Abstract

Here we report on a non-destructive, spatially resolving and easy to implement quality and parameter control method for high aspect ratio X-ray absorption gratings. Based on angular X-ray transmission measurements, our proposed technique allows to determine the duty cycle, the transmittance, the height, as well as the local inclination of the absorbing grating structures. A key advantage of the presented method is a fast and extensive grating quality evaluation without the need of implementing an entire grating interferometer. In addition to the local and surface-based analysis using a scanning electron microscope, our non-destructive method provides global averaged macroscopic and spatially resolved grating structure information without the requirement of resolving individual grating lines.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Non-absorption grating approach for X-ray phase contrast imaging

Yang Du, Xin Liu, Yaohu Lei, Jinchuan Guo, and Hanben Niu
Opt. Express 19(23) 22669-22674 (2011)

Projection angle dependence in grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging of ordered structures

Florian Bayer, Simon Zabler, Christian Brendel, Georg Pelzer, Jens Rieger, André Ritter, Thomas Weber, Thilo Michel, and Gisela Anton
Opt. Express 21(17) 19922-19933 (2013)

Characterization of x-ray transmission gratings

Hans Lochbihler and Peter Predehl
Appl. Opt. 31(7) 964-971 (1992)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866–L868 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Bravin, P. Coan, and P. Suortti, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging: from pre-clinical applications towards clinics,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, R1–R35 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Pfeiffer, J. Herzen, M. Willner, M. Chabior, S. Auweter, M. Reiser, and F. Bamberg, “Grating-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications,” Z. Med. Phys. 23, 176–185 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. Pfeiffer, “Milestones and basic principles of grating-based x-ray and neutron phase-contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 2–11 (2012).
  7. V. Ludwig, M. Seifert, T. Niepold, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, J. Ziegler, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging,” J. Imaging 4, 58 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. A. Miller, T. A. White, B. S. McDonald, and A. Seifert, “Phase contrast x-ray imaging signatures for security applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60, 416–422 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Mohr, T. Grund, D. Kunka, J. Kenntner, J. Leuthold, J. Meiser, J. Schulz, and M. Walter, “High aspect ratio gratings for X-ray phase contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 41–50 (2012).
  10. P. Meyer and J. Schulz, “Deep x-ray lithography,” Micro-Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 2nd ed., Y. Qin, ed. (Elsevier, 2015), Chap. 16, pp. 365–392.
  11. C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. Wu, A. Kumar, and S. Pamarthy, “High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 051101 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Vila-Comamala, L. Romano, V. Guzenko, M. Kagias, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Towards sub-micrometer high aspect ratio x-ray gratings by atomic layer deposition of iridium,” Microelectron. Eng. 192, 19–24 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Lei, Y. Du, J. Li, Z. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Fabrication of x-ray absorption gratings via micro-casting for grating-based phase contrast imaging,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 015007 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Li, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Improvement of filling bismuth for x-ray absorption gratings through the enhancement of wettability,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26, 065011 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Hot embossing of Au- and Pb-based alloys for x-ray grating fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 35, 06G302 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Kagias, K. Vogelsang, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “High aspect ratio metal microcasting by hot embossing for X-ray optics fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 6–10 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Schüttler, P. Meyer, F. Schaff, A. Yaroshenko, D. Kunka, H. Besser, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Height control for small periodic structures using x-ray radiography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27, 025015 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Chabior, M. Schuster, M. Goldammer, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the grating profiles on the image quality in grating-based x-ray imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 683, 71–77 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (2)

V. Ludwig, M. Seifert, T. Niepold, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, J. Ziegler, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging,” J. Imaging 4, 58 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Vila-Comamala, L. Romano, V. Guzenko, M. Kagias, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Towards sub-micrometer high aspect ratio x-ray gratings by atomic layer deposition of iridium,” Microelectron. Eng. 192, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Hot embossing of Au- and Pb-based alloys for x-ray grating fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 35, 06G302 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Kagias, K. Vogelsang, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “High aspect ratio metal microcasting by hot embossing for X-ray optics fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 6–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. Schüttler, P. Meyer, F. Schaff, A. Yaroshenko, D. Kunka, H. Besser, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Height control for small periodic structures using x-ray radiography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27, 025015 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Li, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Improvement of filling bismuth for x-ray absorption gratings through the enhancement of wettability,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26, 065011 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Y. Lei, Y. Du, J. Li, Z. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Fabrication of x-ray absorption gratings via micro-casting for grating-based phase contrast imaging,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 015007 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

