Abstract

Plastic scintillators are widely used in various radiation measurement systems. However, detection efficiency and signal-to-noise are limited due to the total internal reflection, especially for weak signal detection situations. In the present investigation, large-area photonic crystals consisting of an array of periodic truncated cone holes were prepared based on hot embossing technology aiming at coupling with the surface of plastic scintillator to improve the light extraction efficiency and directionality control. The experimental results show that a maximum enhancement of 64% at 25° emergence angle along Γ-M orientation and a maximum enhancement of 58% at 20° emergence angle along Γ-K orientation were obtained. The proposed fabrication method of photonic crystal scintillator can avoid complicated pattern transfer processes used in most traditional methods, leading to a simple, economical method for large-area preparation. The photonic crystal scintillator demonstrated in this work is of great value for practical applications of nuclear radiation detection.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  5. K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
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  20. Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. S. Yi, and R. H. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 211, 1583–1588 (2014).
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    [PubMed]
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  27. M. Bahl, G. R. Zhou, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, M. M. Jiang, R. Scarmozzino, G. G. Gregory, and D. Herrmann, “Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods,” Opt. Eng. 54, 045105 (2015).
  28. Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 241901 (2015).

2017 (3)

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. Liu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, and C. Xue, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 051901 (2017).

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

2016 (2)

2015 (8)

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

Y. Chen, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography/hot embossing: a review,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 121, 451–465 (2015).

M. Bahl, G. R. Zhou, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, M. M. Jiang, R. Scarmozzino, G. G. Gregory, and D. Herrmann, “Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods,” Opt. Eng. 54, 045105 (2015).

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 241901 (2015).

M. Nikl and A. Yoshikawa, “Recent R&D Trends in Inorganic Single-Crystal Scintillator Materials for Radiation Detection,” Adv. Opti. Mater. 3, 463–481 (2015).

Y. S. Yi and B. Liu, “Scintillator Detectors with Integrated Nanophotonics for Medical Imaging,” Photon. Spectra 49, 58–62 (2015).

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, W. Ren, C. Cheng, S. Wu, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction of LYSO scintillator by using a combination of self-assembly of nanospheres and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7085–7093 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 704–710 (2015).

2014 (2)

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. S. Yi, and R. H. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 211, 1583–1588 (2014).

Y. J. Deng, P. Y. Yi, L. F. Peng, X. M. Lai, and Z. Q. Lin, “Experimental investigation on the large-area fabrication of micro-pyramid arrays by roll-to-roll hot embossing on PVC film,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 045023 (2014).

2013 (3)

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, W. L. Guo, S. M. Huang, H. Chen, M. Gu, C. Ni, and X. L. Liu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency for glass scintillator coupled with two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Mater. 35, 2343–2346 (2013).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 071909 (2013).

L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, J. Liu, L. Quan, and Z. Zhang, “Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(1), 013103 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (3)

E. Kuramochi, K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, and K. Takeda, “Large-scale integration of wavelength-addressable all-optical memories on a photonic crystal chip,” Nat. Photonics 8, 474–481 (2012).

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of Photonic Crystal Enhanced Light Extraction on Heavy Inorganic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59, 2334–2339 (2012).

P. Pignalosa, B. Liu, H. Chen, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Giant light extraction enhancement of medical imaging scintillation materials using biologically inspired integrated nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2808–2810 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (3)

X. Liu, S. Chen, W. Zang, and J. Tian, “Triple-layer guided-mode resonance Brewster filter consisting of a homogenous layer and coupled gratings with equal refractive index,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8233–8241 (2011).
[PubMed]

X. Z. Ye and L. M. Qi, “Two-dimensionally patterned nanostructures based on monolayer colloidal crystals: Controllable fabrication, assembly, and applications,” Nano Today 6, 608–631 (2011).

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, A. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-Assembled Photonic Structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[PubMed]

2008 (3)

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Probing the concepts of photonic crystals on scintillating materials,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 1102–1106 (2008).

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).

2006 (1)

B. Kesanli, K. Hong, K. Meyer, H. J. Im, and S. Dai, “Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214104 (2006).

Auffray, E.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of Photonic Crystal Enhanced Light Extraction on Heavy Inorganic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59, 2334–2339 (2012).

M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Probing the concepts of photonic crystals on scintillating materials,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 1102–1106 (2008).

