Abstract

The value and spectral dependence of the reflectance coefficient (ρ) of skylight from wind-roughened ocean surfaces is critical for determining accurate water leaving radiance and remote sensing reflectances from shipborne, AERONET-Ocean Color and satellite observations. Using a vector radiative transfer code, spectra of the reflectance coefficient and corresponding radiances near the ocean surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are simulated for a broad range of parameters including flat and windy ocean surfaces with wind speeds up to 15 m/s, aerosol optical thicknesses of 0-1 at 440nm, wavelengths of 400-900 nm, and variable Sun and viewing zenith angles. Results revealed a profound impact of the aerosol load and type on the spectral values of ρ. Such impacts, not included yet in standard processing, may produce significant inaccuracies in the reflectance spectra retrieved from above-water radiometry and satellite observations. Implications for satellite cal/val activities as well as potential changes in measurement and data processing schemes are discussed.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

A. Ibrahim, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, R. Healy, K. Knobelspiesse, B.-C. Gao, C. Proctor, and P.-W. Zhai, “Atmospheric correction for hyperspectral ocean color retrieval with application to the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO),” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 60–75 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Harmel, M. Chami, T. Tormos, N. Reynaud, and P.-A. Danis, “Sunglint correction of the Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI)-SENTINEL-2 imagery over inland and sea waters from SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 308–321 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

A. Gilerson, E. Herrera, Y. Klein, R. Foster, B. Gross, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Characterization of aerosol parameters over ocean from the Ocean Color satellite sensors and AERONET-OC data,” Proc. SPIE 10422, 104220H (2017).

X. Zhang, S. He, A. Shabani, P. W. Zhai, and K. Du, “Spectral sea surface reflectance of skylight,” Opt. Express 25(4), A1–A13 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2010 (4)

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49(29), 5545–5560 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lee, Y.-H. Ahn, C. Mobley, and R. Arnone, “Removal of surface-reflected light for the measurement of remote-sensing reflectance from an above-surface platform,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26313–26324 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 1025–1040 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23(13), 2693–2702 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

1996 (1)

E. P. Zege and L. I. Chaikovskaya, “New Approach to the Polarized Radiative Transfer Problem,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 55(1), 19–31 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1985 (1)

T. Takashima, “Polarization effect on radiative transfer in planetary composite atmospheres with interacting interface,” Earth Moon Planets 33(1), 59–97 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

J. Lenoble and C. Brogniez, “A comparative review of radiation aerosol models,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 57, 1–20 (1984).

1954 (1)

Ahmad, Z.

A. Ibrahim, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, R. Healy, K. Knobelspiesse, B.-C. Gao, C. Proctor, and P.-W. Zhai, “Atmospheric correction for hyperspectral ocean color retrieval with application to the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO),” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 60–75 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49(29), 5545–5560 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, S.

Ahmed, S. A.

Ahn, Y.-H.

Arnone, R.

Bailey, S. W.

Berthon, J. F.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brady, P.

Brady, P. C.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brogniez, C.

J. Lenoble and C. Brogniez, “A comparative review of radiation aerosol models,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 57, 1–20 (1984).

Budak, V. P.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Burton, S.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cairns, B.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, and M. Mishchenko, “Information content of aerosol retrievals in the sunglint region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(3), 631–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5542–5567 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrizo, C.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cetinic, I.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chaikovskaya, L. I.

Chami, M.

Chowdhary, J.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Chami, B. Lafrance, B. Fougnie, J. Chowdhary, T. Harmel, and F. Waquet, “OSOAA: a vector radiative transfer model of coupled atmosphere-ocean system for a rough sea surface application to the estimates of the directional variations of the water leaving reflectance to better process multi-angular satellite sensors data over the ocean,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27829–27852 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Chowdhary, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization impacts on the water-leaving radiance retrieval from above-water radiometric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51(35), 8324–8340 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 1025–1040 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5542–5567 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C-Labonnote, L.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cornet, C.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cox, C.

Cummings, M. E.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Gilerson, J. Stepinski, A. I. Ibrahim, Y. You, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, B. Russell, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Benthic effects on the polarization of light in shallow waters,” Appl. Opt. 52(36), 8685–8705 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Alimonte, D.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Danis, P.-A.

T. Harmel, M. Chami, T. Tormos, N. Reynaud, and P.-A. Danis, “Sunglint correction of the Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI)-SENTINEL-2 imagery over inland and sea waters from SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 308–321 (2018).
[Crossref]

Deschamps, P. Y.

