Abstract

We present a 0.2 TW sub-two-cycle 1.8 µm carrier-envelope-phase stable source based on two-stage pulse compression by filamentation for driving high-order harmonic generation extending beyond the oxygen K absorption edge. The 1 kHz repetition rate, high temporal resolution enabled by the short 11.8 fs driving pulse duration, and bright high-order harmonics generated in helium make this an attractive source for solid-state and molecular-dynamics studies.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. P. Béjot, E. Hertz, J. Kasparian, B. Lavorel, J. P. Wolf, and O. Faucher, “Transition from plasma-driven to Kerr-driven laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 243902 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, É. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 µ m laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. Béjot, B. E. Schmidt, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and F. Legaré, “Mechanism of hollow-core-fiber infrared-supercontinuum compression with bulk material,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063828 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. communications 6, 6611 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 1.85-µ m 1-khz pulses for carbon k-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383–5386 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Applied Physics B - Laser and Optics.  79, 673–677 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, “Super high power mid-infrared femtosecond light bullet,” Nat. Photonics 9, 543 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Optics and Photonics (Elsevier Science, 2001).
  29. I. Ahmad, L. Bergé, Z. Major, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and S. A. Trushin, “Redshift of few-cycle infrared pulses in the filamentation regime,” New J. Phys. 13, 093005 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. C. Milián, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, A. Houard, B. Forestier, J. Carbonnel, Y. Liu, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Laser beam self-symmetrization in air in the multifilamentation regime,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094013 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  31. B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, and O. Vasseur, “Spatial mode cleaning by femtosecond filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2601–2603 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Abnormal wavelength dependence of the self-cleaning phenomenon during femtosecond-laser-pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013826 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  33. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-Controlled Amplification of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” IEEE Jnl. on Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 9, 972–989 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. M. Teichmann, F. Silva, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “0.5-keV soft X-ray attosecond continua,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11493 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martins, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, R. Cryan, T. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, J. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, “Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2 ��m from an optical filament,” Opt. Lett. 32, 868–870 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2017 (6)

S. L. Cousin, N. Di Palo, B. Buades, S. M. Teichmann, M. Reduzzi, M. Devetta, A. Kheifets, G. Sansone, and J. Biegert, “Attosecond streaking in the water window: A new regime of attosecond pulse characterization,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041030 (2017).

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gaumnitz, A. Jain, Y. Pertot, M. Huppert, I. Jordan, F. Ardana-Lamas, and H. J. Wörner, “Streaking of 43-attosecond soft-X-ray pulses generated by a passively cep-stable mid-infrared driver,” Opt. Express 25, 27506–27518 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Gruson, G. Ernotte, P. Lassonde, A. Laramée, M. R. Bionta, M. Chaker, L. Di Mauro, P. B. Corkum, H. Ibrahim, B. Schmidt, and F. Legaré, “2.5 tw, two-cycle IR laser pulses via frequency domain optical parametric amplification,” Opt. Express 25, 27706–27714 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Wörner, C. A. Arrell, N. Banerji, A. Cannizzo, M. Chergui, A. K. Das, P. Hamm, U. Keller, P. M. Kraus, E. Liberatore, P. Lopez-Tarifa, M. Lucchini, M. Meuwly, C. Milne, J.-E. Moser, U. Rothlisberger, G. Smolentsev, J. Teuscher, J. A. van Bokhoven, and O. Wenger, “Charge migration and charge transfer in molecular systems,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061508 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

S. M. Teichmann, F. Silva, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “0.5-keV soft X-ray attosecond continua,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Saito, N. Ishii, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Attosecond streaking measurement of extreme ultraviolet pulses using a long-wavelength electric field,” Sci. Reports 6, 35594 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

I. Jordan, M. Huppert, M. A. Brown, J. A. van Bokhoven, and H. J. Wörner, “Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 86, 123905 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Milián, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, A. Houard, B. Forestier, J. Carbonnel, Y. Liu, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Laser beam self-symmetrization in air in the multifilamentation regime,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094013 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of air constituents at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5794–5797 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. communications 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, “Super high power mid-infrared femtosecond light bullet,” Nat. Photonics 9, 543 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 1.85-µ m 1-khz pulses for carbon k-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383–5386 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent high harmonic generation in the water window using few-cycle infrared pulses,” Nat. Communications 5, 4331 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. Pemmaraju, S. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346, 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

