Abstract

Long-period fiber gratings (LPGs) have been demonstrated to be inscribed independently of each other into two separate cores of a twin-core fiber (TCF) by using point-by-point CO2 laser irradiation. The TCF is hydrogen-loaded to reduce the energy density of the CO2 laser required in the inscribing process of the grating, so that each core of TCF can be addressed individually. The field distributions and effective refractive indices of the core and cladding modes were calculated theoretically. The measured results coincide well with calculated results. An integrated TCF-LPG-assisting coupler is proposed and a peak coupling efficiency of 48% is achieved experimentally. The point-by-point core-independent inscription of LPGs in the TCF provides a flexible platform to fabricate integrated fiber devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

C. Y. Guan, X. Z. Tian, S. Q. Li, X. Zhong, J. H. Shi, and L. B. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

Y. P. Wang, L. Xiao, D. N. Wang, and W. Jin, “Highly sensitive long-period fiber-grating strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3414–3416 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, “Asymmetric long period fiber gratings fabricated by use of CO2 laser to carve periodic grooves on the optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, “Characterizations at high temperatures of long-period gratings written in germanium-free air-silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 38–40 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, “Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1408–1409 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

1987 (1)

1985 (2)

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, and M. S. Yataki, “Modelling fused single-mode-fibre couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 461 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. W. Snyder and X. H. Zheng, “Fused couplers of arbitrary cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 21(23), 1079–1080 (1985).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Abe, Y.

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Almeida, T.

A. M. Rocha, T. Almeida, R. N. Nogueira, and M. Facão, “Analysis of power transfer on multicore fibers with long-period gratings,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 292–295 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Almeida, A. Shahpari, A. Rocha, R. Oliveira, F. Guiomar, A. Pinto, A. Teixeira, P. André, and R. Nogueira, “Experimental Demonstration of selective core coupling in multicore fibers a 200 Gb/s DP-16QAM signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016)
[Crossref]

André, P.

T. Almeida, A. Shahpari, A. Rocha, R. Oliveira, F. Guiomar, A. Pinto, A. Teixeira, P. André, and R. Nogueira, “Experimental Demonstration of selective core coupling in multicore fibers a 200 Gb/s DP-16QAM signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016)
[Crossref]

Aratake, A.

Bai, Z. Y.

Bennion, I.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index by use of a hybrid grating in D fiber with enhanced sensitivity by HF etching,” Appl. Opt. 44(2), 178–182 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bergano, N. S.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Chan, F. Y. M.

Chen, X.

Chiang, K. S.

Cvetojevic, N.

Dang, Y.

Davidson, C. R.

Earthgrowl-Gould, T.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ellis, S.

Facão, M.

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2000), pp. 28–30.
[Crossref]

Février, S.

Fu, C. L.

Fu, S.

Fujii, T.

Gan, L.

Gillooly, A.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2000), pp. 28–30.
[Crossref]

Guan, C. Y.

C. Y. Guan, X. Z. Tian, S. Q. Li, X. Zhong, J. H. Shi, and L. B. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guiomar, F.

T. Almeida, A. Shahpari, A. Rocha, R. Oliveira, F. Guiomar, A. Pinto, A. Teixeira, P. André, and R. Nogueira, “Experimental Demonstration of selective core coupling in multicore fibers a 200 Gb/s DP-16QAM signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016)
[Crossref]

He, J.

Hill, K. O.

Hirao, K.

Humbert, G.

Hussey, C. D.

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, and M. S. Yataki, “Modelling fused single-mode-fibre couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 461 (1985).
[Crossref]

Jin, W.

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, “Asymmetric long period fiber gratings fabricated by use of CO2 laser to carve periodic grooves on the optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Wang, L. Xiao, D. N. Wang, and W. Jin, “Highly sensitive long-period fiber-grating strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3414–3416 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Judkins, J. B.

Kawasaki, B. S.

Kazansky, P. G.

Kishi, T.

Kondo, Y.

Lamont, R. G.

Lawrence, J.

Lemaire, P. J.

Leon-Saval, S.

Li, S.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, “Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1408–1409 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, S. Q.

C. Y. Guan, X. Z. Tian, S. Q. Li, X. Zhong, J. H. Shi, and L. B. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. L.

Li, Z. Y.

Liao, C. R.

Lindley, E.

Liu, D.

Liu, S.

Liu, T.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, “Light coupling between two parallel CO2-laser written long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17645–17651 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, “Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1408–1409 (2000).
[Crossref]

Malki, A.

Matsui, T.

Matsuo, S.

Mezentsev, V.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Min, S. S.

Mitsuyu, T.

Nakajima, K.

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ng, M. N.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, “Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1408–1409 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nishi, H.

Nogueira, R.

T. Almeida, A. Shahpari, A. Rocha, R. Oliveira, F. Guiomar, A. Pinto, A. Teixeira, P. André, and R. Nogueira, “Experimental Demonstration of selective core coupling in multicore fibers a 200 Gb/s DP-16QAM signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016)
[Crossref]

Nogueira, R. N.

Nouchi, K.

Oliveira, R.

T. Almeida, A. Shahpari, A. Rocha, R. Oliveira, F. Guiomar, A. Pinto, A. Teixeira, P. André, and R. Nogueira, “Experimental Demonstration of selective core coupling in multicore fibers a 200 Gb/s DP-16QAM signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016)
[Crossref]

Pagnoux, D.

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, and M. S. Yataki, “Modelling fused single-mode-fibre couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 461 (1985).
[Crossref]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Peng, G. D.

