Abstract

This work presents an overview of near infrared random lasing emitters based on a variety of neodymium (Nd3+)-doped crystal powders with different Nd3+ concentrations and different grain sizes. The pump-configuration used allows for an absolute measurement of both pumping and emitted energies. The results provide an absolute measure of the random laser efficiency and prove a relation of direct proportionality between the absorbance of the material and the laser slope efficiency. Likewise, they suggest a relationship close to an inverse proportionality between the absorbance and the threshold energy per unit area. The temporal behavior of the random laser emission shows noteworthy differences between local and spatially integrated registers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernández, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

A. L. Moura, L. J. Maia, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. Araújo, “Optimal performance of NdAl3(BO3)4 nanocrystals random lasers,” Opt. Mater. 62, 593–596 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd3Ga5O12 crystal garnet,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random Laser Action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

J. Azkargorta, M. Bettinelli, I. Iparraguirre, S. Garcia-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random lasing in Nd:LuVO4 crystal powder,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19591–19599 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ke’na-Cohen, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. Bradley, and S. A. Maier, “Random lasing in low molecular weight organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041114 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. García-Revilla, I. Iparraguirre, C. Cascales, J. Azkargorta, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Random laser performance of NdxY1-xAl3(BO3)4 laser crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 34(2), 461–464 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lajendijk, “Relaxation oscillations in long-pulsed random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 055803 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and L. Ge, “Theory of the spatial structure of nonlinear lasing modes,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013813 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Quantitative analysis of several random lasers,” Opt. Commun. 278(1), 110–113 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Intrinsic intensity fluctuations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053808 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Bahoura, K. J. Morris, G. Zhou, and M. A. Noginov, “Dependence of the neodymium random laser threshold on the diameter of the pumped Spot,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 677–685 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

X. Jiang, S. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson and Z. Valy Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, I. N. Fowlkes, G. Zhu, and J. Novak, “Random laser thresholds in cw and pulsed regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043811 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, J. Novak, and S. Williams, “Modeling of photon density dynamics in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063810 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

M. Bahoura, K. J. Morris, and M. A. Noginov, “Threshold and slope efficiency of Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 ceramic random laser: effect of pumped spot size,” Opt. Commun. 201(4-6), 405–411 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(4), 041103 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Light emission: A temperature-tunable random laser,” Nature 414(6865), 708–709 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies of coherence in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 127–134 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, and J. A. Moon, “Theory of laser action in scattering gain media,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 319–321 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, “Dynamics of stimulated emission from random media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(5), 6118–6122 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

V. M. Markushev, N. É. Ter-Gabrélyan, Ch. M. Briskina, V. R. Velan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20(7), 773–777 (1990).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

M. P. Barnes and M. Crabbe, “Coherence length of a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), 4093–4095 (1975).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

R. V. Alves, R. A. Buchanan, K. A. Wickersheim, and E. A. C. Yates, “Neodymium-activated Lanthanum Oxysulfide: A new high-gain laser material,” J. Appl. Phys. 42(8), 3043–3048 (1971).
[Crossref]

Al-Saleh, M.

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, O. Merdrignac-Conanec, M. Al-Saleh, C. Chlique, X. Zhang, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Laser action in Nd3+-doped lanthanum oxysulfide powders,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23690–23699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. García-Revilla, I. Iparraguirre, C. Cascales, J. Azkargorta, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Random laser performance of NdxY1-xAl3(BO3)4 laser crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 34(2), 461–464 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alves, R. V.

R. V. Alves, R. A. Buchanan, K. A. Wickersheim, and E. A. C. Yates, “Neodymium-activated Lanthanum Oxysulfide: A new high-gain laser material,” J. Appl. Phys. 42(8), 3043–3048 (1971).
[Crossref]

Andreasen, J.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Araújo, C. B.

A. L. Moura, L. J. Maia, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. Araújo, “Optimal performance of NdAl3(BO3)4 nanocrystals random lasers,” Opt. Mater. 62, 593–596 (2016).
[Crossref]

Asatryan, A. A.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Auzel, F.

Azkargorta, J.

