Abstract

We numerically investigate a tunable and extrinsic chiroptical response of a graphene achiral metamaterial in mid-infrared regime. The achiral metamaterial is composed of cascaded metallic split ring apertures and complementary graphene rings patterned on a dielectric layer. The strong extrinsic chiroptical responses of the metamaterial are allowed at oblique incidence and the integrated graphene can dynamically modulate extrinsic chirality by changing its Fermi level. The spectra of the chiroptical responses will show a blue shift with increasing the Fermi level of the patterned graphene. The maximal values of circular dichroism in the reflection and transmission modes can reach 80% and 50%, respectively. The maximal values of polarization rotation angle in the reflection and transmission modes can reach 80° and 60°, respectively. This graphene-based metamaterial design paves a way for a myriad of important terahertz (THz) and mid-infrared applications, such as optical modulators, absorbers and polarizers.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared Anomalous Refraction Based on Graphene Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1744–1749 (2016).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2019 (1)

2018 (4)

T. T. Kim, H. Kim, M. Kenney, H. S. Park, H. D. Kim, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Amplitude modulation of anomalously refracted terahertz waves with gated-graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(1), 1700507 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, K. Yao, G. Su, W. Ma, L. Li, Y. Liu, P. Zhan, and Z. Wang, “Graphene-metal hybrid metamaterials for strong and tunable circular dichroism generation,” Opt. Lett. 43(11), 2636–2639 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, X. Chen, M. Wang, J. Dong, and Y. Zheng, “High-performance ultrathin active chiral metamaterials,” ACS Nano 12(5), 5030–5041 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

T. Cao, Y. Li, C. W. Wei, and Y. M. Qiu, “Numerical study of tunable enhanced chirality in multilayer stack achiral phase-change metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25(9), 9911–9925 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, X. Duan, H. Giessen, and N. Liu, “Chiral plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1602735 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, W. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “High-efficiency tunable circular asymmetric transmission using dielectric metasurface integrated with graphene sheet,” Opt. Express 25(17), 19732–19739 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, H.-D. Kim, H.-S. Park, O. Hess, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrical access to critical coupling of circularly polarized waves in graphene chiral metamaterials,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1701377 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared Anomalous Refraction Based on Graphene Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1744–1749 (2016).

Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, “Extrinsic chirality: tunable optically active reflectors and perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241905 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Specular optical activity of achiral metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141905 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, Z. Chai, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Active control of chirality in nonlinear metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091109 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active chiral plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27230–27239 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “APPLIED PHYSICS. Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, C.-W. Wei, L.-B. Mao, and S. Wang, “Tuning of giant 2D-chiroptical response using achiral metasurface integrated with graphene,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18620–18629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

B. Zhao, J. M. Zhao, and Z. M. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. T. Kim, S. S. Oh, H. S. Park, R. Zhao, S. H. Kim, W. Choi, B. Min, and O. Hess, “Optical activity enhanced by strong inter-molecular coupling in planar chiral metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5864 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, L. Kang, S. Lan, S. Rodrigues, and W. Cai, “Giant chiral optical response from a twisted-arc metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 1021–1025 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, B. Metzger, and H. Giessen, “Interpreting chiral nanophotonic spectra: the plasmonic Born-Kuhn model,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 6238–6243 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, L. Zhang, R. E. Simpson, C. Wei, and M. J. Cryan, “Strongly tunable circular dichroism in gammadion chiral phase-change metamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27841–27851 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, L. Deng, and J. Tian, “Mid-infrared tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1567–1569 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, P. Yu, J. X. Li, B. Y. Xie, Z. C. Li, and J. G. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(22), 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

B. Wang, X. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, A. Schlather, P. M. Ajayan, F. H. L. Koppens, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon-induced doping of graphene,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10222–10228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Schäferling, D. Dregely, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Tailoring enhanced optical chirality: design principles for chiral plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 2(3), 031010 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 870 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, and E. Ozbay, “Complementary chiral metamaterials with giant optical activity and negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161907 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 83(3), 035105 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Wu, H. Li, X. Yu, F. Li, H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “Metallic helix array as a broadband wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(17), 177401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (7)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21(46), 4680–4682 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Zhukovsky, A. V. Novitsky, and V. M. Galynsky, “Elliptical dichroism: operating principle of planar chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1988–1990 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223113 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 856–858 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, A. Schlather, P. M. Ajayan, F. H. L. Koppens, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon-induced doping of graphene,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10222–10228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alici, K. B.