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, “Asymmetric long period fiber gratings fabricated by use of CO2 laser to carve periodic grooves on the optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pinto, A.

T. Almeida, A. Shahpari, A. Rocha, R. Oliveira, F. Guiomar, A. Pinto, A. Teixeira, P. André, and R. Nogueira, “Experimental Demonstration of selective core coupling in multicore fibers a 200 Gb/s DP-16QAM signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016)
[Crossref]

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, “Light coupling between two parallel CO2-laser written long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17645–17651 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, “Asymmetric long period fiber gratings fabricated by use of CO2 laser to carve periodic grooves on the optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rocha, A.

T. Almeida, A. Shahpari, A. Rocha, R. Oliveira, F. Guiomar, A. Pinto, A. Teixeira, P. André, and R. Nogueira, “Experimental Demonstration of selective core coupling in multicore fibers a 200 Gb/s DP-16QAM signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016)
[Crossref]

Rocha, A. M.

Roy, P.

Shahpari, A.

T. Almeida, A. Shahpari, A. Rocha, R. Oliveira, F. Guiomar, A. Pinto, A. Teixeira, P. André, and R. Nogueira, “Experimental Demonstration of selective core coupling in multicore fibers a 200 Gb/s DP-16QAM signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016)
[Crossref]

Shi, J. H.

C. Y. Guan, X. Z. Tian, S. Q. Li, X. Zhong, J. H. Shi, and L. B. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shikama, K.

Shum, P. P.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and X. H. Zheng, “Fused couplers of arbitrary cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 21(23), 1079–1080 (1985).
[Crossref]

Starodubov, D. S.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2000), pp. 28–30.
[Crossref]

Takeda, K.

Tang, M.

Teixeira, A.

T. Almeida, A. Shahpari, A. Rocha, R. Oliveira, F. Guiomar, A. Pinto, A. Teixeira, P. André, and R. Nogueira, “Experimental Demonstration of selective core coupling in multicore fibers a 200 Gb/s DP-16QAM signal,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2016)
[Crossref]

Tian, X. Z.

C. Y. Guan, X. Z. Tian, S. Q. Li, X. Zhong, J. H. Shi, and L. B. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tong, W.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wang, D. N.

Y. P. Wang, L. Xiao, D. N. Wang, and W. Jin, “Highly sensitive long-period fiber-grating strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3414–3416 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, “Asymmetric long period fiber gratings fabricated by use of CO2 laser to carve periodic grooves on the optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. P.

Watanabe, M.

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xiao, L.

Yasumoto, K.

Yataki, M. S.

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, and M. S. Yataki, “Modelling fused single-mode-fibre couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 461 (1985).
[Crossref]

Yuan, L. B.

C. Y. Guan, X. Z. Tian, S. Q. Li, X. Zhong, J. H. Shi, and L. B. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, C.

Zhao, Z.

Zheng, X. H.

A. W. Snyder and X. H. Zheng, “Fused couplers of arbitrary cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 21(23), 1079–1080 (1985).
[Crossref]

Zhong, X.

C. Y. Guan, X. Z. Tian, S. Q. Li, X. Zhong, J. H. Shi, and L. B. Yuan, “Long period fiber grating and high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on hollow eccentric optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 768–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, K.

Zhu, T.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, and G. D. Peng, “Asymmetric long period fiber gratings fabricated by use of CO2 laser to carve periodic grooves on the optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (3)

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, and M. S. Yataki, “Modelling fused single-mode-fibre couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 461 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. W. Snyder and X. H. Zheng, “Fused couplers of arbitrary cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 21(23), 1079–1080 (1985).
[Crossref]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, “Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1408–1409 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (8)

F. Y. M. Chan and K. Yasumoto, “Design of wavelength tunable long-period grating couplers based on asymmetric nonlinear dual-core fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3376–3378 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, “Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers,” Opt. Lett. 21(5), 336–338 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. P. Wang, L. Xiao, D. N. Wang, and W. Jin, “Highly sensitive long-period fiber-grating strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3414–3416 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, “Characterizations at high temperatures of long-period gratings written in germanium-free air-silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 38–40 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Rocha, T. Almeida, R. N. Nogueira, and M. Facão, “Analysis of power transfer on multicore fibers with long-period gratings,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 292–295 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross-section of the TCF.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the TCF-LPG fabrication. (b) Lateral image of the TCF and (c) the exposure direction and the orientation of two cores in the TCF.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The transmission spectra of the LPGs in hydrogen loaded TCF (a)-(b) and the polarization dependence of the two LPGs in non-hydrogen loaded TCF (c).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of TCF-LPGs coupler.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The transmission spectra of the two cores when light was launched into core 1 (a) and core 2 (b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Field distributions of modes. (a) LP01 mode; (b) LP11 mode.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Calculated the transmission spectra of the input core (core 1) and the coupling core (core 2).

Equations (5)

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κ k j t ( z ) = ω 4 Δ ε ( x , y , z ) e k t ( x , y ) e j t * ( x , y ) d x d y
κ k j t ( z ) = ω ε 0 n Δ n 2 e k t ( x , y ) e j t * ( x , y ) d x d y
d A co d z = κ cl-co A cl exp( i 2 δ cl-co z )
d A cl d z = κ cl-co A co exp(+ i 2 δ cl-co z )
T 1 ( dB ) = 10log 10 | A co1 ( z = L ) A co1 ( z = 0 ) | 2

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