibit nonuniform field profiles according to the incident polarization states owing to the spin-orbital interaction (SOI) effect observed during SPP excitation. This paper describes a method of compensating for SOI of PVL by using the geometric phase of distributed nanoslits in a gold film. By designing the orientation angles of slit pairs, the anti-phase of the SOI effect can be generated for compensatory effect. In addition, polarization-independent PVLs are designed by applying a detour phase based on the position of the slit pairs. PVLs for center-, off-center-, and multiple-focus cases are demonstrated and measured via a near-field scanning microscope.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. Zhu, F. Yi, and E. Cubukcu, “Plasmonic metamaterial absorber for broadband manipulation of mechanical resonances,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 709–714 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Kang, F. Liu, T.-F. Li, Q.-H. Guo, J. Li, and J. Chen, “Polarization-independent coherent perfect absorption by a dipole-like metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 3086–3088 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Cheng, R. Gong, and Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Roy, E. T. F. Rogers, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sub-wavelength focusing meta-lens,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7577–7582 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral chiral imaging with a metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric Meta-Reflectarray for Broadband Linear Polarization Conversion and Optical Vortex Generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A Broadband, Background-Free Quarter-Wave Plate Based on Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-Frequency Metasurface for Structuring and Spatially Multiplexing Optical Vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28(13), 2533–2539 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. E. Almeida, O. Bitton, and Y. Prior, “Nonlinear metamaterials for holography,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12533 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. Sun, Z. Zhou, C. Zhang, Y. Gao, Z. Duan, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “All-Dielectric Full-Color Printing with TiO2 Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 11(5), 4445–4452 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 043903 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. W.-Y. Tsai, J.-S. Huang, and C.-B. Huang, “Selective trapping or rotation of isotropic dielectric microparticles by optical near field in a plasmonic archimedes spiral,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 547–552 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. Yang, W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Miniature circular polarization analyzer with spiral plasmonic lens,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3047–3049 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Efficient miniature circular polarization analyzer design using hybrid spiral plasmonic lens,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1442–1444 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of optical spin symmetry breaking in nanoapertures,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 3016–3019 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental confirmation of miniature spiral plasmonic lens as a circular polarization analyzer,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2075–2079 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. H. Kim, J. Park, S.-W. Cho, S.-Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, “Synthesis and dynamic switching of surface plasmon vortices with plasmonic vortex lens,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 529–536 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. Y. Babayan, J. M. McMahon, S. Li, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Confining standing waves in optical corrals,” ACS Nano 3(3), 615–620 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. G. Rui, Q. Zhan, and Y. Cui, “Tailoring optical complex field with spiral blade plasmonic vortex lens,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13732 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. H. Kim and B. Lee, “Diffractive slit patterns for focusing surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8969–8980 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. P. A. Brandão and S. B. Cavalcanti, “Optical spin-to-orbital plasmonic angular momentum conversion in subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 920–922 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. S.-Y. Lee, K. Kim, G.-Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Polarization-multiplexed plasmonic phase generation with distributed nanoslits,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15598–15607 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. G.-Y. Lee, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, H. Park, J. Kim, K. Lee, and B. Lee, “Near-field focus steering along arbitrary trajectory via multi-lined distributed nanoslits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33317 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. S.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Kim, H. Kwon, and B. Lee, “Spin-Direction Control of High-Order Plasmonic Vortex With Double-Ring Distributed Nanoslits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 705–708 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  42. Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. H. Wang, L. Liu, C. Liu, X. Li, S. Wang, Q. Xu, and S. Teng, “Plasmonic vortex generator without polarization dependence,” New J. Phys. 20(3), 033024 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  44. K. Y. Bliokh, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, F. Nori, and A. V. Zayats, “Spin-orbit interactions of light,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 796–808 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  45. J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340(6130), 331–334 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. S.-Y. Lee, K. Kim, S.-J. Kim, H. Park, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic meta-slit: shaping and controlling near-field focus,” Optica 2(1), 6–13 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  47. H. Zhou, J. Dong, Y. Zhou, J. Zhang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Designing appointed and multiple focuses with plasmonic vortex lenses,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, L. Liu, C. Liu, X. Li, S. Wang, Q. Xu, and S. Teng, “Plasmonic vortex generator without polarization dependence,” New J. Phys. 20(3), 033024 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