Bahl, M.

M. Bahl, G. R. Zhou, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, M. M. Jiang, R. Scarmozzino, G. G. Gregory, and D. Herrmann, “Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods,” Opt. Eng. 54, 045105 (2015).

Blanco, A.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, A. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-Assembled Photonic Structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[PubMed]

Cassarly, W.

M. Bahl, G. R. Zhou, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, M. M. Jiang, R. Scarmozzino, G. G. Gregory, and D. Herrmann, “Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods,” Opt. Eng. 54, 045105 (2015).

Chen, H.

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. Liu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, and C. Xue, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 051901 (2017).

S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, W. Ren, C. Cheng, S. Wu, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction of LYSO scintillator by using a combination of self-assembly of nanospheres and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7085–7093 (2015).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 241901 (2015).

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 704–710 (2015).

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. S. Yi, and R. H. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 211, 1583–1588 (2014).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 071909 (2013).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, W. L. Guo, S. M. Huang, H. Chen, M. Gu, C. Ni, and X. L. Liu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency for glass scintillator coupled with two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Mater. 35, 2343–2346 (2013).

P. Pignalosa, B. Liu, H. Chen, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Giant light extraction enhancement of medical imaging scintillation materials using biologically inspired integrated nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2808–2810 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chen, L.

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. Liu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, and C. Xue, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 051901 (2017).

S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, J. Liu, L. Quan, and Z. Zhang, “Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(1), 013103 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chen, S.

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 704–710 (2015).

X. Liu, S. Chen, W. Zang, and J. Tian, “Triple-layer guided-mode resonance Brewster filter consisting of a homogenous layer and coupled gratings with equal refractive index,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8233–8241 (2011).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography/hot embossing: a review,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 121, 451–465 (2015).

Cheng, C.

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. Liu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, and C. Xue, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 051901 (2017).

S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, W. Ren, C. Cheng, S. Wu, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction of LYSO scintillator by using a combination of self-assembly of nanospheres and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7085–7093 (2015).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 241901 (2015).

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

Cheng, C. W.

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. S. Yi, and R. H. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 211, 1583–1588 (2014).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, W. L. Guo, S. M. Huang, H. Chen, M. Gu, C. Ni, and X. L. Liu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency for glass scintillator coupled with two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Mater. 35, 2343–2346 (2013).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 071909 (2013).

Cheng, H.

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 704–710 (2015).

Chou, C. P.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[PubMed]

Dai, S.

B. Kesanli, K. Hong, K. Meyer, H. J. Im, and S. Dai, “Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214104 (2006).

David, A.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).

DenBaars, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).

Deng, Y. J.

Y. J. Deng, P. Y. Yi, L. F. Peng, X. M. Lai, and Z. Q. Lin, “Experimental investigation on the large-area fabrication of micro-pyramid arrays by roll-to-roll hot embossing on PVC film,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 045023 (2014).

Ding, Y.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[PubMed]

Dong, J.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[PubMed]

Fabjan, C. W.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of Photonic Crystal Enhanced Light Extraction on Heavy Inorganic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59, 2334–2339 (2012).

Frandsen, L. H.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[PubMed]

Froufe-Pérez, L. S.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, A. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-Assembled Photonic Structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[PubMed]

Fu, C. C.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[PubMed]

Galisteo-López, J. F.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, A. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-Assembled Photonic Structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[PubMed]

Gregory, G. G.

M. Bahl, G. R. Zhou, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, M. M. Jiang, R. Scarmozzino, G. G. Gregory, and D. Herrmann, “Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods,” Opt. Eng. 54, 045105 (2015).

Gu, C.

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 704–710 (2015).

Gu, M.

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. Liu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, and C. Xue, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 051901 (2017).

S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, W. Ren, C. Cheng, S. Wu, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction of LYSO scintillator by using a combination of self-assembly of nanospheres and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7085–7093 (2015).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 241901 (2015).

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. S. Yi, and R. H. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 211, 1583–1588 (2014).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 071909 (2013).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, W. L. Guo, S. M. Huang, H. Chen, M. Gu, C. Ni, and X. L. Liu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency for glass scintillator coupled with two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Mater. 35, 2343–2346 (2013).

Guo, W. L.