E. A. Miller, T. A. White, B. S. McDonald, and A. Seifert, “Phase contrast x-ray imaging signatures for security applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60, 416–422 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Bravin, P. Coan, and P. Suortti, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging: from pre-clinical applications towards clinics,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, R1–R35 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, J. Herzen, M. Willner, M. Chabior, S. Auweter, M. Reiser, and F. Bamberg, “Grating-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications,” Z. Med. Phys. 23, 176–185 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, M. Goldammer, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the grating profiles on the image quality in grating-based x-ray imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 683, 71–77 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

B. Wu, A. Kumar, and S. Pamarthy, “High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866–L868 (2003).
[Crossref]

Anton, G.

V. Ludwig, M. Seifert, T. Niepold, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, J. Ziegler, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging,” J. Imaging 4, 58 (2018).
[Crossref]

Auweter, S.

F. Pfeiffer, J. Herzen, M. Willner, M. Chabior, S. Auweter, M. Reiser, and F. Bamberg, “Grating-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications,” Z. Med. Phys. 23, 176–185 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bamberg, F.

F. Pfeiffer, J. Herzen, M. Willner, M. Chabior, S. Auweter, M. Reiser, and F. Bamberg, “Grating-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications,” Z. Med. Phys. 23, 176–185 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, M.

T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baumbach, T.

T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bech, M.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Besser, H.

M. Schüttler, P. Meyer, F. Schaff, A. Yaroshenko, D. Kunka, H. Besser, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Height control for small periodic structures using x-ray radiography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27, 025015 (2016).
[Crossref]

Birnbacher, L.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bravin, A.

A. Bravin, P. Coan, and P. Suortti, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging: from pre-clinical applications towards clinics,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, R1–R35 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brönnimann, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruder, J.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bunk, O.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chabior, M.

F. Pfeiffer, J. Herzen, M. Willner, M. Chabior, S. Auweter, M. Reiser, and F. Bamberg, “Grating-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications,” Z. Med. Phys. 23, 176–185 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, M. Goldammer, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the grating profiles on the image quality in grating-based x-ray imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 683, 71–77 (2012).
[Crossref]

Coan, P.

A. Bravin, P. Coan, and P. Suortti, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging: from pre-clinical applications towards clinics,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, R1–R35 (2013).
[Crossref]

David, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

de Marco, F.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diaz, A.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Du, Y.

Y. Lei, Y. Du, J. Li, Z. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Fabrication of x-ray absorption gratings via micro-casting for grating-based phase contrast imaging,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 015007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eikenberry, E. F.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engelhardt, S.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Goldammer, M.

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, M. Goldammer, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the grating profiles on the image quality in grating-based x-ray imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 683, 71–77 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gromann, L.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grund, T.

J. Mohr, T. Grund, D. Kunka, J. Kenntner, J. Leuthold, J. Meiser, J. Schulz, and M. Walter, “High aspect ratio gratings for X-ray phase contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 41–50 (2012).

Grünzweig, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guo, J.

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Li, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Improvement of filling bismuth for x-ray absorption gratings through the enhancement of wettability,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26, 065011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Lei, Y. Du, J. Li, Z. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Fabrication of x-ray absorption gratings via micro-casting for grating-based phase contrast imaging,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 015007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guzenko, V.

J. Vila-Comamala, L. Romano, V. Guzenko, M. Kagias, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Towards sub-micrometer high aspect ratio x-ray gratings by atomic layer deposition of iridium,” Microelectron. Eng. 192, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hamaishi, Y.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866–L868 (2003).
[Crossref]

Herzen, J.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, J. Herzen, M. Willner, M. Chabior, S. Auweter, M. Reiser, and F. Bamberg, “Grating-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications,” Z. Med. Phys. 23, 176–185 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofmann, A.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jefimovs, K.