S. Driever, D. Bigourd, N. Fedorov, M. Cornet, M. Arnold, F. Burgy, S. Montant, S. Petit, D. Descamps, E. Cormier, E. Constant, and A. Zair, “Tunable 1.6-2 micron near infrared few-cycle pulse generation by filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191119 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. Holler, F. Schapper, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond electron wave-packet interference observed by transient absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123601 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Béjot, E. Hertz, J. Kasparian, B. Lavorel, J. P. Wolf, and O. Faucher, “Transition from plasma-driven to Kerr-driven laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 243902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Ahmad, L. Bergé, Z. Major, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and S. A. Trushin, “Redshift of few-cycle infrared pulses in the filamentation regime,” New J. Phys. 13, 093005 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, É. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 µ m laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Béjot, B. E. Schmidt, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and F. Legaré, “Mechanism of hollow-core-fiber infrared-supercontinuum compression with bulk material,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063828 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Reports 441, 47 – 189 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Reports on Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martins, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, R. Cryan, T. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, J. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, “Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2 ��m from an optical filament,” Opt. Lett. 32, 868–870 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Abnormal wavelength dependence of the self-cleaning phenomenon during femtosecond-laser-pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013826 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, and O. Vasseur, “Spatial mode cleaning by femtosecond filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2601–2603 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Applied Physics B - Laser and Optics.  79, 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-Controlled Amplification of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” IEEE Jnl. on Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Optics and Photonics (Elsevier Science, 2001).

Ahmad, I.

I. Ahmad, L. Bergé, Z. Major, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and S. A. Trushin, “Redshift of few-cycle infrared pulses in the filamentation regime,” New J. Phys. 13, 093005 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ardana-Lamas, F.

Arnold, M.

S. Driever, D. Bigourd, N. Fedorov, M. Cornet, M. Arnold, F. Burgy, S. Montant, S. Petit, D. Descamps, E. Cormier, E. Constant, and A. Zair, “Tunable 1.6-2 micron near infrared few-cycle pulse generation by filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arrell, C. A.

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S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 1.85-µ m 1-khz pulses for carbon k-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383–5386 (2014).
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Burgy, F.

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Chang, Z.

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S. Driever, D. Bigourd, N. Fedorov, M. Cornet, M. Arnold, F. Burgy, S. Montant, S. Petit, D. Descamps, E. Cormier, E. Constant, and A. Zair, “Tunable 1.6-2 micron near infrared few-cycle pulse generation by filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191119 (2013).
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S. L. Cousin, N. Di Palo, B. Buades, S. M. Teichmann, M. Reduzzi, M. Devetta, A. Kheifets, G. Sansone, and J. Biegert, “Attosecond streaking in the water window: A new regime of attosecond pulse characterization,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041030 (2017).

S. M. Teichmann, F. Silva, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “0.5-keV soft X-ray attosecond continua,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. communications 6, 6611 (2015).
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S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 1.85-µ m 1-khz pulses for carbon k-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383–5386 (2014).
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Cunningham, E.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
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H. J. Wörner, C. A. Arrell, N. Banerji, A. Cannizzo, M. Chergui, A. K. Das, P. Hamm, U. Keller, P. M. Kraus, E. Liberatore, P. Lopez-Tarifa, M. Lucchini, M. Meuwly, C. Milne, J.-E. Moser, U. Rothlisberger, G. Smolentsev, J. Teuscher, J. A. van Bokhoven, and O. Wenger, “Charge migration and charge transfer in molecular systems,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061508 (2017).
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S. Driever, D. Bigourd, N. Fedorov, M. Cornet, M. Arnold, F. Burgy, S. Montant, S. Petit, D. Descamps, E. Cormier, E. Constant, and A. Zair, “Tunable 1.6-2 micron near infrared few-cycle pulse generation by filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191119 (2013).
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S. L. Cousin, N. Di Palo, B. Buades, S. M. Teichmann, M. Reduzzi, M. Devetta, A. Kheifets, G. Sansone, and J. Biegert, “Attosecond streaking in the water window: A new regime of attosecond pulse characterization,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041030 (2017).

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S. L. Cousin, N. Di Palo, B. Buades, S. M. Teichmann, M. Reduzzi, M. Devetta, A. Kheifets, G. Sansone, and J. Biegert, “Attosecond streaking in the water window: A new regime of attosecond pulse characterization,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041030 (2017).

DiMauro, L. F.

Doumy, G.

Driever, S.

S. Driever, D. Bigourd, N. Fedorov, M. Cornet, M. Arnold, F. Burgy, S. Montant, S. Petit, D. Descamps, E. Cormier, E. Constant, and A. Zair, “Tunable 1.6-2 micron near infrared few-cycle pulse generation by filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191119 (2013).
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Ernotte, G.

Faucher, O.