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, W. L. Guo, S. M. Huang, H. Chen, M. Gu, C. Ni, and X. L. Liu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency for glass scintillator coupled with two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Mater. 35, 2343–2346 (2013).

He, S.

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

Heller, E.

M. Bahl, G. R. Zhou, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, M. M. Jiang, R. Scarmozzino, G. G. Gregory, and D. Herrmann, “Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods,” Opt. Eng. 54, 045105 (2015).

Herrmann, D.

M. Bahl, G. R. Zhou, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, M. M. Jiang, R. Scarmozzino, G. G. Gregory, and D. Herrmann, “Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods,” Opt. Eng. 54, 045105 (2015).

Hong, K.

B. Kesanli, K. Hong, K. Meyer, H. J. Im, and S. Dai, “Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214104 (2006).

Hu, E. L.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).

Hu, J.

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

Huang, M. C.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[PubMed]

Huang, S. M.

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, W. L. Guo, S. M. Huang, H. Chen, M. Gu, C. Ni, and X. L. Liu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency for glass scintillator coupled with two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Mater. 35, 2343–2346 (2013).

Ibisate, M.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, A. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-Assembled Photonic Structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[PubMed]

Im, H. J.

B. Kesanli, K. Hong, K. Meyer, H. J. Im, and S. Dai, “Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214104 (2006).

Iza, M.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).

Jiang, M. M.

M. Bahl, G. R. Zhou, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, M. M. Jiang, R. Scarmozzino, G. G. Gregory, and D. Herrmann, “Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods,” Opt. Eng. 54, 045105 (2015).

Kesanli, B.

B. Kesanli, K. Hong, K. Meyer, H. J. Im, and S. Dai, “Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214104 (2006).

Khanin, V.

C. Ronda, H. Wieczorek, V. Khanin, and P. Rodnyi, “Review-Scintillators for Medical Imaging: A Tutorial Overview,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 5, R3121–R3125 (2016).

Knapitsch, A.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of Photonic Crystal Enhanced Light Extraction on Heavy Inorganic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59, 2334–2339 (2012).

Kronberger, M.

M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Probing the concepts of photonic crystals on scintillating materials,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 1102–1106 (2008).

Kuramochi, E.

E. Kuramochi, K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, and K. Takeda, “Large-scale integration of wavelength-addressable all-optical memories on a photonic crystal chip,” Nat. Photonics 8, 474–481 (2012).

Lai, X. M.

Y. J. Deng, P. Y. Yi, L. F. Peng, X. M. Lai, and Z. Q. Lin, “Experimental investigation on the large-area fabrication of micro-pyramid arrays by roll-to-roll hot embossing on PVC film,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 045023 (2014).

Leclercq, J. L.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of Photonic Crystal Enhanced Light Extraction on Heavy Inorganic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59, 2334–2339 (2012).

Lecoq, P.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of Photonic Crystal Enhanced Light Extraction on Heavy Inorganic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59, 2334–2339 (2012).

M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Probing the concepts of photonic crystals on scintillating materials,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 1102–1106 (2008).

Letartre, X.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of Photonic Crystal Enhanced Light Extraction on Heavy Inorganic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59, 2334–2339 (2012).

Li, J.

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 704–710 (2015).

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 704–710 (2015).

Lin, Z. Q.

Y. J. Deng, P. Y. Yi, L. F. Peng, X. M. Lai, and Z. Q. Lin, “Experimental investigation on the large-area fabrication of micro-pyramid arrays by roll-to-roll hot embossing on PVC film,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 045023 (2014).

Liu, B.

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. Liu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, and C. Xue, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 051901 (2017).

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 241901 (2015).

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, W. Ren, C. Cheng, S. Wu, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction of LYSO scintillator by using a combination of self-assembly of nanospheres and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7085–7093 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. S. Yi and B. Liu, “Scintillator Detectors with Integrated Nanophotonics for Medical Imaging,” Photon. Spectra 49, 58–62 (2015).

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. S. Yi, and R. H. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 211, 1583–1588 (2014).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 071909 (2013).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, W. L. Guo, S. M. Huang, H. Chen, M. Gu, C. Ni, and X. L. Liu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency for glass scintillator coupled with two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Mater. 35, 2343–2346 (2013).

