Abstract

Solid-state camera systems are now widely available in portable consumer electronics, providing potential receivers for visible light communications in every device. Typically, data rates with camera receivers are limited by the 60 fps frame rate of both the image sensor and projector systems. Recent developments in high-frame rate microdisplays and slow-motion cameras for smartphones now permit high-speed, spatially structured signals to be transmitted and captured. Here, we present a method for transmitting data to a smartphone using a CMOS-controlled micro-LED projector system. Spatial patterns are projected onto a wall at a refresh rate of 480 Hz, which can be captured by the smartphone’s 960 fps camera. Data transfer is performed over meter scale distances, and the use of an alignment frame gives the system a level of tolerance to motion and misalignment. The current system allows data transmission at a peak rate of 122.88 kb/s using a 16 × 16 micro-LED array, which can be readily scaled to Mb/s rates with a higher resolution transmitter.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Optical camera communication for mobile payments using an LED panel light

Hao-Wei Chen, Shang-Sheng Wen, Yun Liu, Min Fu, Zi-Chun Weng, and Meng Zhang
Appl. Opt. 57(19) 5288-5294 (2018)

Optical extra-body communication using smartphone cameras for human vital sign transmission

Durai Rajan Dhatchayeny and Yeon Ho Chung
Appl. Opt. 58(15) 3995-3999 (2019)

Visible light communication using dual camera on one smartphone

Y. Q. Xu, J. Hua, Z. Gong, W. Zhao, Z. Q. Zhang, C. Y. Xie, Z. T. Chen, and J. F. Chen
Opt. Express 26(26) 34609-34621 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  2. N. T. Le, M. A. Hossain, and Y. M. Jang, “A survey of design and implementation for optical camera communication,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 53, 95–109 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–12 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-QAM optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 139–142 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” IEEE Globecom Workshops (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
  6. C. W. Chow, W. C. Wang, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon Jointed Packet Reconstruction Scheme for Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications Using Rolling Shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–6 (2017).
  7. C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications with Different Noise-Ratio Light-Panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–6 (2018).
  8. X. Li, B. Hussain, J. Kang, H. S. Kwok, and C. P. Yue, “Smart μLED display-VLC system with a PD-based/camera-based receiver for NFC applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 1–8 (2019).
  9. K. Liang, C.-W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile- phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24, 9383–9388 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. V. P. Rachim and W. Y. Chung, “Multilevel intensity-modulation for rolling shutter-based optical camera communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30, 903–906 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Fath, F. Schubert, and H. Haas, “Wireless data transmission using visual codes,” Photonics Res. 2, 150 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. Boubezari, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Smartphone camera based visible light communication,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4120–4126 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Hao, R. Zhou, and G. Xing, “COBRA: color barcode streaming for smartphone systems,” MobiSys (2012), p. 85.
    [Crossref]
  14. W. A. Cahyadi and Y. H. Chung, “Smartphone camera-based device-to-device communication using neural network-assisted high-density modulation,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1–9 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 1–4 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. K. Moore, “The nextgen display: Microleds [News],” IEEE Spectr. 55, 9–10 (2018).
  18. Y. Kang, J. Lee, J. Lee, and J. Cha, “A study for indoor position detection using LED QR code and smart-terminal,” ICTC (IEEE, 2011), pp. 129–131.
  19. X. Li, L. Wu, Z. Liu, B. Hussain, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and C. P. Yue, “Design and characterization of active matrix LED microdisplays with embedded visible light communication transmitter,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3449–3457 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Herrnsdorf, M. Strain, E. Gu, R. Henderson, and M. Dawson, “Positioning and space-division multiple access enabled by structured illumination with light-emitting diodes,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 2339–2345 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. McKendry, E. Xie, M. J. Strain, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High speed spatial encoding enabled by CMOS-controlled micro-LED arrays,” IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2016), 173–174.
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. Mckendry, and S. Rajbhandari, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gbps visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

X. Li, B. Hussain, J. Kang, H. S. Kwok, and C. P. Yue, “Smart μLED display-VLC system with a PD-based/camera-based receiver for NFC applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 1–8 (2019).