Dierssen, H. M.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Gilerson, J. Stepinski, A. I. Ibrahim, Y. You, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, B. Russell, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Benthic effects on the polarization of light in shallow waters,” Appl. Opt. 52(36), 8685–8705 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dilligeard, E.

Du, K.

Duan, M.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

El-Habashi, A.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

Emde, C.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Etheredge, R. I.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabbri, B. E.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, H.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Foster, R.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Gilerson, E. Herrera, Y. Klein, R. Foster, B. Gross, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Characterization of aerosol parameters over ocean from the Ocean Color satellite sensors and AERONET-OC data,” Proc. SPIE 10422, 104220H (2017).

R. Foster and A. Gilerson, “Polarized transfer functions of the ocean surface for above-surface determination of the vector submarine light field,” Appl. Opt. 55(33), 9476–9494 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hlaing, A. Gilerson, R. Foster, M. Wang, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Radiometric calibration of ocean color satellite sensors using AERONET-OC data,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23385–23401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fougnie, B.

Franz, B.

A. Ibrahim, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, R. Healy, K. Knobelspiesse, B.-C. Gao, C. Proctor, and P.-W. Zhai, “Atmospheric correction for hyperspectral ocean color retrieval with application to the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO),” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 60–75 (2018).
[Crossref]

Franz, B. A.

Frouin, R.

Frouin, R. J.

R. J. Frouin and L. S. Gross-Colzy, “Contribution of ultraviolet and shortwave infrared observations to atmospheric correction of PACE ocean-color imagery,” Proc. SPIE 9878, 98780C (2016).
[Crossref]

Fry, E. S.

Gao, B.-C.

A. Ibrahim, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, R. Healy, K. Knobelspiesse, B.-C. Gao, C. Proctor, and P.-W. Zhai, “Atmospheric correction for hyperspectral ocean color retrieval with application to the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO),” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 60–75 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gao, M.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilerson, A.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Gilerson, E. Herrera, Y. Klein, R. Foster, B. Gross, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Characterization of aerosol parameters over ocean from the Ocean Color satellite sensors and AERONET-OC data,” Proc. SPIE 10422, 104220H (2017).

R. Foster and A. Gilerson, “Polarized transfer functions of the ocean surface for above-surface determination of the vector submarine light field,” Appl. Opt. 55(33), 9476–9494 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hlaing, A. Gilerson, R. Foster, M. Wang, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Radiometric calibration of ocean color satellite sensors using AERONET-OC data,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23385–23401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Chowdhary, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization impacts on the water-leaving radiance retrieval from above-water radiometric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51(35), 8324–8340 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilerson, A. A.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Gilerson, J. Stepinski, A. I. Ibrahim, Y. You, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, B. Russell, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Benthic effects on the polarization of light in shallow waters,” Appl. Opt. 52(36), 8685–8705 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giles, D.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gordon, H. R.

Gray, D.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gross, B.

A. Gilerson, E. Herrera, Y. Klein, R. Foster, B. Gross, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Characterization of aerosol parameters over ocean from the Ocean Color satellite sensors and AERONET-OC data,” Proc. SPIE 10422, 104220H (2017).

Gross-Colzy, L. S.

R. J. Frouin and L. S. Gross-Colzy, “Contribution of ultraviolet and shortwave infrared observations to atmospheric correction of PACE ocean-color imagery,” Proc. SPIE 9878, 98780C (2016).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hair, J.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

Harmel, T.

He, S.

Healy, R.

A. Ibrahim, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, R. Healy, K. Knobelspiesse, B.-C. Gao, C. Proctor, and P.-W. Zhai, “Atmospheric correction for hyperspectral ocean color retrieval with application to the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO),” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 60–75 (2018).
[Crossref]

Herrera, E.

A. Gilerson, E. Herrera, Y. Klein, R. Foster, B. Gross, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Characterization of aerosol parameters over ocean from the Ocean Color satellite sensors and AERONET-OC data,” Proc. SPIE 10422, 104220H (2017).

Hlaing, S.

Holben, B.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Holben, B. N.

Hostetler, C.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 1025–1040 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ibrahim, A.

A. Ibrahim, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, R. Healy, K. Knobelspiesse, B.-C. Gao, C. Proctor, and P.-W. Zhai, “Atmospheric correction for hyperspectral ocean color retrieval with application to the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO),” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 60–75 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, A. I.

Jiang, L.

Josset, D. B.