L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, J. Liu, L. Quan, and Z. Zhang, “Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(1), 013103 (2013).
[PubMed]

P. Pignalosa, B. Liu, H. Chen, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Giant light extraction enhancement of medical imaging scintillation materials using biologically inspired integrated nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2808–2810 (2012).
[PubMed]

Liu, J.

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. Liu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, and C. Xue, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 051901 (2017).

S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, J. Liu, L. Quan, and Z. Zhang, “Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(1), 013103 (2013).
[PubMed]

Liu, J. L.

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

Liu, X.

Liu, X. L.

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, W. L. Guo, S. M. Huang, H. Chen, M. Gu, C. Ni, and X. L. Liu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency for glass scintillator coupled with two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Mater. 35, 2343–2346 (2013).

López, C.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, A. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-Assembled Photonic Structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[PubMed]

Mao, R. H.

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. S. Yi, and R. H. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 211, 1583–1588 (2014).

Matioli, E.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).

Mazurczyk, R.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of Photonic Crystal Enhanced Light Extraction on Heavy Inorganic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59, 2334–2339 (2012).

McGroddy, K.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).

Meyer, K.

B. Kesanli, K. Hong, K. Meyer, H. J. Im, and S. Dai, “Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214104 (2006).

Mortensen, N. A.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).

Ni, C.

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, W. L. Guo, S. M. Huang, H. Chen, M. Gu, C. Ni, and X. L. Liu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency for glass scintillator coupled with two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Mater. 35, 2343–2346 (2013).

Nikl, M.

M. Nikl and A. Yoshikawa, “Recent R&D Trends in Inorganic Single-Crystal Scintillator Materials for Radiation Detection,” Adv. Opti. Mater. 3, 463–481 (2015).

Nozaki, K.

E. Kuramochi, K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, and K. Takeda, “Large-scale integration of wavelength-addressable all-optical memories on a photonic crystal chip,” Nat. Photonics 8, 474–481 (2012).

Ouyang, X.

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. Liu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, and C. Xue, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 051901 (2017).

S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, J. Liu, L. Quan, and Z. Zhang, “Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(1), 013103 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ouyang, X. P.

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

Peng, L. F.

Y. J. Deng, P. Y. Yi, L. F. Peng, X. M. Lai, and Z. Q. Lin, “Experimental investigation on the large-area fabrication of micro-pyramid arrays by roll-to-roll hot embossing on PVC film,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 045023 (2014).

Pignalosa, P.

Qi, L. M.

X. Z. Ye and L. M. Qi, “Two-dimensionally patterned nanostructures based on monolayer colloidal crystals: Controllable fabrication, assembly, and applications,” Nano Today 6, 608–631 (2011).

Quan, L.

L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, J. Liu, L. Quan, and Z. Zhang, “Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(1), 013103 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ren, W.

Rodnyi, P.

C. Ronda, H. Wieczorek, V. Khanin, and P. Rodnyi, “Review-Scintillators for Medical Imaging: A Tutorial Overview,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 5, R3121–R3125 (2016).

Ronda, C.

C. Ronda, H. Wieczorek, V. Khanin, and P. Rodnyi, “Review-Scintillators for Medical Imaging: A Tutorial Overview,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 5, R3121–R3125 (2016).

Sapienza, R.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, A. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-Assembled Photonic Structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[PubMed]

Scarmozzino, R.

M. Bahl, G. R. Zhou, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, M. M. Jiang, R. Scarmozzino, G. G. Gregory, and D. Herrmann, “Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods,” Opt. Eng. 54, 045105 (2015).

Shinya, A.

E. Kuramochi, K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, and K. Takeda, “Large-scale integration of wavelength-addressable all-optical memories on a photonic crystal chip,” Nat. Photonics 8, 474–481 (2012).

Smith, H.

Speck, J. S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).

Takeda, K.

E. Kuramochi, K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, and K. Takeda, “Large-scale integration of wavelength-addressable all-optical memories on a photonic crystal chip,” Nat. Photonics 8, 474–481 (2012).

Tian, J.

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 704–710 (2015).

X. Liu, S. Chen, W. Zang, and J. Tian, “Triple-layer guided-mode resonance Brewster filter consisting of a homogenous layer and coupled gratings with equal refractive index,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8233–8241 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ting, C. J.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[PubMed]

Tsai, H. Y.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[PubMed]

Wang, L.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 241901 (2015).