J. Vila-Comamala, L. Romano, V. Guzenko, M. Kagias, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Towards sub-micrometer high aspect ratio x-ray gratings by atomic layer deposition of iridium,” Microelectron. Eng. 192, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Hot embossing of Au- and Pb-based alloys for x-ray grating fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 35, 06G302 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Kagias, K. Vogelsang, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “High aspect ratio metal microcasting by hot embossing for X-ray optics fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 6–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kagias, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, L. Romano, V. Guzenko, M. Kagias, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Towards sub-micrometer high aspect ratio x-ray gratings by atomic layer deposition of iridium,” Microelectron. Eng. 192, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Kagias, K. Vogelsang, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “High aspect ratio metal microcasting by hot embossing for X-ray optics fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 6–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kawamoto, S.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866–L868 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kenntner, J.

J. Mohr, T. Grund, D. Kunka, J. Kenntner, J. Leuthold, J. Meiser, J. Schulz, and M. Walter, “High aspect ratio gratings for X-ray phase contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 41–50 (2012).

Koch, F.

T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Koch, F. J.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kottler, C.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koyama, I.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866–L868 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kraft, P.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, A.

B. Wu, A. Kumar, and S. Pamarthy, “High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kunka, D.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schüttler, P. Meyer, F. Schaff, A. Yaroshenko, D. Kunka, H. Besser, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Height control for small periodic structures using x-ray radiography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27, 025015 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Mohr, T. Grund, D. Kunka, J. Kenntner, J. Leuthold, J. Meiser, J. Schulz, and M. Walter, “High aspect ratio gratings for X-ray phase contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 41–50 (2012).

Lei, Y.

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Li, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Improvement of filling bismuth for x-ray absorption gratings through the enhancement of wettability,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26, 065011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Lei, Y. Du, J. Li, Z. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Fabrication of x-ray absorption gratings via micro-casting for grating-based phase contrast imaging,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 015007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

J. Mohr, T. Grund, D. Kunka, J. Kenntner, J. Leuthold, J. Meiser, J. Schulz, and M. Walter, “High aspect ratio gratings for X-ray phase contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 41–50 (2012).

Li, J.

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Li, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Improvement of filling bismuth for x-ray absorption gratings through the enhancement of wettability,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26, 065011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Lei, Y. Du, J. Li, Z. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Fabrication of x-ray absorption gratings via micro-casting for grating-based phase contrast imaging,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 015007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Li, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Improvement of filling bismuth for x-ray absorption gratings through the enhancement of wettability,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26, 065011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Lei, Y. Du, J. Li, Z. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Fabrication of x-ray absorption gratings via micro-casting for grating-based phase contrast imaging,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 015007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ludwig, V.

V. Ludwig, M. Seifert, T. Niepold, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, J. Ziegler, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging,” J. Imaging 4, 58 (2018).
[Crossref]

McDonald, B. S.

E. A. Miller, T. A. White, B. S. McDonald, and A. Seifert, “Phase contrast x-ray imaging signatures for security applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60, 416–422 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meiser, J.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mohr, T. Grund, D. Kunka, J. Kenntner, J. Leuthold, J. Meiser, J. Schulz, and M. Walter, “High aspect ratio gratings for X-ray phase contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 41–50 (2012).

Meyer, P.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Schüttler, P. Meyer, F. Schaff, A. Yaroshenko, D. Kunka, H. Besser, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Height control for small periodic structures using x-ray radiography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27, 025015 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Meyer and J. Schulz, “Deep x-ray lithography,” Micro-Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 2nd ed., Y. Qin, ed. (Elsevier, 2015), Chap. 16, pp. 365–392.

Michel, T.

V. Ludwig, M. Seifert, T. Niepold, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, J. Ziegler, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging,” J. Imaging 4, 58 (2018).
[Crossref]

Miller, E. A.

E. A. Miller, T. A. White, B. S. McDonald, and A. Seifert, “Phase contrast x-ray imaging signatures for security applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60, 416–422 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mohr, J.

T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schüttler, P. Meyer, F. Schaff, A. Yaroshenko, D. Kunka, H. Besser, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Height control for small periodic structures using x-ray radiography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27, 025015 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Mohr, T. Grund, D. Kunka, J. Kenntner, J. Leuthold, J. Meiser, J. Schulz, and M. Walter, “High aspect ratio gratings for X-ray phase contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 41–50 (2012).

Momose, A.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866–L868 (2003).
[Crossref]

Münch, D.

T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Niepold, T.