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernández, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd3Ga5O12 crystal garnet,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random Laser Action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. García-Revilla, J. Fernández, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, L. D. Carlos, E. Pecoraro, I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, and R. Balda, “Diffusive random laser modes under a spatiotemporal scope,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1456–1469 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Bettinelli, E. Cavalli, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Effects of pumping wavelength and pump density on the random laser performance of stoichiometric Nd crystal powders,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27365–27372 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and N. Hakmeh, “On the temporal behavior of Nd3+ random lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3646–3649 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, O. Merdrignac-Conanec, M. Al-Saleh, C. Chlique, X. Zhang, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Laser action in Nd3+-doped lanthanum oxysulfide powders,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23690–23699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Azkargorta, M. Bettinelli, I. Iparraguirre, S. Garcia-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random lasing in Nd:LuVO4 crystal powder,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19591–19599 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. García-Revilla, I. Iparraguirre, C. Cascales, J. Azkargorta, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Random laser performance of NdxY1-xAl3(BO3)4 laser crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 34(2), 461–464 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bahoura, M.

M. Bahoura, K. J. Morris, G. Zhou, and M. A. Noginov, “Dependence of the neodymium random laser threshold on the diameter of the pumped Spot,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 677–685 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Bahoura and M. A. Noginov, “Determination of the transport mean free path in a solid-state random laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(11), 2389–2394 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Bahoura, K. J. Morris, and M. A. Noginov, “Threshold and slope efficiency of Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 ceramic random laser: effect of pumped spot size,” Opt. Commun. 201(4-6), 405–411 (2002).
[Crossref]

Balachandran, R. M.

Balda, R.

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernández, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random Laser Action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd3Ga5O12 crystal garnet,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. García-Revilla, J. Fernández, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, L. D. Carlos, E. Pecoraro, I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, and R. Balda, “Diffusive random laser modes under a spatiotemporal scope,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1456–1469 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Bettinelli, E. Cavalli, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Effects of pumping wavelength and pump density on the random laser performance of stoichiometric Nd crystal powders,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27365–27372 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and N. Hakmeh, “On the temporal behavior of Nd3+ random lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3646–3649 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, O. Merdrignac-Conanec, M. Al-Saleh, C. Chlique, X. Zhang, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Laser action in Nd3+-doped lanthanum oxysulfide powders,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23690–23699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Azkargorta, M. Bettinelli, I. Iparraguirre, S. Garcia-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random lasing in Nd:LuVO4 crystal powder,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19591–19599 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random Laser Action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
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J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random Laser Action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
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S. García-Revilla, I. Iparraguirre, C. Cascales, J. Azkargorta, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Random laser performance of NdxY1-xAl3(BO3)4 laser crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 34(2), 461–464 (2011).
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J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random Laser Action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
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S. García-Revilla, J. Fernández, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, L. D. Carlos, E. Pecoraro, I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, and R. Balda, “Diffusive random laser modes under a spatiotemporal scope,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1456–1469 (2015).
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J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Bettinelli, E. Cavalli, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Effects of pumping wavelength and pump density on the random laser performance of stoichiometric Nd crystal powders,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27365–27372 (2014).
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I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, O. Merdrignac-Conanec, M. Al-Saleh, C. Chlique, X. Zhang, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Laser action in Nd3+-doped lanthanum oxysulfide powders,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23690–23699 (2012).
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S. Ke’na-Cohen, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. Bradley, and S. A. Maier, “Random lasing in low molecular weight organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041114 (2011).
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A. L. Moura, L. J. Maia, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. Araújo, “Optimal performance of NdAl3(BO3)4 nanocrystals random lasers,” Opt. Mater. 62, 593–596 (2016).
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Sauteret, C.

Sebbah, P.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

X. Jiang, S. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(4), 041103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stavrinou, P. N.

S. Ke’na-Cohen, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. Bradley, and S. A. Maier, “Random lasing in low molecular weight organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stone, A. D.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and L. Ge, “Theory of the spatial structure of nonlinear lasing modes,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013813 (2007).
[Crossref]

Strek, W.

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernández, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. F.

Ter-Gabrélyan, N. É.

V. M. Markushev, N. É. Ter-Gabrélyan, Ch. M. Briskina, V. R. Velan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20(7), 773–777 (1990).
[Crossref]

Thompson, T.

Tonkyn, R. G.

Türeci, H. E.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and L. Ge, “Theory of the spatial structure of nonlinear lasing modes,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013813 (2007).
[Crossref]

Uppu, R.

Valy Vardeny, Z.

R. C. Polson and Z. Valy Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

van der Molen, K. L.