Wang, Z.

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

Weisbuch, C.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).

Wieczorek, H.

C. Ronda, H. Wieczorek, V. Khanin, and P. Rodnyi, “Review-Scintillators for Medical Imaging: A Tutorial Overview,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 5, R3121–R3125 (2016).

Wu, Q.

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

Wu, S.

Wu, Y.

S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 241901 (2015).

Xiao, S.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[PubMed]

Xu, J.

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

Xue, C.

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. Liu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, and C. Xue, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 051901 (2017).

S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 241901 (2015).

Yan, S.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[PubMed]

Yang, H.

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 704–710 (2015).

Ye, X. Z.

X. Z. Ye and L. M. Qi, “Two-dimensionally patterned nanostructures based on monolayer colloidal crystals: Controllable fabrication, assembly, and applications,” Nano Today 6, 608–631 (2011).

Yi, P. Y.

Y. J. Deng, P. Y. Yi, L. F. Peng, X. M. Lai, and Z. Q. Lin, “Experimental investigation on the large-area fabrication of micro-pyramid arrays by roll-to-roll hot embossing on PVC film,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 045023 (2014).

Yi, Y.

Yi, Y. S.

Y. S. Yi and B. Liu, “Scintillator Detectors with Integrated Nanophotonics for Medical Imaging,” Photon. Spectra 49, 58–62 (2015).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. S. Yi, and R. H. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 211, 1583–1588 (2014).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 071909 (2013).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, W. L. Guo, S. M. Huang, H. Chen, M. Gu, C. Ni, and X. L. Liu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency for glass scintillator coupled with two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Mater. 35, 2343–2346 (2013).

Yoshikawa, A.

M. Nikl and A. Yoshikawa, “Recent R&D Trends in Inorganic Single-Crystal Scintillator Materials for Radiation Detection,” Adv. Opti. Mater. 3, 463–481 (2015).

Yu, P.

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 704–710 (2015).

Zang, W.

Zhang, H.

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. Liu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, and C. Xue, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 051901 (2017).

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, W. Ren, C. Cheng, S. Wu, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction of LYSO scintillator by using a combination of self-assembly of nanospheres and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7085–7093 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, J. Liu, L. Quan, and Z. Zhang, “Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(1), 013103 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Z. B.

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

Zhao, J.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 241901 (2015).

Zhou, G. R.

M. Bahl, G. R. Zhou, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, M. M. Jiang, R. Scarmozzino, G. G. Gregory, and D. Herrmann, “Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods,” Opt. Eng. 54, 045105 (2015).

Zhu, X.

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[PubMed]

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. Liu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, and C. Xue, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 051901 (2017).

S. Wu, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, L. Chen, J. Liu, X. Ouyang, C. Xue, and Y. Wu, “Guided-mode resonance assisted directional emission of a wavelength-shifting film for application in scintillation detection,” Opt. Express 24(1), 231–238 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, W. Ren, C. Cheng, S. Wu, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction of LYSO scintillator by using a combination of self-assembly of nanospheres and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7085–7093 (2015).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 241901 (2015).

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

Zhu, Z. C.

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. S. Yi, and R. H. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 211, 1583–1588 (2014).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 071909 (2013).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, W. L. Guo, S. M. Huang, H. Chen, M. Gu, C. Ni, and X. L. Liu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency for glass scintillator coupled with two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Mater. 35, 2343–2346 (2013).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 704–710 (2015).

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, A. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-Assembled Photonic Structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[PubMed]

Adv. Opti. Mater. (1)

M. Nikl and A. Yoshikawa, “Recent R&D Trends in Inorganic Single-Crystal Scintillator Materials for Radiation Detection,” Adv. Opti. Mater. 3, 463–481 (2015).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

B. Kesanli, K. Hong, K. Meyer, H. J. Im, and S. Dai, “Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214104 (2006).

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 071909 (2013).

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Gu, J. Liu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, and C. Xue, “Enhancement of directional broadband luminescence from a scintillation film via guided-mode resonance in a photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 051901 (2017).

B. Liu, Q. Wu, Z. C. Zhu, C. W. Cheng, M. Gu, J. Xu, H. Chen, J. L. Liu, L. Chen, Z. B. Zhang, and X. P. Ouyang, “Directional emission of quantum dot scintillators controlled by photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081904 (2017).