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, and E. Ozbay, “Complementary chiral metamaterials with giant optical activity and negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “APPLIED PHYSICS. Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 870 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 870 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brar, V. W.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Y. Cui, L. Kang, S. Lan, S. Rodrigues, and W. Cai, “Giant chiral optical response from a twisted-arc metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 1021–1025 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, T.

Capasso, F.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chai, Z.

Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, Z. Chai, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Active control of chirality in nonlinear metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. T.

C. Wu, H. Li, X. Yu, F. Li, H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “Metallic helix array as a broadband wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(17), 177401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

C. Wu, H. Li, X. Yu, F. Li, H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “Metallic helix array as a broadband wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(17), 177401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared Anomalous Refraction Based on Graphene Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1744–1749 (2016).

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, L. Deng, and J. Tian, “Mid-infrared tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1567–1569 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S. Q.

H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, P. Yu, J. X. Li, B. Y. Xie, Z. C. Li, and J. G. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(22), 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Z. Wu, X. Chen, M. Wang, J. Dong, and Y. Zheng, “High-performance ultrathin active chiral metamaterials,” ACS Nano 12(5), 5030–5041 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. P.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared Anomalous Refraction Based on Graphene Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1744–1749 (2016).

H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, P. Yu, J. X. Li, B. Y. Xie, Z. C. Li, and J. G. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(22), 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, L. Deng, and J. Tian, “Mid-infrared tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1567–1569 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

T. T. Kim, S. S. Oh, H. S. Park, R. Zhao, S. H. Kim, W. Choi, B. Min, and O. Hess, “Optical activity enhanced by strong inter-molecular coupling in planar chiral metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5864 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chowdhury, D. R.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chung, T. F.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colak, E.

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, and E. Ozbay, “Complementary chiral metamaterials with giant optical activity and negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Colombo, L.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cryan, M. J.

Cui, J. H.

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cui, T. J.

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, L. Kang, S. Lan, S. Rodrigues, and W. Cai, “Giant chiral optical response from a twisted-arc metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 1021–1025 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 856–858 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, L.

Dong, J.

Z. Wu, X. Chen, M. Wang, J. Dong, and Y. Zheng, “High-performance ultrathin active chiral metamaterials,” ACS Nano 12(5), 5030–5041 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dregely, D.

M. Schäferling, D. Dregely, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Tailoring enhanced optical chirality: design principles for chiral plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 2(3), 031010 (2012).
[Crossref]

Duan, X.

M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, X. Duan, H. Giessen, and N. Liu, “Chiral plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1602735 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emani, N. K.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Etezadi, D.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “APPLIED PHYSICS. Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fal’ko, V. I.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Z.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, A. Schlather, P. M. Ajayan, F. H. L. Koppens, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon-induced doping of graphene,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10222–10228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Specular optical activity of achiral metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141905 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223113 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

Galynsky, V. M.

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “APPLIED PHYSICS. Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

B. Wang, X. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gellert, P. R.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, X. Duan, H. Giessen, and N. Liu, “Chiral plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1602735 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active chiral plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, B. Metzger, and H. Giessen, “Interpreting chiral nanophotonic spectra: the plasmonic Born-Kuhn model,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 6238–6243 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schäferling, D. Dregely, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Tailoring enhanced optical chirality: design principles for chiral plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 2(3), 031010 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q. H.

Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, Z. Chai, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Active control of chirality in nonlinear metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guan, C. Y.

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, A. Schlather, P. M. Ajayan, F. H. L. Koppens, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon-induced doping of graphene,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10222–10228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, X. Duan, H. Giessen, and N. Liu, “Chiral plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1602735 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schäferling, D. Dregely, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Tailoring enhanced optical chirality: design principles for chiral plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 2(3), 031010 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hess, O.