P. Béjot, E. Hertz, J. Kasparian, B. Lavorel, J. P. Wolf, and O. Faucher, “Transition from plasma-driven to Kerr-driven laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 243902 (2011).
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S. Driever, D. Bigourd, N. Fedorov, M. Cornet, M. Arnold, F. Burgy, S. Montant, S. Petit, D. Descamps, E. Cormier, E. Constant, and A. Zair, “Tunable 1.6-2 micron near infrared few-cycle pulse generation by filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191119 (2013).
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Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Forestier, B.

C. Milián, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, A. Houard, B. Forestier, J. Carbonnel, Y. Liu, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Laser beam self-symmetrization in air in the multifilamentation regime,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094013 (2015).
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Franco, M.

Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Gerrity, M.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
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Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahlstrand, J. K.

Wang, Y.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

N. Saito, N. Ishii, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Attosecond streaking measurement of extreme ultraviolet pulses using a long-wavelength electric field,” Sci. Reports 6, 35594 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent high harmonic generation in the water window using few-cycle infrared pulses,” Nat. Communications 5, 4331 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wenger, O.

H. J. Wörner, C. A. Arrell, N. Banerji, A. Cannizzo, M. Chergui, A. K. Das, P. Hamm, U. Keller, P. M. Kraus, E. Liberatore, P. Lopez-Tarifa, M. Lucchini, M. Meuwly, C. Milne, J.-E. Moser, U. Rothlisberger, G. Smolentsev, J. Teuscher, J. A. van Bokhoven, and O. Wenger, “Charge migration and charge transfer in molecular systems,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061508 (2017).
[Crossref]

Whalen, P.

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, “Super high power mid-infrared femtosecond light bullet,” Nat. Photonics 9, 543 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wheeler, J.

Whitmore, D.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. Pemmaraju, S. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346, 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirth, A.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, J. P.

P. Béjot, E. Hertz, J. Kasparian, B. Lavorel, J. P. Wolf, and O. Faucher, “Transition from plasma-driven to Kerr-driven laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 243902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Béjot, B. E. Schmidt, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and F. Legaré, “Mechanism of hollow-core-fiber infrared-supercontinuum compression with bulk material,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063828 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, É. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 µ m laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Reports on Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wörner, H. J.

T. Gaumnitz, A. Jain, Y. Pertot, M. Huppert, I. Jordan, F. Ardana-Lamas, and H. J. Wörner, “Streaking of 43-attosecond soft-X-ray pulses generated by a passively cep-stable mid-infrared driver,” Opt. Express 25, 27506–27518 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Wörner, C. A. Arrell, N. Banerji, A. Cannizzo, M. Chergui, A. K. Das, P. Hamm, U. Keller, P. M. Kraus, E. Liberatore, P. Lopez-Tarifa, M. Lucchini, M. Meuwly, C. Milne, J.-E. Moser, U. Rothlisberger, G. Smolentsev, J. Teuscher, J. A. van Bokhoven, and O. Wenger, “Charge migration and charge transfer in molecular systems,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061508 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Jordan, M. Huppert, M. A. Brown, J. A. van Bokhoven, and H. J. Wörner, “Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 86, 123905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yabana, K.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. Pemmaraju, S. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346, 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-Controlled Amplification of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” IEEE Jnl. on Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zahedpour, S.

Zair, A.

S. Driever, D. Bigourd, N. Fedorov, M. Cornet, M. Arnold, F. Burgy, S. Montant, S. Petit, D. Descamps, E. Cormier, E. Constant, and A. Zair, “Tunable 1.6-2 micron near infrared few-cycle pulse generation by filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, K.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zherebtsov, S.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Driever, D. Bigourd, N. Fedorov, M. Cornet, M. Arnold, F. Burgy, S. Montant, S. Petit, D. Descamps, E. Cormier, E. Constant, and A. Zair, “Tunable 1.6-2 micron near infrared few-cycle pulse generation by filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191119 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguère, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, É. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 µ m laser pulses to sub two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Applied Physics B - Laser and Optics (1)

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Applied Physics B - Laser and Optics.  79, 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Jnl. on Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. (1)

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-Controlled Amplification of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” IEEE Jnl. on Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

C. Milián, V. Jukna, A. Couairon, A. Houard, B. Forestier, J. Carbonnel, Y. Liu, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Laser beam self-symmetrization in air in the multifilamentation regime,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094013 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

S. M. Teichmann, F. Silva, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “0.5-keV soft X-ray attosecond continua,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. communications (1)

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. communications 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent high harmonic generation in the water window using few-cycle infrared pulses,” Nat. Communications 5, 4331 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Panagiotopoulos, P. Whalen, M. Kolesik, and J. V. Moloney, “Super high power mid-infrared femtosecond light bullet,” Nat. Photonics 9, 543 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

