Abstract

We report the intermittent burst of a super rogue wave in the multi-soliton (MS) regime of an anomalous-dispersion fiber ring cavity. We exploit the spatio-temporal measurement technique to log and capture the shot-to-shot wave dynamics of various pulse events in the cavity, and obtain the corresponding intensity probability density function, which eventually unveils the inherent nature of the extreme events encompassed therein. In the breathing MS regime, a specific MS regime with heavy soliton population, the natural probability of pulse interaction among solitons and dispersive waves exponentially increases owing to the extraordinarily high soliton population density. Combination of the probabilistically started soliton interactions and subsequently accompanying dispersive waves in their vicinity triggers an avalanche of extreme events with even higher intensities, culminating to a burst of a super rogue wave nearly ten times stronger than the average solitons observed in the cavity. Without any cavity modification or control, the process naturally and intermittently recurs within a time scale in the order of ten seconds.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

R. El Koussaifi, A. Tikan, A. Toffoli, S. Randoux, P. Suret, and M. Onorato, “Spontaneous emergence of rogue waves in partially coherent waves: a quantitative experimental comparison between hydrodynamics and optics,” Phys. Rev. E 97(1), 012208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

2016 (7)

Y. Kwon, L. A. V. -Zuniga, K. Park, S. Lee, H. Chang, and Y. Jeong, “Combinatorial study of supercontinuum generation dynamics in photonic crystal fibers pumped by ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(6), 6400311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. U. Alam, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Pozharov, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Generation of stretched pulses and dissipative solitons at 2 μm from an all-fiber mode-locked laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3864–3867 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Garcia-Sanchez, O. Pottiez, Y. Bracamontes-Rodriguez, J. P. Lauterio-Cruz, H. E. Ibarra-Villalon, J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Bello-Jimenez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Complex dynamics of a fiber laser in non-stationary pulsed operation,” Opt. Express 24(17), 18917–18930 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gao, T. Zhu, S. Wabnitz, M. Liu, and W. Huang, “Coherence loss of partially mode-locked fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24995 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Peng, N. Tarasov, S. Sugavanam, and D. Churkin, “Rogue waves generation via nonlinear soliton collision in multiple-soliton state of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21256–21263 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Slunyaev and E. N. Pelinovsky, “Role of multiple soliton interactions in the generation of rogue waves: The modified Korteweg–de Vries framework,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(21), 214501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

Z. Cheng, H. Li, and P. Wang, “Simulation of generation of dissipative soliton, dissipative soliton resonance and noise-like pulse in Yb-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5972–5981 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chabchoub, B. Kibler, C. Finot, G. Millot, M. Onorato, J. M. Dudley, and A. V. Babanin, “The nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the propagation of weakly nonlinear waves in optical fibers and on the water surface,” Ann. Phys. 361, 490–500 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Afzal, K. Alameh, and Y. Lee, “Blue-shifted rogue waves generation in normal dispersion fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2323–2326 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, Z. R. Cai, S. Hu, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, W. C. Xu, and Z. C. Luo, “Dissipative rogue waves induced by long-range chaotic multi-pulse interactions in a fiber laser with a topological insulator-deposited microfiber photonic device,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4767–4770 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

C. Lecaplain and P. Grelu, “Rogue waves among noiselike-pulse laser emission: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013805 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. F. Runge, C. Aguergaray, N. G. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Raman rogue waves in a partially mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 319–322 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jeong, L. A. V. Zuniga, S. Lee, and Y. Kwon, “On the formation of noise-like pulses in fiber ring cavity configurations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 575–592 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. F. Runge, C. Aguergaray, N. G. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Coherence and shot-to-shot spectral fluctuations in noise-like ultrafast fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4327–4330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev, J. Dudley, D. Solli, and S. Turitsyn, “Recent progress in investigating optical rogue waves,” J. Opt. 15(6), 060201 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fiber lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