V. Ludwig, M. Seifert, T. Niepold, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, J. Ziegler, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging,” J. Imaging 4, 58 (2018).
[Crossref]

Niu, H.

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Li, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Improvement of filling bismuth for x-ray absorption gratings through the enhancement of wettability,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26, 065011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Lei, Y. Du, J. Li, Z. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Fabrication of x-ray absorption gratings via micro-casting for grating-based phase contrast imaging,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 015007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Noel, P.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pamarthy, S.

B. Wu, A. Kumar, and S. Pamarthy, “High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pelzer, G.

V. Ludwig, M. Seifert, T. Niepold, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, J. Ziegler, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging,” J. Imaging 4, 58 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, F.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Schüttler, P. Meyer, F. Schaff, A. Yaroshenko, D. Kunka, H. Besser, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Height control for small periodic structures using x-ray radiography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27, 025015 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, J. Herzen, M. Willner, M. Chabior, S. Auweter, M. Reiser, and F. Bamberg, “Grating-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications,” Z. Med. Phys. 23, 176–185 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, M. Goldammer, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the grating profiles on the image quality in grating-based x-ray imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 683, 71–77 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, “Milestones and basic principles of grating-based x-ray and neutron phase-contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 2–11 (2012).

Prade, F.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reichert, K. M.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reiser, M.

F. Pfeiffer, J. Herzen, M. Willner, M. Chabior, S. Auweter, M. Reiser, and F. Bamberg, “Grating-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications,” Z. Med. Phys. 23, 176–185 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rieger, J.

V. Ludwig, M. Seifert, T. Niepold, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, J. Ziegler, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging,” J. Imaging 4, 58 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rohbeck, T.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

Romano, L.

J. Vila-Comamala, L. Romano, V. Guzenko, M. Kagias, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Towards sub-micrometer high aspect ratio x-ray gratings by atomic layer deposition of iridium,” Microelectron. Eng. 192, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Hot embossing of Au- and Pb-based alloys for x-ray grating fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 35, 06G302 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Kagias, K. Vogelsang, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “High aspect ratio metal microcasting by hot embossing for X-ray optics fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 6–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schaff, F.

M. Schüttler, P. Meyer, F. Schaff, A. Yaroshenko, D. Kunka, H. Besser, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Height control for small periodic structures using x-ray radiography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27, 025015 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schift, H.

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Hot embossing of Au- and Pb-based alloys for x-ray grating fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 35, 06G302 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Kagias, K. Vogelsang, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “High aspect ratio metal microcasting by hot embossing for X-ray optics fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 6–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schroer, C.

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, M. Goldammer, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the grating profiles on the image quality in grating-based x-ray imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 683, 71–77 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schröter, T. J.

T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schulz, J.

P. Meyer and J. Schulz, “Deep x-ray lithography,” Micro-Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 2nd ed., Y. Qin, ed. (Elsevier, 2015), Chap. 16, pp. 365–392.

J. Mohr, T. Grund, D. Kunka, J. Kenntner, J. Leuthold, J. Meiser, J. Schulz, and M. Walter, “High aspect ratio gratings for X-ray phase contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 41–50 (2012).

Schuster, M.

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, M. Goldammer, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the grating profiles on the image quality in grating-based x-ray imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 683, 71–77 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schüttler, M.

M. Schüttler, P. Meyer, F. Schaff, A. Yaroshenko, D. Kunka, H. Besser, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Height control for small periodic structures using x-ray radiography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27, 025015 (2016).
[Crossref]

Seifert, A.

E. A. Miller, T. A. White, B. S. McDonald, and A. Seifert, “Phase contrast x-ray imaging signatures for security applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60, 416–422 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seifert, M.

V. Ludwig, M. Seifert, T. Niepold, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, J. Ziegler, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging,” J. Imaging 4, 58 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stampanoni, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, L. Romano, V. Guzenko, M. Kagias, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Towards sub-micrometer high aspect ratio x-ray gratings by atomic layer deposition of iridium,” Microelectron. Eng. 192, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Kagias, K. Vogelsang, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “High aspect ratio metal microcasting by hot embossing for X-ray optics fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 6–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Hot embossing of Au- and Pb-based alloys for x-ray grating fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 35, 06G302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Suortti, P.