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 241901 (2015).

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

Y. Chen, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography/hot embossing: a review,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 121, 451–465 (2015).

ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Ronda, H. Wieczorek, V. Khanin, and P. Rodnyi, “Review-Scintillators for Medical Imaging: A Tutorial Overview,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 5, R3121–R3125 (2016).

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (2)

M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Probing the concepts of photonic crystals on scintillating materials,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 1102–1106 (2008).

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of Photonic Crystal Enhanced Light Extraction on Heavy Inorganic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59, 2334–2339 (2012).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

Y. J. Deng, P. Y. Yi, L. F. Peng, X. M. Lai, and Z. Q. Lin, “Experimental investigation on the large-area fabrication of micro-pyramid arrays by roll-to-roll hot embossing on PVC film,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24, 045023 (2014).

Nano Today (1)

X. Z. Ye and L. M. Qi, “Two-dimensionally patterned nanostructures based on monolayer colloidal crystals: Controllable fabrication, assembly, and applications,” Nano Today 6, 608–631 (2011).

Nanotechnology (1)

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. Kuramochi, K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, and K. Takeda, “Large-scale integration of wavelength-addressable all-optical memories on a photonic crystal chip,” Nat. Photonics 8, 474–481 (2012).

Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A (1)

J. Liu, Z. Zhu, L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, C. Cheng, J. Hu, S. He, Z. Wang, M. Gu, and H. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method,” Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section A 795, 305–308 (2015).

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Bahl, G. R. Zhou, E. Heller, W. Cassarly, M. M. Jiang, R. Scarmozzino, G. G. Gregory, and D. Herrmann, “Mixed-level optical simulations of light-emitting diodes based on a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods,” Opt. Eng. 54, 045105 (2015).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, Y. S. Yi, W. L. Guo, S. M. Huang, H. Chen, M. Gu, C. Ni, and X. L. Liu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency for glass scintillator coupled with two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” Opt. Mater. 35, 2343–2346 (2013).

Photon. Spectra (1)

Y. S. Yi and B. Liu, “Scintillator Detectors with Integrated Nanophotonics for Medical Imaging,” Photon. Spectra 49, 58–62 (2015).

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

Z. C. Zhu, B. Liu, C. W. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. S. Yi, and R. H. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 211, 1583–1588 (2014).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. Chen, X. Ouyang, B. Liu, J. Liu, L. Quan, and Z. Zhang, “Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(1), 013103 (2013).
[PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of hot embossing process for preparing photonic crystal structure on a plastic scintillator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the measurement device for the angle-resolved emission spectrum with two different visual angles (a) and (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of simulation method by combining RCWA and Monte Carlo ray tracing.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM image of the surface morphology of the structured PS sample after hot embossing (a), and schematic illustration for the structure and the defined orientations (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Emission spectrum of the PS sample (a). The simulated transmission spectra at the wavelength of 393 nm for the plain PS as a reference and the structured PS along Γ-K orientation for p-polarization (b) and s-polarization (c), respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated spatial distribution of light emission at the wavelength of 393 nm for the reference sample (a) and the structured sample (b). Experimental and simulated angular profiles of light emission at the wavelength of 393 nm for the reference sample and the structured sample along Γ-M orientation (c) and Γ-K orientation (d).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental (a) and simulated (b) angle-dependent emission enhancement spectra along Γ-M orientation. Simulated angular profiles of emission enhancement at different wavelengths along Γ-M orientation (c). Experimental (d) and simulated (e) angle-dependence emission enhancement spectra along Γ-K orientation. Simulated angular profiles of emission enhancement at different wavelengths along Γ-K orientation (f).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Simulated spatial distributions of electric-field intensity at 393 nm for the structured sample. The cylindrical holes and the PS layer interfaces are outlined using black lines. A plane wave with different angle and polarization was used to incident to the interface of photonic crystal for (a) p-polarization, 0°, (b) p-polarization, 10°, (c) p-polarization, 64.5°, (d) s-polarization, 0°, (e) s-polarization, 10°, and (f) s-polarization, 64.5°.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

| k / / +n G 0 | < 2 π λ 0
θ em = arc sin ( ( λ 0 2 π ) | k / / +n G 0 | )

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