T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, H.-D. Kim, H.-S. Park, O. Hess, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrical access to critical coupling of circularly polarized waves in graphene chiral metamaterials,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1701377 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Kim, S. S. Oh, H. S. Park, R. Zhao, S. H. Kim, W. Choi, B. Min, and O. Hess, “Optical activity enhanced by strong inter-molecular coupling in planar chiral metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5864 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, Q.

Hu, X. Y.

Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, Z. Chai, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Active control of chirality in nonlinear metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

Ino, Y.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, M. S.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janner, D.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “APPLIED PHYSICS. Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

Jiang, T.

Jiang, Y.

Kang, L.

Y. Cui, L. Kang, S. Lan, S. Rodrigues, and W. Cai, “Giant chiral optical response from a twisted-arc metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 1021–1025 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kats, M. A.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauranen, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kenney, M.

T. T. Kim, H. Kim, M. Kenney, H. S. Park, H. D. Kim, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Amplitude modulation of anomalously refracted terahertz waves with gated-graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(1), 1700507 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

T. T. Kim, H. Kim, M. Kenney, H. S. Park, H. D. Kim, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Amplitude modulation of anomalously refracted terahertz waves with gated-graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(1), 1700507 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. D.

T. T. Kim, H. Kim, M. Kenney, H. S. Park, H. D. Kim, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Amplitude modulation of anomalously refracted terahertz waves with gated-graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(1), 1700507 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-D.

T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, H.-D. Kim, H.-S. Park, O. Hess, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrical access to critical coupling of circularly polarized waves in graphene chiral metamaterials,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1701377 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, L.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

T. T. Kim, S. S. Oh, H. S. Park, R. Zhao, S. H. Kim, W. Choi, B. Min, and O. Hess, “Optical activity enhanced by strong inter-molecular coupling in planar chiral metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5864 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T. T.

T. T. Kim, H. Kim, M. Kenney, H. S. Park, H. D. Kim, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Amplitude modulation of anomalously refracted terahertz waves with gated-graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(1), 1700507 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. T. Kim, S. S. Oh, H. S. Park, R. Zhao, S. H. Kim, W. Choi, B. Min, and O. Hess, “Optical activity enhanced by strong inter-molecular coupling in planar chiral metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5864 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.-T.

T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, H.-D. Kim, H.-S. Park, O. Hess, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrical access to critical coupling of circularly polarized waves in graphene chiral metamaterials,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1701377 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, M. W.

Kong, J.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
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Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, A. Schlather, P. M. Ajayan, F. H. L. Koppens, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon-induced doping of graphene,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10222–10228 (2012).
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Novoselov, K. S.

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Z. Li, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, and E. Ozbay, “Complementary chiral metamaterials with giant optical activity and negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161907 (2011).
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X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
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T. T. Kim, H. Kim, M. Kenney, H. S. Park, H. D. Kim, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Amplitude modulation of anomalously refracted terahertz waves with gated-graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(1), 1700507 (2018).
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T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, H.-D. Kim, H.-S. Park, O. Hess, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Electrical access to critical coupling of circularly polarized waves in graphene chiral metamaterials,” Sci. Adv. 3(9), e1701377 (2017).
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S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
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X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
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Q. Hong, W. Xu, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Optical activity in monolayer black phosphorus due to extrinsic chirality,” Opt. Lett. 44(7), 1774–1777 (2019).
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D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. García de Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “APPLIED PHYSICS. Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
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Y. Cui, L. Kang, S. Lan, S. Rodrigues, and W. Cai, “Giant chiral optical response from a twisted-arc metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 1021–1025 (2014).
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M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
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M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, X. Duan, H. Giessen, and N. Liu, “Chiral plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1602735 (2017).
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X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active chiral plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
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X. Yin, M. Schäferling, B. Metzger, and H. Giessen, “Interpreting chiral nanophotonic spectra: the plasmonic Born-Kuhn model,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 6238–6243 (2013).
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Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, A. Schlather, P. M. Ajayan, F. H. L. Koppens, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon-induced doping of graphene,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10222–10228 (2012).
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K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
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E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223113 (2007).
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A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
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T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
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Singh, R.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
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J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
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R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 83(3), 035105 (2011).
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Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
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M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
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X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active chiral plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
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J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
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S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
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J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared Anomalous Refraction Based on Graphene Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1744–1749 (2016).