A. Bravin, P. Coan, and P. Suortti, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging: from pre-clinical applications towards clinics,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, R1–R35 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, Y.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866–L868 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takai, K.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866–L868 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tietze, S.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vila-Comamala, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, L. Romano, V. Guzenko, M. Kagias, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Towards sub-micrometer high aspect ratio x-ray gratings by atomic layer deposition of iridium,” Microelectron. Eng. 192, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Kagias, K. Vogelsang, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “High aspect ratio metal microcasting by hot embossing for X-ray optics fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 6–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Hot embossing of Au- and Pb-based alloys for x-ray grating fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 35, 06G302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vogelsang, K.

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Kagias, K. Vogelsang, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “High aspect ratio metal microcasting by hot embossing for X-ray optics fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 6–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Walter, M.

J. Mohr, T. Grund, D. Kunka, J. Kenntner, J. Leuthold, J. Meiser, J. Schulz, and M. Walter, “High aspect ratio gratings for X-ray phase contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 41–50 (2012).

Weitkamp, T.

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

White, T. A.

E. A. Miller, T. A. White, B. S. McDonald, and A. Seifert, “Phase contrast x-ray imaging signatures for security applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60, 416–422 (2013).
[Crossref]

Willer, K.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, M.

F. Pfeiffer, J. Herzen, M. Willner, M. Chabior, S. Auweter, M. Reiser, and F. Bamberg, “Grating-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications,” Z. Med. Phys. 23, 176–185 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, B.

B. Wu, A. Kumar, and S. Pamarthy, “High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yaroshenko, A.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schüttler, P. Meyer, F. Schaff, A. Yaroshenko, D. Kunka, H. Besser, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Height control for small periodic structures using x-ray radiography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27, 025015 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Y. Lei, Y. Du, J. Li, Z. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Fabrication of x-ray absorption gratings via micro-casting for grating-based phase contrast imaging,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 015007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, J.

V. Ludwig, M. Seifert, T. Niepold, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, J. Ziegler, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging,” J. Imaging 4, 58 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zuber, M.

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

E. A. Miller, T. A. White, B. S. McDonald, and A. Seifert, “Phase contrast x-ray imaging signatures for security applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60, 416–422 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Wu, A. Kumar, and S. Pamarthy, “High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Imaging (1)

V. Ludwig, M. Seifert, T. Niepold, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, J. Ziegler, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Non-Destructive Testing of Archaeological Findings by Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging,” J. Imaging 4, 58 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. (1)

T. J. Schröter, F. Koch, P. Meyer, M. Baumann, D. Münch, D. Kunka, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, and J. Mohr, “Large area gratings by x-ray liga dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging,” J. Micro-Nanolith. Mem. 16, 013501 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (2)

Y. Lei, Y. Du, J. Li, Z. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Fabrication of x-ray absorption gratings via micro-casting for grating-based phase contrast imaging,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 015007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Li, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Improvement of filling bismuth for x-ray absorption gratings through the enhancement of wettability,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26, 065011 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, D. Kunka, P. Meyer, S. Tietze, S. Engelhardt, M. Zuber, T. Baumbach, K. Willer, L. Birnbacher, F. Prade, F. Pfeiffer, K. M. Reichert, A. Hofmann, and J. Mohr, “Large-area full field x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging using 2D tiled gratings,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 225401 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Hot embossing of Au- and Pb-based alloys for x-ray grating fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 35, 06G302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L866–L868 (2003).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Schüttler, P. Meyer, F. Schaff, A. Yaroshenko, D. Kunka, H. Besser, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Height control for small periodic structures using x-ray radiography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 27, 025015 (2016).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (3)

L. Romano, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Kagias, K. Vogelsang, H. Schift, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “High aspect ratio metal microcasting by hot embossing for X-ray optics fabrication,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 6–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1172–1177 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Vila-Comamala, L. Romano, V. Guzenko, M. Kagias, M. Stampanoni, and K. Jefimovs, “Towards sub-micrometer high aspect ratio x-ray gratings by atomic layer deposition of iridium,” Microelectron. Eng. 192, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2, 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A (1)

M. Chabior, M. Schuster, M. Goldammer, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the grating profiles on the image quality in grating-based x-ray imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 683, 71–77 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. Bravin, P. Coan, and P. Suortti, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging: from pre-clinical applications towards clinics,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, R1–R35 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. J. Schröter, F. J. Koch, P. Meyer, D. Kunka, J. Meiser, K. Willer, L. Gromann, F. de Marco, J. Herzen, P. Noel, A. Yaroshenko, A. Hofmann, F. Pfeiffer, and J. Mohr, “Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 015104 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Med. Phys. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, J. Herzen, M. Willner, M. Chabior, S. Auweter, M. Reiser, and F. Bamberg, “Grating-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications,” Z. Med. Phys. 23, 176–185 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

F. Pfeiffer, “Milestones and basic principles of grating-based x-ray and neutron phase-contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 2–11 (2012).