2018 (4)

V. P. Rachim and W. Y. Chung, “Multilevel intensity-modulation for rolling shutter-based optical camera communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30, 903–906 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications with Different Noise-Ratio Light-Panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–6 (2018).

W. A. Cahyadi and Y. H. Chung, “Smartphone camera-based device-to-device communication using neural network-assisted high-density modulation,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. K. Moore, “The nextgen display: Microleds [News],” IEEE Spectr. 55, 9–10 (2018).

2017 (4)

J. Herrnsdorf, M. Strain, E. Gu, R. Henderson, and M. Dawson, “Positioning and space-division multiple access enabled by structured illumination with light-emitting diodes,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 2339–2345 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. T. Le, M. A. Hossain, and Y. M. Jang, “A survey of design and implementation for optical camera communication,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 53, 95–109 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, W. C. Wang, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon Jointed Packet Reconstruction Scheme for Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications Using Rolling Shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–6 (2017).

2016 (6)

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-QAM optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liang, C.-W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile- phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24, 9383–9388 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, L. Wu, Z. Liu, B. Hussain, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and C. P. Yue, “Design and characterization of active matrix LED microdisplays with embedded visible light communication transmitter,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3449–3457 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Boubezari, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Smartphone camera based visible light communication,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4120–4126 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. Mckendry, and S. Rajbhandari, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gbps visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

T. Fath, F. Schubert, and H. Haas, “Wireless data transmission using visual codes,” Photonics Res. 2, 150 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Afgani, M.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” IEEE Globecom Workshops (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.

Boubezari, R.

R. Boubezari, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Smartphone camera based visible light communication,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4120–4126 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bouridane, A.

R. Boubezari, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Smartphone camera based visible light communication,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4120–4126 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bradford, C.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brien, D. O.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cahyadi, W. A.

W. A. Cahyadi and Y. H. Chung, “Smartphone camera-based device-to-device communication using neural network-assisted high-density modulation,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cha, J.

Y. Kang, J. Lee, J. Lee, and J. Cha, “A study for indoor position detection using LED QR code and smart-terminal,” ICTC (IEEE, 2011), pp. 129–131.

Chen, C. W.

C. W. Chow, W. C. Wang, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon Jointed Packet Reconstruction Scheme for Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications Using Rolling Shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–6 (2017).

Chen, Y. T.

C. W. Chow, W. C. Wang, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon Jointed Packet Reconstruction Scheme for Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications Using Rolling Shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–6 (2017).

Chen, Y. Y.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications with Different Noise-Ratio Light-Panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–6 (2018).

Chong, W. C.

X. Li, L. Wu, Z. Liu, B. Hussain, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and C. P. Yue, “Design and characterization of active matrix LED microdisplays with embedded visible light communication transmitter,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3449–3457 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chow, C. W.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications with Different Noise-Ratio Light-Panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–6 (2018).

C. W. Chow, W. C. Wang, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon Jointed Packet Reconstruction Scheme for Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications Using Rolling Shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–6 (2017).

Chow, C.-W.

Chun, H.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chung, W. Y.

V. P. Rachim and W. Y. Chung, “Multilevel intensity-modulation for rolling shutter-based optical camera communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30, 903–906 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chung, Y. H.

W. A. Cahyadi and Y. H. Chung, “Smartphone camera-based device-to-device communication using neural network-assisted high-density modulation,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cogman, A.

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

Danakis, C.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” IEEE Globecom Workshops (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.

Dawson, M.

J. Herrnsdorf, M. Strain, E. Gu, R. Henderson, and M. Dawson, “Positioning and space-division multiple access enabled by structured illumination with light-emitting diodes,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 2339–2345 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. McKendry, E. Xie, M. J. Strain, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High speed spatial encoding enabled by CMOS-controlled micro-LED arrays,” IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2016), 173–174.
[Crossref]

Day, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fath, T.