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, L. Deng, and J. Tian, “Mid-infrared tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1567–1569 (2013).
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H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, P. Yu, J. X. Li, B. Y. Xie, Z. C. Li, and J. G. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(22), 223102 (2013).
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X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active chiral plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
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E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
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B. Wang, X. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073901 (2012).
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Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
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Z. Wu, X. Chen, M. Wang, J. Dong, and Y. Zheng, “High-performance ultrathin active chiral metamaterials,” ACS Nano 12(5), 5030–5041 (2018).
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Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, A. Schlather, P. M. Ajayan, F. H. L. Koppens, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon-induced doping of graphene,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10222–10228 (2012).
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Xie, B. Y.

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Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
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J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared Anomalous Refraction Based on Graphene Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1744–1749 (2016).

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, L. Deng, and J. Tian, “Mid-infrared tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1567–1569 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, P. Yu, J. X. Li, B. Y. Xie, Z. C. Li, and J. G. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(22), 223102 (2013).
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Yu, X.

C. Wu, H. Li, X. Yu, F. Li, H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “Metallic helix array as a broadband wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(17), 177401 (2011).
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Yuan, X.

Q. Hong, W. Xu, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Optical activity in monolayer black phosphorus due to extrinsic chirality,” Opt. Lett. 44(7), 1774–1777 (2019).
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J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
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B. Wang, X. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073901 (2012).
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Zhan, P.

Zhang, H.

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
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Zhang, J.

Q. Hong, W. Xu, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Optical activity in monolayer black phosphorus due to extrinsic chirality,” Opt. Lett. 44(7), 1774–1777 (2019).
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J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
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R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 83(3), 035105 (2011).
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T. T. Kim, H. Kim, M. Kenney, H. S. Park, H. D. Kim, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Amplitude modulation of anomalously refracted terahertz waves with gated-graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(1), 1700507 (2018).
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S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
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S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
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B. Wang, X. Zhang, F. J. García-Vidal, X. Yuan, and J. Teng, “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(7), 073901 (2012).
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S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
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Zhang, Z. M.

B. Zhao, J. M. Zhao, and Z. M. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
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B. Zhao, J. M. Zhao, and Z. M. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
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X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
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Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
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Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27230–27239 (2015).
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B. Zhao, J. M. Zhao, and Z. M. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
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T. T. Kim, S. S. Oh, H. S. Park, R. Zhao, S. H. Kim, W. Choi, B. Min, and O. Hess, “Optical activity enhanced by strong inter-molecular coupling in planar chiral metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5864 (2014).
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J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
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R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 83(3), 035105 (2011).
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Zhao, W.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 870 (2012).
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Zheludev, N. I.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Specular optical activity of achiral metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141905 (2016).
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E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
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E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
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E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(3), 035407 (2009).
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E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223113 (2007).
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A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 177401 (2006).
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Zheng, Y.

Z. Wu, X. Chen, M. Wang, J. Dong, and Y. Zheng, “High-performance ultrathin active chiral metamaterials,” ACS Nano 12(5), 5030–5041 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
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J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 83(3), 035105 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(3), 035407 (2009).
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Zhu, B.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, Z. Chai, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Active control of chirality in nonlinear metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Q. Hong, W. Xu, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Optical activity in monolayer black phosphorus due to extrinsic chirality,” Opt. Lett. 44(7), 1774–1777 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Lv, Y. X. Li, H. F. Ma, Z. Zhu, Z. P. Li, C. Y. Guan, J. H. Shi, H. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Hybrid metamaterial switching for manipulating chirality based on VO2 phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23186 (2016).
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J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhukovsky, S. V.

ACS Nano (2)

Z. Wu, X. Chen, M. Wang, J. Dong, and Y. Zheng, “High-performance ultrathin active chiral metamaterials,” ACS Nano 12(5), 5030–5041 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, A. Schlather, P. M. Ajayan, F. H. L. Koppens, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon-induced doping of graphene,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10222–10228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21(46), 4680–4682 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (3)

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared Anomalous Refraction Based on Graphene Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1744–1749 (2016).