L. A. V. Zuniga and Y. Jeong, “Super-broadband noise-like pulse erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a highly nonlinear fiber for Raman gain enhancement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1549–1551 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Zaviyalov, O. Egorov, R. Iliew, and F. Lederer, “Rogue waves in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 013828 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Driben and I. Babushkin, “Accelerated rogue waves generated by soliton fusion at the advanced stage of supercontinuum formation in photonic-crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5157–5159 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. Hu, C. Gao, H. Zhang, Z. Yang, H. Wang, X. Wang, C. Li, and D. Shen, “Numerical investigation of soliton molecules with variable separation in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1356–1361 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves: Extreme pulses generated by passively mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 84(1), 016604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chabchoub, N. P. Hoffmann, and N. Akhmediev, “Rogue wave observation in a water wave tank,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 204502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

N. Akhmediev and E. Pelinovsky, “Editorial–Introductory remarks on “Discussion and Debate: Rogue waves- towards a unifying concept?” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185(1), 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Shats, H. Punzmann, and H. Xia, “Capillary rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 104503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Stenflo and M. Marklund, “Rogue waves in the atmosphere,” J. Plasma Phys. 76(3-4), 293–295 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, “Colloquium: Looking at a soliton through the prism of optical supercontinuum,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1287–1299 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Experimental signatures of dispersive waves emitted during soliton collisions,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13379–13384 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y. Bludov, V. Konotop, and N. Akhmediev, “Matter rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033610 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and P. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. Onorato, A. R. Osborne, and M. Serio, “Modulational instability in crossing sea states: A possible mechanism for the formation of freak waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(1), 014503 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Perkins, “Dashing rogues: freak ocean waves pose threat to ships, deep-sea oil platforms,” Sci. News 170(21), 328–329 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Chong, J. Buckley, W. Renninger, and F. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10095–10100 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053809 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, L. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Soliton collapse and bunched noise-like pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2289–2294 (2005).
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Afzal, M.

M. Afzal, K. Alameh, and Y. Lee, “Blue-shifted rogue waves generation in normal dispersion fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2323–2326 (2015).
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Aguergaray, C.

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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N. Akhmediev, J. Dudley, D. Solli, and S. Turitsyn, “Recent progress in investigating optical rogue waves,” J. Opt. 15(6), 060201 (2013).
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P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
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C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
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J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves: Extreme pulses generated by passively mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 84(1), 016604 (2011).
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A. Chabchoub, N. P. Hoffmann, and N. Akhmediev, “Rogue wave observation in a water wave tank,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 204502 (2011).
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N. Akhmediev and E. Pelinovsky, “Editorial–Introductory remarks on “Discussion and Debate: Rogue waves- towards a unifying concept?” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185(1), 1–4 (2010).
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Y. Bludov, V. Konotop, and N. Akhmediev, “Matter rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033610 (2009).
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N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and P. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
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Alam, S. U.

Alameh, K.

M. Afzal, K. Alameh, and Y. Lee, “Blue-shifted rogue waves generation in normal dispersion fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2323–2326 (2015).
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Amiraranashvili, S.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Arecchi, F.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Babanin, A. V.

A. Chabchoub, B. Kibler, C. Finot, G. Millot, M. Onorato, J. M. Dudley, and A. V. Babanin, “The nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the propagation of weakly nonlinear waves in optical fibers and on the water surface,” Ann. Phys. 361, 490–500 (2015).
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Babushkin, I.

Barad, Y.

Baronio, F.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Belic, M.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Bello-Jimenez, M.

Bendahmane, A.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Bertone, S.

M. Onorato, A. R. Osborne, M. Serio, and S. Bertone, “Freak waves in random oceanic sea states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(25), 5831–5834 (2001).
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Bludov, Y.

Y. Bludov, V. Konotop, and N. Akhmediev, “Matter rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033610 (2009).
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Bortolozzo, U.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Bracamontes-Rodriguez, Y.

Bree, C.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Broderick, N.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Broderick, N. G.

Buckley, J.

Cai, Z. R.

Chabchoub, A.