S. Sun, Z. Zhou, C. Zhang, Y. Gao, Z. Duan, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “All-Dielectric Full-Color Printing with TiO2 Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 11(5), 4445–4452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (9)

Y. Cheng, R. Gong, and Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral chiral imaging with a metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-Frequency Metasurface for Structuring and Spatially Multiplexing Optical Vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28(13), 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ye, F. Zeuner, X. Li, B. Reineke, S. He, C.-W. Qiu, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11930 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Almeida, O. Bitton, and Y. Prior, “Nonlinear metamaterials for holography,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12533 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-Y. Lee, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, H. Park, J. Kim, K. Lee, and B. Lee, “Near-field focus steering along arbitrary trajectory via multi-lined distributed nanoslits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33317 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, F. Yi, and E. Cubukcu, “Plasmonic metamaterial absorber for broadband manipulation of mechanical resonances,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 709–714 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

S.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Kim, H. Kwon, and B. Lee, “Spin-Direction Control of High-Order Plasmonic Vortex With Double-Ring Distributed Nanoslits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 705–708 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Bliokh, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, F. Nori, and A. V. Zayats, “Spin-orbit interactions of light,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 796–808 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Rui, Q. Zhan, and Y. Cui, “Tailoring optical complex field with spiral blade plasmonic vortex lens,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13732 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, J. Dong, Y. Zhou, J. Zhang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Designing appointed and multiple focuses with plasmonic vortex lenses,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lee, K. Kim, S.-J. Kim, H. Park, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic meta-slit: shaping and controlling near-field focus,” Optica 2(1), 6–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lee, K. Kim, G.-Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Polarization-multiplexed plasmonic phase generation with distributed nanoslits,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15598–15607 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric Meta-Reflectarray for Broadband Linear Polarization Conversion and Optical Vortex Generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-Y. Tsai, J.-S. Huang, and C.-B. Huang, “Selective trapping or rotation of isotropic dielectric microparticles by optical near field in a plasmonic archimedes spiral,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 547–552 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340(6130), 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. A. Brandão and S. B. Cavalcanti, “Optical spin-to-orbital plasmonic angular momentum conversion in subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 920–922 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Roy, E. T. F. Rogers, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sub-wavelength focusing meta-lens,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7577–7582 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kang, F. Liu, T.-F. Li, Q.-H. Guo, J. Li, and J. Chen, “Polarization-independent coherent perfect absorption by a dipole-like metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 3086–3088 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Efficient miniature circular polarization analyzer design using hybrid spiral plasmonic lens,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1442–1444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A Broadband, Background-Free Quarter-Wave Plate Based on Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental confirmation of miniature spiral plasmonic lens as a circular polarization analyzer,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2075–2079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kim, J. Park, S.-W. Cho, S.-Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, “Synthesis and dynamic switching of surface plasmon vortices with plasmonic vortex lens,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 529–536 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of optical spin symmetry breaking in nanoapertures,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 3016–3019 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Babayan, J. M. McMahon, S. Li, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Confining standing waves in optical corrals,” ACS Nano 3(3), 615–620 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Miniature circular polarization analyzer with spiral plasmonic lens,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3047–3049 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Diffractive slit patterns for focusing surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8969–8980 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 043903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abeysinghe, D. C.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental confirmation of miniature spiral plasmonic lens as a circular polarization analyzer,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2075–2079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A Broadband, Background-Free Quarter-Wave Plate Based on Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, E.