I. Ahmad, L. Bergé, Z. Major, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and S. A. Trushin, “Redshift of few-cycle infrared pulses in the filamentation regime,” New J. Phys. 13, 093005 (2011).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Reports (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Reports 441, 47 – 189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Abnormal wavelength dependence of the self-cleaning phenomenon during femtosecond-laser-pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 013826 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Béjot, B. E. Schmidt, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and F. Legaré, “Mechanism of hollow-core-fiber infrared-supercontinuum compression with bulk material,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063828 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

P. Béjot, E. Hertz, J. Kasparian, B. Lavorel, J. P. Wolf, and O. Faucher, “Transition from plasma-driven to Kerr-driven laser filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 243902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, F. Schapper, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond electron wave-packet interference observed by transient absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123601 (2011).
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J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

S. L. Cousin, N. Di Palo, B. Buades, S. M. Teichmann, M. Reduzzi, M. Devetta, A. Kheifets, G. Sansone, and J. Biegert, “Attosecond streaking in the water window: A new regime of attosecond pulse characterization,” Phys. Rev. X 7, 041030 (2017).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reports on Prog. Phys. (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Reports on Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instruments (1)

I. Jordan, M. Huppert, M. A. Brown, J. A. van Bokhoven, and H. J. Wörner, “Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 86, 123905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Reports (1)

N. Saito, N. Ishii, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Attosecond streaking measurement of extreme ultraviolet pulses using a long-wavelength electric field,” Sci. Reports 6, 35594 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (4)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. Pemmaraju, S. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346, 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Struct. Dyn. (1)

H. J. Wörner, C. A. Arrell, N. Banerji, A. Cannizzo, M. Chergui, A. K. Das, P. Hamm, U. Keller, P. M. Kraus, E. Liberatore, P. Lopez-Tarifa, M. Lucchini, M. Meuwly, C. Milne, J.-E. Moser, U. Rothlisberger, G. Smolentsev, J. Teuscher, J. A. van Bokhoven, and O. Wenger, “Charge migration and charge transfer in molecular systems,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061508 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Optics and Photonics (Elsevier Science, 2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Typical soft X-ray high harmonic spectrum covering the full water window. The generation is achieved in a gas target with over 2 bar of helium pressure. This spectrum is averaged over 30 acquisitions of 250 ms each. The black curve corresponds to the absorption spectrum of TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on a Si3N4 substrate. The white lines indicate the energies of the carbon (C) K-edge at 282 eV, the nitrogen (N) K-edge at 410 eV, the titanium (Ti) L2-edge at 460 eV and the oxygen (O) K-edge at 543 eV.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental layout with Ti:Sa amplified 800 nm pulse (in red) pumping the OPA with 15 mJ. The CEP stable 1.8 µm idler pulses (in yellow) are broadened by two successive filament lines of 4 m each and compressed in a fused silica plate of appropriate thickness. The compressed 11.8 fs pulse is focused into a high pressure helium target and drives the HHG process. Bottom: Detailed view of the high pressure target and the HHG scheme. P1, P2 and are the pressures measured in each of the differential pumping stages. Inset (b): the beam intensity profile of the focused post-compressed beam.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Evolution of the pulse spectral broadening with increasing pressure in the first (a) and second gas cell (b) for the two-stage filament compression. For the second stage broadening (bottom), the pressure in the first cell is fixed at 1 bar. (c) Output pulse average power measurement at the output of each filament cell as a function of argon pressure in the (c) first gas cell and (d) second gas cell.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Frequency-resolved optical gating characterization of the compressed driving pulse. Top: THG FROG measured trace and the multi algorithm retrieved trace. Bottom left: normalized comparison in the spectral domain of the OPA Idler (input), the same pulse after broadening and compression (measured) and the retrieved spectra (retrieved). The input spectrum is centered at 1.79 µm with a 145 nm bandwidth and the measured spectrum shows a main peak shifted at 1.96 µm and is 400 nm wide at FWHM. Bottom right: time domain representation of the retrieved intensities of the OPA pulse (input) and the compressed pulse (retrieved). The retrieved phase (right axis) is given for the compressed pulse only.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Carrier envelope phase measured over 30 min using a f -2 f interferometry setup. Passive free-running CEP (maple), corresponding to r.m.s. = 531 mrad jitter where the actively locked CEP (brown) stabilization reduce it to r.m.s. = 180 mrad.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Typical soft X-ray high harmonic spectrum in linear scale. The white line shows the absorption of the carbon (C) K-edge at 282 eV due to contamination in the beam-line.

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