T. T. Kim, H. Kim, M. Kenney, H. S. Park, H. D. Kim, B. Min, and S. Zhang, “Amplitude modulation of anomalously refracted terahertz waves with gated-graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(1), 1700507 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, Z. Chai, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “Active control of chirality in nonlinear metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(9), 091109 (2015).
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E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223113 (2007).
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E. Plum, “Extrinsic chirality: tunable optically active reflectors and perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241905 (2016).
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E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Specular optical activity of achiral metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141905 (2016).
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Z. Li, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, and E. Ozbay, “Complementary chiral metamaterials with giant optical activity and negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161907 (2011).
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H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, P. Yu, J. X. Li, B. Y. Xie, Z. C. Li, and J. G. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(22), 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao, J. M. Zhao, and Z. M. Zhang, “Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031905 (2014).
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J. Opt. (1)

J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Tunable asymmetric transmission of THz wave through a graphene chiral metasurface,” J. Opt. 18(9), 095001 (2016).
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Nano Lett. (6)

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
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Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
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S. Kim, M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, K. W. Mauser, L. Kim, and H. A. Atwater, “Electronically tunable perfect absorption in graphene,” Nano Lett. 18(2), 971–979 (2018).
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Y. Cui, L. Kang, S. Lan, S. Rodrigues, and W. Cai, “Giant chiral optical response from a twisted-arc metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 1021–1025 (2014).
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X. Yin, M. Schäferling, B. Metzger, and H. Giessen, “Interpreting chiral nanophotonic spectra: the plasmonic Born-Kuhn model,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 6238–6243 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A.-K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active chiral plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 942 (2012).
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Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 870 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
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Nature (1)

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
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Opt. Express (5)

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Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (3)

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 86(3), 035448 (2012).
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R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 83(3), 035105 (2011).
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E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(3), 035407 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. X (1)

M. Schäferling, D. Dregely, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Tailoring enhanced optical chirality: design principles for chiral plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 2(3), 031010 (2012).
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Sci. Adv. (2)

M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, X. Duan, H. Giessen, and N. Liu, “Chiral plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 3(5), e1602735 (2017).
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T. T. Kim, S. S. Oh, H. S. Park, R. Zhao, S. H. Kim, W. Choi, B. Min, and O. Hess, “Optical activity enhanced by strong inter-molecular coupling in planar chiral metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5864 (2014).
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Science (2)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
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Other (1)

L. D. Barron, Molecular light scattering and optical activity (Cambridge University, 2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic views of the graphene achiral metamaterial (a) The stereogram view of a unit cell. (b) The front view of a unit cell. (c) The whole view of the graphene metamaterial. The circularly polarized wave propagates along -z direction. The patterned graphene can be tuned by electrostatic doping, illustrated by panel c.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Reflection spectra, (b) transmission spectra, (c) reflection phase and (d) transmission phase of circularly polarized waves for θ = 45° and Ef = 0.7eV.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The tunable extrinsic chirality of the graphene achiral metamaterial. (a)-(b) The reflection and transmission induced CD spectra. (c)-(d) reflection and transmission circular birefringence spectra. (e)-(f) the absorption spectra of RCP and LCP waves at θ = 45° for different Fermi energy levels of graphene.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The angular dependence of extrinsic chirality in the graphene achiral metamaterial. (a)-(b) The reflection and transmission CD spectra. (c)-(d) reflection and transmission CB spectra. (e)-(f) the absorption of LCP and RCP waves. The graphene Fermi energy is 0.7eV and the angles of incidence θ vary.

Equations (2)

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σ intra =i e 2 k B T π 2 ( ω-i τ 1 ) [ μ c k B T +2ln( exp( μ c k B T )+1 ) ].
σ inter = e 2 4 [ 1 2 + 1 π arctan ω2 μ c 2 k B T i 2 ln ( ω+2 μ c ) 2 ( ω+2 μ c ) 2 + ( 2 k B T ) 2 ],

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