E. Almeida, O. Bitton, and Y. Prior, “Nonlinear metamaterials for holography,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12533 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antoniou, N.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340(6130), 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babayan, Y.

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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Y. Cheng, R. Gong, and Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
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Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of optical spin symmetry breaking in nanoapertures,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 3016–3019 (2009).
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Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 043903 (2008).
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Y. Babayan, J. M. McMahon, S. Li, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Confining standing waves in optical corrals,” ACS Nano 3(3), 615–620 (2009).
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Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
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Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of optical spin symmetry breaking in nanoapertures,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 3016–3019 (2009).
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N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
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Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
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Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A Broadband, Background-Free Quarter-Wave Plate Based on Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral chiral imaging with a metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).
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H. Kim, J. Park, S.-W. Cho, S.-Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, “Synthesis and dynamic switching of surface plasmon vortices with plasmonic vortex lens,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 529–536 (2010).
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H. Kim and B. Lee, “Diffractive slit patterns for focusing surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8969–8980 (2008).
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G.-Y. Lee, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, H. Park, J. Kim, K. Lee, and B. Lee, “Near-field focus steering along arbitrary trajectory via multi-lined distributed nanoslits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33317 (2016).
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Kim, K.-Y.

Kim, S.-J.

S.-Y. Lee, K. Kim, S.-J. Kim, H. Park, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic meta-slit: shaping and controlling near-field focus,” Optica 2(1), 6–13 (2015).
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S.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Kim, H. Kwon, and B. Lee, “Spin-Direction Control of High-Order Plasmonic Vortex With Double-Ring Distributed Nanoslits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 705–708 (2015).
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Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of optical spin symmetry breaking in nanoapertures,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 3016–3019 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 043903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric Meta-Reflectarray for Broadband Linear Polarization Conversion and Optical Vortex Generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
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S.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Kim, H. Kwon, and B. Lee, “Spin-Direction Control of High-Order Plasmonic Vortex With Double-Ring Distributed Nanoslits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 705–708 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-Y. Lee, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, H. Park, J. Kim, K. Lee, and B. Lee, “Near-field focus steering along arbitrary trajectory via multi-lined distributed nanoslits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33317 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Kim, H. Kwon, and B. Lee, “Spin-Direction Control of High-Order Plasmonic Vortex With Double-Ring Distributed Nanoslits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 705–708 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lee, K. Kim, S.-J. Kim, H. Park, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Plasmonic meta-slit: shaping and controlling near-field focus,” Optica 2(1), 6–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lee, K. Kim, G.-Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Polarization-multiplexed plasmonic phase generation with distributed nanoslits,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15598–15607 (2015).
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H. Kim, J. Park, S.-W. Cho, S.-Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, “Synthesis and dynamic switching of surface plasmon vortices with plasmonic vortex lens,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 529–536 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kim and B. Lee, “Diffractive slit patterns for focusing surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8969–8980 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, G.-Y.

G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric Meta-Reflectarray for Broadband Linear Polarization Conversion and Optical Vortex Generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, W.

W. Ye, F. Zeuner, X. Li, B. Reineke, S. He, C.-W. Qiu, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11930 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, F.

H. Zhu, F. Yi, and E. Cubukcu, “Plasmonic metamaterial absorber for broadband manipulation of mechanical resonances,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 709–714 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yin, W.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, G.

G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A Broadband, Background-Free Quarter-Wave Plate Based on Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y. F.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, G.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340(6130), 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, X.-C.

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340(6130), 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, H.

G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-Y. Lee, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, H. Park, J. Kim, K. Lee, and B. Lee, “Near-field focus steering along arbitrary trajectory via multi-lined distributed nanoslits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33317 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

K. Y. Bliokh, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, F. Nori, and A. V. Zayats, “Spin-orbit interactions of light,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 796–808 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

W. Ye, F. Zeuner, X. Li, B. Reineke, S. He, C.-W. Qiu, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11930 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeuner, F.