T. Fath, F. Schubert, and H. Haas, “Wireless data transmission using visual codes,” Photonics Res. 2, 150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, R.

R. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. Mckendry, and S. Rajbhandari, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gbps visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

R. Boubezari, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Smartphone camera based visible light communication,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4120–4126 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-QAM optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Green, R. P.

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

J. Herrnsdorf, M. Strain, E. Gu, R. Henderson, and M. Dawson, “Positioning and space-division multiple access enabled by structured illumination with light-emitting diodes,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 2339–2345 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. McKendry, E. Xie, M. J. Strain, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High speed spatial encoding enabled by CMOS-controlled micro-LED arrays,” IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2016), 173–174.
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Fath, F. Schubert, and H. Haas, “Wireless data transmission using visual codes,” Photonics Res. 2, 150 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” IEEE Globecom Workshops (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.

Han, D.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-QAM optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hao, T.

T. Hao, R. Zhou, and G. Xing, “COBRA: color barcode streaming for smartphone systems,” MobiSys (2012), p. 85.
[Crossref]

Henderson, R.

J. Herrnsdorf, M. Strain, E. Gu, R. Henderson, and M. Dawson, “Positioning and space-division multiple access enabled by structured illumination with light-emitting diodes,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 2339–2345 (2017).
[Crossref]

Henderson, R. K.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herrnsdorf, J.

J. Herrnsdorf, M. Strain, E. Gu, R. Henderson, and M. Dawson, “Positioning and space-division multiple access enabled by structured illumination with light-emitting diodes,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 2339–2345 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. McKendry, E. Xie, M. J. Strain, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High speed spatial encoding enabled by CMOS-controlled micro-LED arrays,” IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2016), 173–174.
[Crossref]

Hossain, M. A.

N. T. Le, M. A. Hossain, and Y. M. Jang, “A survey of design and implementation for optical camera communication,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 53, 95–109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, H. C.

C. W. Chow, W. C. Wang, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon Jointed Packet Reconstruction Scheme for Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications Using Rolling Shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–6 (2017).

Hussain, B.

X. Li, B. Hussain, J. Kang, H. S. Kwok, and C. P. Yue, “Smart μLED display-VLC system with a PD-based/camera-based receiver for NFC applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 1–8 (2019).

X. Li, L. Wu, Z. Liu, B. Hussain, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and C. P. Yue, “Design and characterization of active matrix LED microdisplays with embedded visible light communication transmitter,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3449–3457 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jang, Y. M.

N. T. Le, M. A. Hossain, and Y. M. Jang, “A survey of design and implementation for optical camera communication,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 53, 95–109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

X. Li, B. Hussain, J. Kang, H. S. Kwok, and C. P. Yue, “Smart μLED display-VLC system with a PD-based/camera-based receiver for NFC applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 1–8 (2019).

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, J. Lee, J. Lee, and J. Cha, “A study for indoor position detection using LED QR code and smart-terminal,” ICTC (IEEE, 2011), pp. 129–131.

Kelly, A. E.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

X. Li, B. Hussain, J. Kang, H. S. Kwok, and C. P. Yue, “Smart μLED display-VLC system with a PD-based/camera-based receiver for NFC applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 1–8 (2019).

Lau, K. M.

X. Li, L. Wu, Z. Liu, B. Hussain, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and C. P. Yue, “Design and characterization of active matrix LED microdisplays with embedded visible light communication transmitter,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3449–3457 (2016).
[Crossref]

Le, N. T.

N. T. Le, M. A. Hossain, and Y. M. Jang, “A survey of design and implementation for optical camera communication,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 53, 95–109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

Y. Kang, J. Lee, J. Lee, and J. Cha, “A study for indoor position detection using LED QR code and smart-terminal,” ICTC (IEEE, 2011), pp. 129–131.

Y. Kang, J. Lee, J. Lee, and J. Cha, “A study for indoor position detection using LED QR code and smart-terminal,” ICTC (IEEE, 2011), pp. 129–131.