A. Chabchoub, B. Kibler, C. Finot, G. Millot, M. Onorato, J. M. Dudley, and A. V. Babanin, “The nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the propagation of weakly nonlinear waves in optical fibers and on the water surface,” Ann. Phys. 361, 490–500 (2015).
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A. Chabchoub, N. P. Hoffmann, and N. Akhmediev, “Rogue wave observation in a water wave tank,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 204502 (2011).
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Chang, H.

Y. Kwon, L. A. V. -Zuniga, K. Park, S. Lee, H. Chang, and Y. Jeong, “Combinatorial study of supercontinuum generation dynamics in photonic crystal fibers pumped by ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(6), 6400311 (2016).
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Chang, W.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Chong, A.

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S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
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D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7004 (2015).
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Coulibaly, S.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Crespo, J. M. S.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Davis, M.

Demircan, A.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Deng, Z.

Digonnet, M.

Driben, R.

Dudley, J.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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N. Akhmediev, J. Dudley, D. Solli, and S. Turitsyn, “Recent progress in investigating optical rogue waves,” J. Opt. 15(6), 060201 (2013).
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Dudley, J. M.

A. Chabchoub, B. Kibler, C. Finot, G. Millot, M. Onorato, J. M. Dudley, and A. V. Babanin, “The nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the propagation of weakly nonlinear waves in optical fibers and on the water surface,” Ann. Phys. 361, 490–500 (2015).
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M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Experimental signatures of dispersive waves emitted during soliton collisions,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13379–13384 (2010).
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A. Zaviyalov, O. Egorov, R. Iliew, and F. Lederer, “Rogue waves in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 013828 (2012).
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R. El Koussaifi, A. Tikan, A. Toffoli, S. Randoux, P. Suret, and M. Onorato, “Spontaneous emergence of rogue waves in partially coherent waves: a quantitative experimental comparison between hydrodynamics and optics,” Phys. Rev. E 97(1), 012208 (2018).
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Erkintalo, M.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Experimental signatures of dispersive waves emitted during soliton collisions,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13379–13384 (2010).
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A. Chabchoub, B. Kibler, C. Finot, G. Millot, M. Onorato, J. M. Dudley, and A. V. Babanin, “The nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the propagation of weakly nonlinear waves in optical fibers and on the water surface,” Ann. Phys. 361, 490–500 (2015).
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X. Li, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. Hu, C. Gao, H. Zhang, Z. Yang, H. Wang, X. Wang, C. Li, and D. Shen, “Numerical investigation of soliton molecules with variable separation in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 1356–1361 (2012).
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L. Gao, T. Zhu, S. Wabnitz, M. Liu, and W. Huang, “Coherence loss of partially mode-locked fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24995 (2016).
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P. Muller, C. Garrett, and A. Osborne, “Rogue waves,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 18, 66–75 (2005).

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N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. S. Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. Broderick, A. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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C. Lecaplain and P. Grelu, “Rogue waves among noiselike-pulse laser emission: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013805 (2014).
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P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
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C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
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D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Progression of the optical spectrum of the breathing MS regime with respect to time: Tn denotes that the typical time when the breathing MS regime is in State n.
» Visualization 2       Intermittent burst of an optical super rogue wave

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for a passively mode-locked EDF ring laser cavity based on NPR.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Characteristics of the stable MS regime: (a) optical spectrum; (b) autocorrelation trace; (c) spatio-temporal measurement result in a 60-ns span; spatio-temporal measurement result in a 20-ns span; (e) IPDF for the whole pulse events in the cavity.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Characteristics of the breathing MS regime: (a) optical spectrum; (b) zoomed-in view of the Kelly sidebands encircled by the dashed line; (c) IPDFs for State 1, State 3, and State 5.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Intermittent super RW burst: (a) Spatio-temporal measurement result and (b) IPDF for the whole pulse events in the cavity.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Burst of a super RW mediated by dispersive waves: Spatio-temporal measurement result (a) in the original color scale and (b) in the adjusted color scale such that the background events with relative intensities below 0.02 were deliberately fixed to a dark color for visual aids. In (a), the arrows point out the soliton fission events triggered by dispersive waves.

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