W. Ye, F. Zeuner, X. Li, B. Reineke, S. He, C.-W. Qiu, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11930 (2016).
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G. Rui, Q. Zhan, and Y. Cui, “Tailoring optical complex field with spiral blade plasmonic vortex lens,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13732 (2015).
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W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental confirmation of miniature spiral plasmonic lens as a circular polarization analyzer,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2075–2079 (2010).
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S. Yang, W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Miniature circular polarization analyzer with spiral plasmonic lens,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3047–3049 (2009).
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S. Sun, Z. Zhou, C. Zhang, Y. Gao, Z. Duan, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “All-Dielectric Full-Color Printing with TiO2 Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 11(5), 4445–4452 (2017).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
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H. Zhou, J. Dong, Y. Zhou, J. Zhang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Designing appointed and multiple focuses with plasmonic vortex lenses,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
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M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-Frequency Metasurface for Structuring and Spatially Multiplexing Optical Vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28(13), 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-Frequency Metasurface for Structuring and Spatially Multiplexing Optical Vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28(13), 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ye, F. Zeuner, X. Li, B. Reineke, S. He, C.-W. Qiu, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11930 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
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Zhang, T.

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-Frequency Metasurface for Structuring and Spatially Multiplexing Optical Vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28(13), 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Zhou, J. Dong, Y. Zhou, J. Zhang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Designing appointed and multiple focuses with plasmonic vortex lenses,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
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Zheng, B.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Zhou, J. Dong, Y. Zhou, J. Zhang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Designing appointed and multiple focuses with plasmonic vortex lenses,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
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H. Zhou, J. Dong, Y. Zhou, J. Zhang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Designing appointed and multiple focuses with plasmonic vortex lenses,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

S. Sun, Z. Zhou, C. Zhang, Y. Gao, Z. Duan, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “All-Dielectric Full-Color Printing with TiO2 Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 11(5), 4445–4452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral chiral imaging with a metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).
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Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
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H. Zhu, F. Yi, and E. Cubukcu, “Plasmonic metamaterial absorber for broadband manipulation of mechanical resonances,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 709–714 (2016).
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S. Sun, Z. Zhou, C. Zhang, Y. Gao, Z. Duan, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “All-Dielectric Full-Color Printing with TiO2 Metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 11(5), 4445–4452 (2017).
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Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
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M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-Frequency Metasurface for Structuring and Spatially Multiplexing Optical Vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28(13), 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultrathin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

H. Zhou, J. Dong, Y. Zhou, J. Zhang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Designing appointed and multiple focuses with plasmonic vortex lenses,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Kim, H. Kwon, and B. Lee, “Spin-Direction Control of High-Order Plasmonic Vortex With Double-Ring Distributed Nanoslits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(7), 705–708 (2015).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
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Nano Lett. (10)

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A Broadband, Background-Free Quarter-Wave Plate Based on Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
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W.-Y. Tsai, J.-S. Huang, and C.-B. Huang, “Selective trapping or rotation of isotropic dielectric microparticles by optical near field in a plasmonic archimedes spiral,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 547–552 (2014).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral chiral imaging with a metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric Meta-Reflectarray for Broadband Linear Polarization Conversion and Optical Vortex Generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
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Y. Gorodetski, N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of optical spin symmetry breaking in nanoapertures,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 3016–3019 (2009).
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W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental confirmation of miniature spiral plasmonic lens as a circular polarization analyzer,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2075–2079 (2010).
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H. Kim, J. Park, S.-W. Cho, S.-Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, “Synthesis and dynamic switching of surface plasmon vortices with plasmonic vortex lens,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 529–536 (2010).
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Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
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G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
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Nanoscale (2)

G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (5)

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Ye, F. Zeuner, X. Li, B. Reineke, S. He, C.-W. Qiu, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11930 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Almeida, O. Bitton, and Y. Prior, “Nonlinear metamaterials for holography,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12533 (2016).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