Li, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Li, B. Hussain, J. Kang, H. S. Kwok, and C. P. Yue, “Smart μLED display-VLC system with a PD-based/camera-based receiver for NFC applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 1–8 (2019).

X. Li, L. Wu, Z. Liu, B. Hussain, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and C. P. Yue, “Design and characterization of active matrix LED microdisplays with embedded visible light communication transmitter,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3449–3457 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, K.

Liao, X. L.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications with Different Noise-Ratio Light-Panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–6 (2018).

Lie, D. Y.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, K. H.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications with Different Noise-Ratio Light-Panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–6 (2018).

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. C.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications with Different Noise-Ratio Light-Panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–6 (2018).

Liu, Z.

X. Li, L. Wu, Z. Liu, B. Hussain, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and C. P. Yue, “Design and characterization of active matrix LED microdisplays with embedded visible light communication transmitter,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3449–3457 (2016).
[Crossref]

Luo, P.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-QAM optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Massoubre, D.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mckendry, J.

R. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. Mckendry, and S. Rajbhandari, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gbps visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. McKendry, E. Xie, M. J. Strain, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High speed spatial encoding enabled by CMOS-controlled micro-LED arrays,” IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2016), 173–174.
[Crossref]

Mckendry, J. J. D.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Minh, H. L.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-QAM optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Minh, H. Le

R. Boubezari, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Smartphone camera based visible light communication,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4120–4126 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moore, S. K.

S. K. Moore, “The nextgen display: Microleds [News],” IEEE Spectr. 55, 9–10 (2018).

O’Brien, D. C.

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

Png, L. C.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Povey, G.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” IEEE Globecom Workshops (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.

Rachim, V. P.

V. P. Rachim and W. Y. Chung, “Multilevel intensity-modulation for rolling shutter-based optical camera communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30, 903–906 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rae, B. R.

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rajbhandari, S.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. Mckendry, and S. Rajbhandari, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gbps visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schubert, F.

T. Fath, F. Schubert, and H. Haas, “Wireless data transmission using visual codes,” Photonics Res. 2, 150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shiu, R. J.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications with Different Noise-Ratio Light-Panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–6 (2018).

Strain, M.

J. Herrnsdorf, M. Strain, E. Gu, R. Henderson, and M. Dawson, “Positioning and space-division multiple access enabled by structured illumination with light-emitting diodes,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 2339–2345 (2017).
[Crossref]

Strain, M. J.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. McKendry, E. Xie, M. J. Strain, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High speed spatial encoding enabled by CMOS-controlled micro-LED arrays,” IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2016), 173–174.
[Crossref]

Tang, X.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-QAM optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H. M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-QAM optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsonev, D.

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

Underwood, I.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” IEEE Globecom Workshops (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.

Wang, W. C.

C. W. Chow, W. C. Wang, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon Jointed Packet Reconstruction Scheme for Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications Using Rolling Shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–6 (2017).

Wang, Y. C.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications with Different Noise-Ratio Light-Panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–6 (2018).

Watson, I. M.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. McKendry, E. Xie, M. J. Strain, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High speed spatial encoding enabled by CMOS-controlled micro-LED arrays,” IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2016), 173–174.
[Crossref]

Watson, S.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, L.

X. Li, L. Wu, Z. Liu, B. Hussain, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and C. P. Yue, “Design and characterization of active matrix LED microdisplays with embedded visible light communication transmitter,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3449–3457 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, E.

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. Mckendry, and S. Rajbhandari, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gbps visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. McKendry, E. Xie, M. J. Strain, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High speed spatial encoding enabled by CMOS-controlled micro-LED arrays,” IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2016), 173–174.
[Crossref]

Xing, G.

T. Hao, R. Zhou, and G. Xing, “COBRA: color barcode streaming for smartphone systems,” MobiSys (2012), p. 85.
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. H.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications with Different Noise-Ratio Light-Panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–6 (2018).

Yue, C. P.