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 1025–1040 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kaitala, S.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Katsev, I. L.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tynes, G. W. Kattawar, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, and L. I. Chaikovskaya, “Monte Carlo and multi-component approximation methods for vector radiative transfer by use of effective Mueller matrix calculations,” Appl. Opt. 40(3), 400–412 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katsev, L. L.

Kattawar, G. W.

Klein, Y.

A. Gilerson, E. Herrera, Y. Klein, R. Foster, B. Gross, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Characterization of aerosol parameters over ocean from the Ocean Color satellite sensors and AERONET-OC data,” Proc. SPIE 10422, 104220H (2017).

Klyukov, D. A.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Knobelspiesse, K.

A. Ibrahim, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, R. Healy, K. Knobelspiesse, B.-C. Gao, C. Proctor, and P.-W. Zhai, “Atmospheric correction for hyperspectral ocean color retrieval with application to the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO),” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 60–75 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, and M. Mishchenko, “Information content of aerosol retrievals in the sunglint region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(3), 631–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kokhanovsky, A.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Korkin, S. V.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krotkov, N. A.

Kwiatkowska, E. J.

Lafrance, B.

Lecomte, P.

Lee, Z.

Lenoble, J.

J. Lenoble and C. Brogniez, “A comparative review of radiation aerosol models,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 57, 1–20 (1984).

Lucker, P. L.

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 1025–1040 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maritorena, S.

Mayer, B.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

McClain, C. R.

Mélin, F.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Min, Q.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mishchenko, M.

M. Ottaviani, K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, and M. Mishchenko, “Information content of aerosol retrievals in the sunglint region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(3), 631–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mislinski, K.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mobley, C.

Mobley, C. D.

Munk, W.

Nakajima, T.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ota, Y.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ottaviani, M.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, and M. Mishchenko, “Information content of aerosol retrievals in the sunglint region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(3), 631–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Polonsky, I. N.

Prikhach, A. S.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tynes, G. W. Kattawar, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, and L. I. Chaikovskaya, “Monte Carlo and multi-component approximation methods for vector radiative transfer by use of effective Mueller matrix calculations,” Appl. Opt. 40(3), 400–412 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proctor, C.

A. Ibrahim, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, R. Healy, K. Knobelspiesse, B.-C. Gao, C. Proctor, and P.-W. Zhai, “Atmospheric correction for hyperspectral ocean color retrieval with application to the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO),” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 60–75 (2018).
[Crossref]

Quan, X.

Reynaud, N.

T. Harmel, M. Chami, T. Tormos, N. Reynaud, and P.-A. Danis, “Sunglint correction of the Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI)-SENTINEL-2 imagery over inland and sea waters from SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 308–321 (2018).
[Crossref]

Robinson, W.

Rozanov, V. V.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Russell, B.

Russell, B. J.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santer, R.

Schuster, G.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Seppälä, J.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shabani, A.

Shettle, E. P.

Shi, W.

Siegel, D. A.

Slade, W.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

Slutsker, I.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stepinski, J.

Stockley, N.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, J. M.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Gilerson, J. Stepinski, A. I. Ibrahim, Y. You, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, B. Russell, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Benthic effects on the polarization of light in shallow waters,” Appl. Opt. 52(36), 8685–8705 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takashima, T.

T. Takashima, “Polarization effect on radiative transfer in planetary composite atmospheres with interacting interface,” Earth Moon Planets 33(1), 59–97 (1985).
[Crossref]

Tonizzo, A.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Chowdhary, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization impacts on the water-leaving radiance retrieval from above-water radiometric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51(35), 8324–8340 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tormos, T.

T. Harmel, M. Chami, T. Tormos, N. Reynaud, and P.-A. Danis, “Sunglint correction of the Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI)-SENTINEL-2 imagery over inland and sea waters from SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 308–321 (2018).
[Crossref]

Travis, K.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Travis, L. D.

Trepte, C. R.

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 1025–1040 (2010).
[Crossref]

Twardowski, M.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

Twardowski, M. S.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Gilerson, J. Stepinski, A. I. Ibrahim, Y. You, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, B. Russell, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Benthic effects on the polarization of light in shallow waters,” Appl. Opt. 52(36), 8685–8705 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tynes, H. H.

Vandemark, D.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vasilkov, A. P.

Voss, K.

Wang, M.

Waquet, F.

Weidemann, A.

Werdell, J.

Werdell, P. J.

Yokota, T.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

You, Y.

Zege, E. P.