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lajendijk, “Relaxation oscillations in long-pulsed random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 055803 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Quantitative analysis of several random lasers,” Opt. Commun. 278(1), 110–113 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Intrinsic intensity fluctuations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053808 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vanneste, C.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Velan, V. R.

V. M. Markushev, N. É. Ter-Gabrélyan, Ch. M. Briskina, V. R. Velan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20(7), 773–777 (1990).
[Crossref]

Venkateswarlu, P.

Wang, J. C.

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies of coherence in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 127–134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wetter, N. U.

Wickersheim, K. A.

R. V. Alves, R. A. Buchanan, K. A. Wickersheim, and E. A. C. Yates, “Neodymium-activated Lanthanum Oxysulfide: A new high-gain laser material,” J. Appl. Phys. 42(8), 3043–3048 (1971).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Light emission: A temperature-tunable random laser,” Nature 414(6865), 708–709 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, S.

M. A. Noginov, J. Novak, and S. Williams, “Modeling of photon density dynamics in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063810 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. Y.

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(4), 041103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yates, E. A. C.

R. V. Alves, R. A. Buchanan, K. A. Wickersheim, and E. A. C. Yates, “Neodymium-activated Lanthanum Oxysulfide: A new high-gain laser material,” J. Appl. Phys. 42(8), 3043–3048 (1971).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, A.

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd3Ga5O12 crystal garnet,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhou, G.

M. Bahoura, K. J. Morris, G. Zhou, and M. A. Noginov, “Dependence of the neodymium random laser threshold on the diameter of the pumped Spot,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 677–685 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, I. N. Fowlkes, G. Zhu, and J. Novak, “Random laser thresholds in cw and pulsed regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043811 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zi, J.

X. Jiang, S. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zolin, V. F.

V. M. Markushev, N. É. Ter-Gabrélyan, Ch. M. Briskina, V. R. Velan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20(7), 773–777 (1990).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Ke’na-Cohen, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. Bradley, and S. A. Maier, “Random lasing in low molecular weight organic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041114 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson and Z. Valy Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Bahoura, K. J. Morris, G. Zhou, and M. A. Noginov, “Dependence of the neodymium random laser threshold on the diameter of the pumped Spot,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 677–685 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. V. Alves, R. A. Buchanan, K. A. Wickersheim, and E. A. C. Yates, “Neodymium-activated Lanthanum Oxysulfide: A new high-gain laser material,” J. Appl. Phys. 42(8), 3043–3048 (1971).
[Crossref]

M. P. Barnes and M. Crabbe, “Coherence length of a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), 4093–4095 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, K. Kamada, A. Yoshikawa, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, V. Lavín, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd3Ga5O12 crystal garnet,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(3), 035402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Materials (Basel) (1)

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “Random Laser Action in Nd:YAG crystal powder,” Materials (Basel) 9(5), 369 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Light emission: A temperature-tunable random laser,” Nature 414(6865), 708–709 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Quantitative analysis of several random lasers,” Opt. Commun. 278(1), 110–113 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Bahoura, K. J. Morris, and M. A. Noginov, “Threshold and slope efficiency of Nd0.5La0.5Al3(BO3)4 ceramic random laser: effect of pumped spot size,” Opt. Commun. 201(4-6), 405–411 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (4)

A. L. Moura, L. J. Maia, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. Araújo, “Optimal performance of NdAl3(BO3)4 nanocrystals random lasers,” Opt. Mater. 62, 593–596 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, and J. C. Wang, “Interferometric studies of coherence in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12(1), 127–134 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. García-Revilla, I. Iparraguirre, C. Cascales, J. Azkargorta, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Random laser performance of NdxY1-xAl3(BO3)4 laser crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 34(2), 461–464 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Azkargorta, L. Marciniak, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, W. Strek, M. Barredo-Zuriarrain, S. García-Revilla, and J. Fernández, “Influence of grain size and Nd3+ concentration on the stimulated emission of LiLa1-xNdxP4O12 crystal powders,” Opt. Mater. 63, 46–50 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (5)

M. A. Noginov, I. N. Fowlkes, G. Zhu, and J. Novak, “Random laser thresholds in cw and pulsed regimes,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043811 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, J. Novak, and S. Williams, “Modeling of photon density dynamics in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 70(6), 063810 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and L. Ge, “Theory of the spatial structure of nonlinear lasing modes,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013813 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lajendijk, “Relaxation oscillations in long-pulsed random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 055803 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. L. van der Molen, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Intrinsic intensity fluctuations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053808 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

X. Jiang, S. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(4), 041103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (2)

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Berger, M. Kempe, and A. Z. Genack, “Dynamics of stimulated emission from random media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(5), 6118–6122 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. M. Markushev, N. É. Ter-Gabrélyan, Ch. M. Briskina, V. R. Velan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20(7), 773–777 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Second Edition) (Cambridge University Press, 2012).