J. Mohr, T. Grund, D. Kunka, J. Kenntner, J. Leuthold, J. Meiser, J. Schulz, and M. Walter, “High aspect ratio gratings for X-ray phase contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1466, 41–50 (2012).

P. Meyer and J. Schulz, “Deep x-ray lithography,” Micro-Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 2nd ed., Y. Qin, ed. (Elsevier, 2015), Chap. 16, pp. 365–392.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The projected height profile H of a grating strongly depends on the angle of incidence of the radiation. The top part of (a)-(c) shows a sketch of a grating segment which is illuminated perpendicularly to the substrate in (a) and at an angle α ≠ 0 relative to the grating lamellae in (b) and (c). The bottom part shows the projected height profile H onto the substrate, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Angular X-ray transmission (AXT) measurement geometry illustrating the movement of a probed grating area on the detector during a rotation of the grating (bottom). The maximal angular transmittance is reached at an angle α where the grating lamellae are oriented parallel to the beam impinging on a certain pixel Pij on the detector (top).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured Angular X-ray Transmission (AXT) profile of an absorption grating with 4.8 μm period and ~ 150 μm gold height. (b) Determination of maximum transmittance angle by locally fitting a triangular function to the tip of the curve. (c) First order transmission minima determination by local 3rd order polynomial fits.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmission-based duty cycle estimation of two gratings with different duty cycles and substrates. (a) Histograms of AXT-based transmission signal over an 2 cm × 2 cm grating area for gratings #1 and #2. In both histograms, the green circles depict SEM-based measurements of the duty cycle at multiple locations in the respective grating. The y-values for the green circles are insignificant but merely randomly selected for a better illustration of their distribution. (b) SEM micrograph of grating #1 (mapping the resist between the gold lamellae in white) and (c) grating #2 (mapping the gold lamellae).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Analysis of a 4.8 μm period grating piece (grating #4). (a) Transmission image, (b) inclination angle of the grating lamellae visualizing cracks in the grating structure and (c) spatially reconstructed lamellae height. (d) SEM image of a typical crack on the grating surface, (e) grating edge located at the marked rectangular area in (c) and (f) detailed view perpendicular on the grating lines depicting the height of the lamellae confirming the height obtained by AXT with a high precision.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Large area characterization of an absorption grating with 45 μm period (grating #3). (a) Transmittance, (b) Lamellae angle inclination map and (c) reconstructed structure height of the absorbing lamellae.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Comparison of AXT-based grating height determination with high resolution data obtained by confocal microscopy. The error bars give the standard deviation of the grating height along the averaged ROI. (b) Grating surface topography resolving individual grating lines. The depicted rectangle shows the ROI along the profile in (a) was averaged. (c) AXT-based height map reconstruction showing the same ROI which was analyzed by the newly described method. The data shows that AXT measurements can detect height variations with sub-mm lateral resolution on large grating areas.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) AXT-based lamellae inclination angle determination showing a defect (waviness) in the grating structure. (b) shows a plot of inclination angle along the blue line in (a). The AXT-based findings are confirmed by (c) and (d) showing high resolution X-ray projections of the same grating area from slightly different angles (−1.1° (c) and 1.1° (d)).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Grating and scanning parameters for the given examples. Gold heights are approximate values determined by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) during fabrication. The scan parameters are tube voltage, tube current and detector exposure time per image.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T α ( E , α , p , d , h ) = I α ( E , α , p , d , h ) I 0 = 0 p exp  ( μ ( E ) H ( α , x , p , d , h ) ) d x ,
T α , poly ( E , α , p , d , h ) = 0 E max T α ( E , α , p , d , h ) E S ( E ) D ( E ) d E .
α n = tan 1 ( n p h ) ,

Metrics