Abstract

Mask-aligner lithography is traditionally performed using mercury arc lamps with wavelengths ranging from 250 nm to 600 nm with intensity peaks at the i, g and h lines. Since mercury arc lamps present several disadvantages, it is of interest to replace them with high power light emitting diodes (LEDs), which recently appeared on the market at those wavelengths. In this contribution, we present a prototype of an LED-based mask-aligner illumination. An optical characterization is made and the prototype is tested in a mask-aligner. Very good performances are demonstrated. The measured uniformity in the mask plane is 2.59 ± 0.24 % which is within the uniformity of the standard lamp. Print tests show resolution of 1 micron in contact printing and of 3 microns in proximity printing with a proximity gap of 30 microns.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. SUSS MicroTec datasheet https://www.suss.com/en/products-solutions/mask-aligner
  2. R. S. West, “Side-emitting high-power LEDs and their application in illumination,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 171 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Fournier and J. Rolland, “Optimization of freeform lightpipes for light-emitting-diode projectors,” Appl. Opt. 47(7), 957–966 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043001 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Erickstad, E. Gutierrez, and A. Groisman, “A low-cost low-maintenance ultraviolet lithography light source based on light-emitting diodes,” Lab Chip,  15(1), 57–61 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. Y. Ciou, Y. C. Chen, C. T. Pan, P. H. Lin, P. H. Lin, and F. T. Hsu, “Investigation of uniformity field generated from freeform lens with UV LED exposure system,” Proc. SPIE 9383, 93830S (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. R. Sheats and B. W. Smith, Microlithography: science and technology (Marcel Dekker, 1998), Chap. 2.
  8. O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernàndez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Koehler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and U. D. Zeitner, “Homogeneous LED-illumination using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 188–196 (2005).
  10. R. Voelkel, U. Vogler, A. Bich, P. Pernet, K. J. Weible, M. Hornung, R. Zoberbier, E. Cullmann, L. Stuerzebecher, and T. Harzendorf and others, “Advanced mask aligner lithography: new illumination system,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20968–20978 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. Winston, W. T. Welford, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging optics (Elsevier Academic, 2005), Chap. 2.

2015 (2)

M. Erickstad, E. Gutierrez, and A. Groisman, “A low-cost low-maintenance ultraviolet lithography light source based on light-emitting diodes,” Lab Chip,  15(1), 57–61 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Ciou, Y. C. Chen, C. T. Pan, P. H. Lin, P. H. Lin, and F. T. Hsu, “Investigation of uniformity field generated from freeform lens with UV LED exposure system,” Proc. SPIE 9383, 93830S (2015).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

F. Fournier and J. Rolland, “Optimization of freeform lightpipes for light-emitting-diode projectors,” Appl. Opt. 47(7), 957–966 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernàndez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Koehler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043001 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and U. D. Zeitner, “Homogeneous LED-illumination using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 188–196 (2005).

2002 (1)

R. S. West, “Side-emitting high-power LEDs and their application in illumination,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 171 (2002).
[Crossref]

Benítez, P.

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernàndez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Koehler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Winston, W. T. Welford, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging optics (Elsevier Academic, 2005), Chap. 2.

Bich, A.

Chen, Y. C.

F. Y. Ciou, Y. C. Chen, C. T. Pan, P. H. Lin, P. H. Lin, and F. T. Hsu, “Investigation of uniformity field generated from freeform lens with UV LED exposure system,” Proc. SPIE 9383, 93830S (2015).
[Crossref]

Ciou, F. Y.

F. Y. Ciou, Y. C. Chen, C. T. Pan, P. H. Lin, P. H. Lin, and F. T. Hsu, “Investigation of uniformity field generated from freeform lens with UV LED exposure system,” Proc. SPIE 9383, 93830S (2015).
[Crossref]

Cullmann, E.

Cvetkovic, A.

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernàndez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Koehler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

Dannberg, P.

P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and U. D. Zeitner, “Homogeneous LED-illumination using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 188–196 (2005).

Dross, O.

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernàndez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Koehler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

Erickstad, M.

M. Erickstad, E. Gutierrez, and A. Groisman, “A low-cost low-maintenance ultraviolet lithography light source based on light-emitting diodes,” Lab Chip,  15(1), 57–61 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fournier, F.

Groisman, A.

M. Erickstad, E. Gutierrez, and A. Groisman, “A low-cost low-maintenance ultraviolet lithography light source based on light-emitting diodes,” Lab Chip,  15(1), 57–61 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gutierrez, E.

M. Erickstad, E. Gutierrez, and A. Groisman, “A low-cost low-maintenance ultraviolet lithography light source based on light-emitting diodes,” Lab Chip,  15(1), 57–61 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harzendorf, T.

Hernàndez, M.

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernàndez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Koehler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

Hornung, M.

Hsu, F. T.