M. A. Noginov, Solid-State Random lasers, (Springer, 2005).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Different set-ups of the measurement system: a) To maximize the collected intensity, b) To accurately measure the absolute output energy of different samples within different experimental conditions, being comparable between them, c) For local intensity measurements, d) To simultaneously obtain images of the emitting surface, both for pump wavelength and RL emission.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized emission spectra (spontaneous and RL) of three different stoichiometric crystal powders: Red: Phosphate NdPO4; Green: Vanadate NdVO4; Violet: Borate NdAl3(BO3)4.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Output energy as a function of pump energy for three different pump beam areas in 9% Nd3+ doped oxysulfide sample. The slope efficiencies are 0.16 ± 0.01 in the three cases.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorbance spectrum of phosphate powder (NdPO4) (red line), slope efficiency of the RL emission for different pumping wavelengths predicted by Eq. (3) (black line) and experimental slope efficiencies (blue dots and blue line).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Energy input-output curves of the borate crystal powder NdAl3(BO3)4 for two different pumping wavelengths: 808 nm, from ground level to 4F5/2 (red dots) and 876 nm to 4F3/2 level (black dots). As can be seen, slope efficiencies (33% and 20%) quite well satisfy Eq. (3), account taken that absorbance at these two wavelengths are around 50% and 30% respectively. These measurements have been carried out with a pump beam area of 0.57 mm2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 RL threshold energy per unit area as a function of the pump beam area for two different Nd doped crystal powders: NdAl3(BO3)4 stoichiometric borate (black squares), and 1% doped Nd:YAG (red triangles).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Normalized RL threshold energies as a function of pump wavelength, for two different crystal powders. a) Nd:YAG (1% doped) and b) NdPO4. The blue and purple dots show the experimental normalized thresholds relative to their minimum values for two different pump areas. Red lines show the behavior predicted by expression (4), obtained from the absorption cross section of Nd:YAG in a) and by using Kubelka-Munk expression (5) for neodymium phosphate in b). Black lines show the predicted behavior by using expression (6).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Diameters of RL emission and reflected pumping zones as a function of the pumping beam diameter, measured on a non-scattering steel surface, for a stoichiometric material (NdAl3(BO3)4: black stars and dots respectively) and a low doped material (Nd 1%:YAG red stars and dots respectively).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Sizes of RL emission zones for Nd:YAG (1% doped). Pumping energy is approximately twice the threshold. The diameter of the pump beam is 1.2 mm (steel surface) in the three cases. a) Pumping at maximal absorption wavelength (inelastic length 1 mm, transport length 25 micron). Emission area diameter 1.9 mm. b) Same pump wavelength than a) and larger grain size and (inelastic length 1 mm, transport length 50 micron). Emission area diameter 2.4 mm. c) Same grain size than a) and less absorbing wavelength (inelastic length 5 mm, transport length 25 micron). Emission area diameter 3.1 mm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Intensity as a function of time of pump pulse (black line) and RL emission (red line). a) Nd3Ga5O12 spatially integrated RL emission from the whole surface. b) NdVO4 emission registered by locally observing a small area of the emitting surface (10 micron), with a fast detection system (30 ps).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental values of diffuse absorbance, laser slope efficiency, m, given by expression (3), experimental slope efficiency, and threshold energy per unit area for different Nd3+ doped crystal powders. Pump wavelength always corresponds to the maximal absorbance in the corresponding band. The estimated error in measurements is about 10%.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Absorbance, slope and threshold data of the Nd3+ doped La2O2S at different concentrations. The transport length of all the samples is similar.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M(r,θ)= E em cosθ π r 2
E mea = Scosθ π r 2 E em
m= η h ν emis h ν pump = η λ pump λ emis
E thr = hνA l abs σ em η( λ ) l res
l res l i E thr hc·A λ· σ em ·η(λ) l t l i
l t l i = η 2 2( 1η )
E thr hcA λ σ em 1η( λ )
l res l abs E thr hcA λ σ em η( λ )
d λL ϕ

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