H. Zhu, F. Yi, and E. Cubukcu, “Plasmonic metamaterial absorber for broadband manipulation of mechanical resonances,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 709–714 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Bliokh, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, F. Nori, and A. V. Zayats, “Spin-orbit interactions of light,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 796–808 (2015).
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New J. Phys. (1)

H. Wang, L. Liu, C. Liu, X. Li, S. Wang, Q. Xu, and S. Teng, “Plasmonic vortex generator without polarization dependence,” New J. Phys. 20(3), 033024 (2018).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Cheng, R. Gong, and Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 043903 (2008).
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Sci. Rep. (2)

G. Rui, Q. Zhan, and Y. Cui, “Tailoring optical complex field with spiral blade plasmonic vortex lens,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13732 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-Y. Lee, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, H. Park, J. Kim, K. Lee, and B. Lee, “Near-field focus steering along arbitrary trajectory via multi-lined distributed nanoslits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33317 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, J. P. B. Mueller, Q. Wang, G. Yuan, N. Antoniou, X.-C. Yuan, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 340(6130), 331–334 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the polarization-independent plasmonic vortex generator. (b) Illustration of the system coordinates and locations of nanoslits.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic showing the principle of the proposed structure when LCP (red) and RCP (blue) illuminate the sample, respectively. Green curve indicates the direction of angular momentum caused by geometric phase of nanoslits. (b) SEM image of 4th-order polarization-independent PVL. (c) Experimental setup scheme for measuring the plasmonic vortex.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of (a) a continuous slit PVL and (b)–(e) E z field amplitude calculated by using FDTD simulations for circular and diagonal linear polarizations. For the case of PVL consisting of nano-holes array; (f) Schematic and (g)–(j) field distributions for each polarization are shown, respectively. The phase nearby the center is inserted in the left corner insets.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 FIB images, E z field distribution calculated by dipole modeling (upper) and NSOM images (lower) for various polarization incidences: (a)–(e) show (a) FIB image and (b)–(e) intensity profiles of the PVL with SOI (n = 1) whereas (f)–(j) show (f) FIB image and (g)–(j) intensity profiles of PVL without SOI (n = 0.5). The inset in each figure is a numerically calculated phase profile near the focus.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 FIB images, E z field distribution calculated by dipole modeling (upper) and NSOM images (lower) of each polarization state for two type of 4th-order PI-PVL: (a) FIB image and (b)–(e) intensity profiles of center-focus PI-PVL. (f) FIB image (g)–(j) intensity profiles of off-center-focus PI-PVL. The inset in each figure is a phase profile. The intensity profiles have been rotated 45° because NSOM scanned the samples diagonally. As the phase and amplitude of plasmonic vortices are perfectly matched between LCP and RCP, the interference pattern disappears when y polarized light is incident, as shown in (e) and (j).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated intensity profiles of multiple-foci PVL that can simultaneously generate plasmonic vortices without SOI and with SOI for (a) LCP, (b) RCP, (c) x-polarization, and (d) y-polarization.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N={ (ρ,θ)| ϕ 0 (ρ,θ)=2πq& ρ 0 ρ< ρ 0 + λ SPP },
E z = e αz A 0 e ±j(2n1)θ' e j k SPP ( ρ 0 ρcos(θθ')) dθ ' J ±(2n1) ( k SPP ρ),
E z = e αz A 0 e j k SPP ( ρ 0 ρcos(θθ')) dθ ' J 0 ( k SPP ρ).
E ztotal = a LCP E zLCP + a RCP E zRCP J 0 ( k SPP ρ),
E z = e αz A 0 e j l v θ' e j k SPP ( ρ 0 ρcos(θθ')) dθ ' J l v ( k SPP ρ).
ϕ(x,y)= k SPP (x x c ) 2 + (y y c ) 2 + l v tan 1 ( y y c x x c ).

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