F. Y. Ciou, Y. C. Chen, C. T. Pan, P. H. Lin, P. H. Lin, and F. T. Hsu, “Investigation of uniformity field generated from freeform lens with UV LED exposure system,” Proc. SPIE 9383, 93830S (2015).
[Crossref]

Kudaev, S.

P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and U. D. Zeitner, “Homogeneous LED-illumination using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 188–196 (2005).

Lin, P. H.

F. Y. Ciou, Y. C. Chen, C. T. Pan, P. H. Lin, P. H. Lin, and F. T. Hsu, “Investigation of uniformity field generated from freeform lens with UV LED exposure system,” Proc. SPIE 9383, 93830S (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Ciou, Y. C. Chen, C. T. Pan, P. H. Lin, P. H. Lin, and F. T. Hsu, “Investigation of uniformity field generated from freeform lens with UV LED exposure system,” Proc. SPIE 9383, 93830S (2015).
[Crossref]

Meuret, Y.

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miñano, J. C.

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernàndez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Koehler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Winston, W. T. Welford, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging optics (Elsevier Academic, 2005), Chap. 2.

Mohedano, R.

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernàndez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Koehler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

Pan, C. T.

F. Y. Ciou, Y. C. Chen, C. T. Pan, P. H. Lin, P. H. Lin, and F. T. Hsu, “Investigation of uniformity field generated from freeform lens with UV LED exposure system,” Proc. SPIE 9383, 93830S (2015).
[Crossref]

Pernet, P.

Rolland, J.

Schreiber, P.

P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and U. D. Zeitner, “Homogeneous LED-illumination using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 188–196 (2005).

Sheats, J. R.

J. R. Sheats and B. W. Smith, Microlithography: science and technology (Marcel Dekker, 1998), Chap. 2.

Smith, B. W.

J. R. Sheats and B. W. Smith, Microlithography: science and technology (Marcel Dekker, 1998), Chap. 2.

Stuerzebecher, L.

Thienpont, H.

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Van Giel, B.

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Voelkel, R.

Vogler, U.

Weible, K. J.

Welford, W. T.

R. Winston, W. T. Welford, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging optics (Elsevier Academic, 2005), Chap. 2.

West, R. S.

R. S. West, “Side-emitting high-power LEDs and their application in illumination,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 171 (2002).
[Crossref]

Winston, R.

R. Winston, W. T. Welford, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging optics (Elsevier Academic, 2005), Chap. 2.

Zeitner, U. D.

P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and U. D. Zeitner, “Homogeneous LED-illumination using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 188–196 (2005).

Zoberbier, R.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Lab Chip (1)

M. Erickstad, E. Gutierrez, and A. Groisman, “A low-cost low-maintenance ultraviolet lithography light source based on light-emitting diodes,” Lab Chip,  15(1), 57–61 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Van Giel, Y. Meuret, and H. Thienpont, “Using a fly’s eye integrator in efficient illumination engines with multiple light-emitting diode light sources,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

R. S. West, “Side-emitting high-power LEDs and their application in illumination,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 171 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Ciou, Y. C. Chen, C. T. Pan, P. H. Lin, P. H. Lin, and F. T. Hsu, “Investigation of uniformity field generated from freeform lens with UV LED exposure system,” Proc. SPIE 9383, 93830S (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernàndez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, “Koehler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and U. D. Zeitner, “Homogeneous LED-illumination using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 188–196 (2005).

Other (3)

J. R. Sheats and B. W. Smith, Microlithography: science and technology (Marcel Dekker, 1998), Chap. 2.

SUSS MicroTec datasheet https://www.suss.com/en/products-solutions/mask-aligner

R. Winston, W. T. Welford, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging optics (Elsevier Academic, 2005), Chap. 2.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the illumination optics of a mask-aligner with MO Exposure Optics.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the illumination optics of a mask-aligner when replacing the mercury arc lamp with an array of LEDs and reflectors.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the parabolic compound concentrator.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fan used to form the reflectors. The two symmetrical active surfaces are polished.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mechanical design of the reflector. Notice the repeated fan.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Irradiance distribution at the output of the reflectors. Each channel can be identified as there is lost space between the channels.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Intensity distribution after one reflector. The angles are contained within ±10°. The uniformity is within ±5 % (b) Intensity distribution after the reflectors and the Fly’s eye integrator. The angular extent is ±10° and the uniformity is within ±3 %.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Print test results in (a) and (b) contact printing and (c) and (b) in proximity printing with a proximity gap of 30 μm.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Power efficiency with a specular reflectance of 66 %

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Table 2 Expected irradiance for LEDs module of different sizes

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Table 3 Summary of the uniformity measurements

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = n 2 S Ω d x d y d L d M
r = 2 f sin ( ϕ θ max ) 1 cos ϕ a , z = 2 f cos ( ϕ θ max ) 1 cos ϕ , f = a ( 1 + sin θ max )
l = a ( 1 + sin θ max ) cos θ max sin 2 θ max , a = a sin θ max
U = I max I min I max + I min

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