X. Li, B. Hussain, J. Kang, H. S. Kwok, and C. P. Yue, “Smart μLED display-VLC system with a PD-based/camera-based receiver for NFC applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 1–8 (2019).

X. Li, L. Wu, Z. Liu, B. Hussain, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and C. P. Yue, “Design and characterization of active matrix LED microdisplays with embedded visible light communication transmitter,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3449–3457 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-QAM optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, R.

T. Hao, R. Zhou, and G. Xing, “COBRA: color barcode streaming for smartphone systems,” MobiSys (2012), p. 85.
[Crossref]

Zuhdi, A. M.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (4)

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, W. C. Wang, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon Jointed Packet Reconstruction Scheme for Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications Using Rolling Shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–6 (2017).

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, C. H. Yeh, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Secure Mobile-Phone Based Visible Light Communications with Different Noise-Ratio Light-Panel,” IEEE Photonics J. 10, 1–6 (2018).

X. Li, B. Hussain, J. Kang, H. S. Kwok, and C. P. Yue, “Smart μLED display-VLC system with a PD-based/camera-based receiver for NFC applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 11, 1–8 (2019).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-QAM optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. P. Rachim and W. Y. Chung, “Multilevel intensity-modulation for rolling shutter-based optical camera communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30, 903–906 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. Mckendry, and S. Rajbhandari, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gbps visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Spectr. (1)

S. K. Moore, “The nextgen display: Microleds [News],” IEEE Spectr. 55, 9–10 (2018).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Light. Technol. (6)

R. Boubezari, H. Le Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Smartphone camera based visible light communication,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 4120–4126 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, D. C. O’Brien, and H. Haas, “LED Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed 10 Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3047–3052 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, L. Wu, Z. Liu, B. Hussain, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and C. P. Yue, “Design and characterization of active matrix LED microdisplays with embedded visible light communication transmitter,” J. Light. Technol. 34, 3449–3457 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, M. Strain, E. Gu, R. Henderson, and M. Dawson, “Positioning and space-division multiple access enabled by structured illumination with light-emitting diodes,” J. Light. Technol. 35, 2339–2345 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Light. Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. A. Cahyadi and Y. H. Chung, “Smartphone camera-based device-to-device communication using neural network-assisted high-density modulation,” Opt. Eng. 57, 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Photonics Res. (1)

T. Fath, F. Schubert, and H. Haas, “Wireless data transmission using visual codes,” Photonics Res. 2, 150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

Signal Process. Image Commun. (1)

N. T. Le, M. A. Hossain, and Y. M. Jang, “A survey of design and implementation for optical camera communication,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 53, 95–109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” IEEE Globecom Workshops (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.

T. Hao, R. Zhou, and G. Xing, “COBRA: color barcode streaming for smartphone systems,” MobiSys (2012), p. 85.
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, J. Lee, J. Lee, and J. Cha, “A study for indoor position detection using LED QR code and smart-terminal,” ICTC (IEEE, 2011), pp. 129–131.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. McKendry, E. Xie, M. J. Strain, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High speed spatial encoding enabled by CMOS-controlled micro-LED arrays,” IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2016), 173–174.
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Photograph of the micro-LED projector system. (Inset) micrograph of the micro-LED array displaying a pseudo-random pattern.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the experimental set up, (b/c) single frames from a 960 fps video showing two exemplar pseudo-random patterns.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The block of frames transmitted for synchronisation, alignment and data transmission.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Pixel addressing maps (left) and captured frames from the 960 fps video under dark (middle) and room lighting (right) conditions for the alignment frame (top) and an example pseudo-random frame (bottom). The LED co-ordinates determined from the alignment frame are shown in white.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Decoding of pixel [4, 8] across a transmitted block for dark and room lighting conditions. Thresholds are indicated in solid lines.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 False colour map of bit error ratios by pixel in (a) dark conditions and (b) room lighting.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of demonstrated methods for increasing data rate in OCC. Scaling variables for transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) are shown, including frame rates (FR) and resolutions (Res).)

Metrics