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tynes, G. W. Kattawar, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, and L. I. Chaikovskaya, “Monte Carlo and multi-component approximation methods for vector radiative transfer by use of effective Mueller matrix calculations,” Appl. Opt. 40(3), 400–412 (2001).
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E. P. Zege and L. I. Chaikovskaya, “New Approach to the Polarized Radiative Transfer Problem,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 55(1), 19–31 (1996).
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E. P. Zege, L. L. Katsev, and I. N. Polonsky, “Multicomponent approach to light propagation in clouds and mists,” Appl. Opt. 32(15), 2803–2812 (1993).
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Zhai, P. W.

Zhai, P.-W.

A. Ibrahim, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, R. Healy, K. Knobelspiesse, B.-C. Gao, C. Proctor, and P.-W. Zhai, “Atmospheric correction for hyperspectral ocean color retrieval with application to the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO),” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 60–75 (2018).
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P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 1025–1040 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, S.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

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A. A. Gilerson, J. Stepinski, A. I. Ibrahim, Y. You, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, B. Russell, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Benthic effects on the polarization of light in shallow waters,” Appl. Opt. 52(36), 8685–8705 (2013).
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T. Harmel, M. Chami, T. Tormos, N. Reynaud, and P.-A. Danis, “Sunglint correction of the Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI)-SENTINEL-2 imagery over inland and sea waters from SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 308–321 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
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Science (1)

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Radiance distribution for four wavelengths in the plane with φ v = 90°, θ i = 30° and W = 5 m/s with the sensor near the surface.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of reflectance coefficient simulated by RayXP code for windy surface with Fresnel reflectance and with results of other VRT simulations [10]: a) φ v = 90°, θ i = 30° and W = 5m/s, b) φ v = 90°, θ i = 60° and W = 5m/s.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Values of the reflectance coefficient calculated from RayXP (top row) and OSOAA (bottom row) codes using isotropic Cox-Munk slopes distribution for wind speed of 5 m/s. Values are given for a pure Rayleigh atmosphere at 410, 550 and 870 nm. The viewing zenith angle is set to 40°. The concentric circles represent the solar zenith angles by step of 10° (from 0° to 70°) and angles in the polar diagrams represent the relative azimuth with the Sun. (The azimuth is equal to 0° when the Sun and the sensor are in opposition.)
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reflectance coefficient spectra for Rayleigh scattering only and with additions of aerosols: θ i = 30°, W = 0. Aerosol optical thicknesses τ a listed in all figures are specified at 440nm: a) oceanic aerosol model, vector mode; in insert M11 element of the phase matrix (PM) for this model [11]; b) continental aerosol model, vector mode, in insert M11 element of PM for this model; c) oceanic model, scalar mode.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reflectance coefficient spectra for Rayleigh scattering only and with additions of aerosols, W = 5m/s: a) θ i = 30°, b) θ i = 60°.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Radiance difference above water surface corresponding to the ρin Fig. 4a and 5a.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 a) Brooklyn pier 05/03/2017, 2:01pm, W = 5 m/s, θ i = 29.7° θ v = 20°-60°, exposure time t exp = 20ms, τ a ( 440 ) = 0.146 b) Duck, NC pier 10/15/17, 2:14pm, W = 5 m/s, θ i = 49.3° θ v = 20°-60°, exposure time t exp = 22ms, τ a ( 440 ) = 0.243
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Reflectance coefficient spectra for Rayleigh scattering only and with additions of aerosols, W = 15m/s, θ i = 60°.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Determination of remote sensing reflectance using three different approaches: a) open ocean spectra, θ i = 36°, W = 1.5m/s. b) coastal water spectra θ i = 31°, W = 3.6 m/s.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 a) Differences in radiances at TOA between wind roughened and flat surface for Rayleigh scattering only and with different aerosol loads, θ i = 30°, W = 10m/s, b) Expected errors in radiances due to the non-including of aerosols in the processing of the surface effects.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 a) Differences in radiances at TOA between wind roughened and flat surface for Rayleigh scattering only and with different aerosol loads, θ i = 60°, W = 10m/s, b) Expected errors in radiances due to the non-including of aerosols in the processing of the surface effects.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Expected errors in radiances at TOA due to the non-including of aerosols in the processing of the surface effects, W = 5m/s: a) θ i = 30°, b) θ i = 60°.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Differences in radiances at TOA between wind roughened and flat surface for Rayleigh scattering only and with different aerosol loads for the case with absorbing aerosols (SSA = 0.8)

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