Abstract

This work provides a quantitative evaluation on the uniformity of auto-stereoscopic 3D (AS3D) displays. The single-unit uniformity UM is defined to describe the display quality at different viewing positions, then the overall display quality of an AS3D system is determined by the inter-unit uniformity ŪM. As an example, the uniformity of a directional backlight 3D (DB3D) display is experimentally evaluated. Moreover, a visualized simulation is built to analyze the experimental results and optimize the optical system. By modifying the radiant features of the backlights, the entire uniformity of the DB3D displays can be effectively improved. We foresee this work helps to quantitatively evaluate the uniformity and improve design for any kinds of AS3D display type.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

2016 (6)

S. Wang, K. Ong, P. Surman, J. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and X. Sun, “Quality of experience measurement for light field 3D displays on multilayer LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(12), 726–740 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Fan, S. Zhang, Y. Weng, G. Chen, and H. Liao, “3D Quantitative Evaluation System for Autostereoscopic Display,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(10), 1185–1196 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Li, H. Fan, J. Wang, Y. Xu, J. Zhou, and Y. Zhou, “Visual effect of a linear Fresnel lens illuminated with a directional backlight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33(6), 1155–1159 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fan, X. Wang, S. Liang, K. Li, R. Jian, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement of global crosstalk for 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(5), 323–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, H. Fan, H. Ma, S. Liang, K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative evaluation for luminance uniformity in 3D displays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(15), 5792–5799 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. U. Ekpo and M. F. McEntee, “An Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of Primary Display Devices,” J. Digit. Imaging 29(2), 175–182 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

T. C. Teng and L. W. Tseng, “Design of a bidirectional backlight using a pair of stacked light guide plates for large dual-view and 3D displays,” Appl. Opt. 54(3), 509–516 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, H. Fan, K. Li, H. Liang, J. Su, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Simulation and control of display uniformity in a backlight illuminated image array,” J. Disp. Technol. 12, 355–362 (2015).

S. M. Jung, H. Kang, B. Y. Lee, and I. B. Kang, “Numerical Simulation of the Displayed Image on the Entire Screen of Autostereoscopic Displays,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7842–7855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Liang, P. Krebs, J. Su, D. Lin, K. Li, and J. Zhou, “Full Resolution, Low Crosstalk, and Wide Viewing Angle Auto-Stereoscopic Display With a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Control Using Free-Form Surface Backlight Unit,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(7), 620–624 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. C. Park and S. Mun, “Overview of Measurement Methods for Factors Affecting the Human Visual System in 3D Displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(11), 877–888 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

H. Liang, S. An, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Fan, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(8), 695–699 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, H. Liang, J. Wang, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Displaying a full high-definition, high-quality 3D image without glasses,” SPIE Newsroom 4, 1–3 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, L. C. Lin, H. Y. Lin, F. H. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, and W. H. Hsu, “Investigation of Designated Eye Position and Viewing Zone for a two-view autostereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4751–4767 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Karar and S. Ghosh, “Estimation of tunneling effect caused by luminance non-uniformity in head-up displays,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(1), 013301 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lv, W. X. Zhao, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “Polarizer Parallax Barrier 3D Display With High Brightness, Resolution and Low Crosstalk,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 120–124 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lv, Q. H. Wang, W. X. Zhao, and J. Wang, “3D display based on parallax barrier with multiview zones,” Appl. Opt. 53(7), 1339–1342 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

N. A. Dodgson, “3D without the glasses,” Nature 495(7441), 316–317 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chang, L. Tang, and C. Yin, “Efficient simulation of intensity profile of light through subpixel-matched lenticular lens array for auto-stereoscopic liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 52(1), 356–359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, H. Liang, H. Fan, Y. Zhou, P. Krebs, J. Su, Y. Deng, and J. Zhou, “High-quality autostereoscopic display with spatial and sequential hybrid control,” Appl. Opt. 52(35), 8549–8553 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

K. Tang, Y. Lee, and T. Wu, “The development of luminance uniformity measurement for CNT-BLU based on human visual perception,” J. Chinese Inst. Indust. Eng. 28(3), 179–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

2002 (1)

An, S.

H. Liang, S. An, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Fan, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(8), 695–699 (2014).
[Crossref]

Avendaño-Alejo, M.

Chang, Y.

Y. Chang, L. Tang, and C. Yin, “Efficient simulation of intensity profile of light through subpixel-matched lenticular lens array for auto-stereoscopic liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 52(1), 356–359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, T. Y. Hsieh, Q. L. Deng, W. C. Su, and Z. S. Cheng, “Design of a novel symmetric microprism array for dual-view display,” Displays 31(2), 99–103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, F. H.

Chen, G.

Z. Fan, S. Zhang, Y. Weng, G. Chen, and H. Liao, “3D Quantitative Evaluation System for Autostereoscopic Display,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(10), 1185–1196 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

X. Wang, H. Fan, H. Ma, S. Liang, K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative evaluation for luminance uniformity in 3D displays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(15), 5792–5799 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. Y.

Chen, Y. H.

Cheng, Z. S.

C. Y. Chen, T. Y. Hsieh, Q. L. Deng, W. C. Su, and Z. S. Cheng, “Design of a novel symmetric microprism array for dual-view display,” Displays 31(2), 99–103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chien, K. W.

Chou, Y. H.

Chuang, S. C.

Deng, Q. L.

C. Y. Chen, T. Y. Hsieh, Q. L. Deng, W. C. Su, and Z. S. Cheng, “Design of a novel symmetric microprism array for dual-view display,” Displays 31(2), 99–103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “3D without the glasses,” Nature 495(7441), 316–317 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ekpo, E. U.

E. U. Ekpo and M. F. McEntee, “An Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of Primary Display Devices,” J. Digit. Imaging 29(2), 175–182 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, H.

X. Wang, H. Fan, H. Ma, S. Liang, K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative evaluation for luminance uniformity in 3D displays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(15), 5792–5799 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, X. Wang, S. Liang, K. Li, R. Jian, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement of global crosstalk for 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(5), 323–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Li, H. Fan, J. Wang, Y. Xu, J. Zhou, and Y. Zhou, “Visual effect of a linear Fresnel lens illuminated with a directional backlight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33(6), 1155–1159 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Liang, P. Krebs, J. Su, D. Lin, K. Li, and J. Zhou, “Full Resolution, Low Crosstalk, and Wide Viewing Angle Auto-Stereoscopic Display With a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Control Using Free-Form Surface Backlight Unit,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(7), 620–624 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, H. Fan, K. Li, H. Liang, J. Su, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Simulation and control of display uniformity in a backlight illuminated image array,” J. Disp. Technol. 12, 355–362 (2015).

H. Liang, S. An, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Fan, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(8), 695–699 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, H. Liang, J. Wang, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Displaying a full high-definition, high-quality 3D image without glasses,” SPIE Newsroom 4, 1–3 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, H. Liang, H. Fan, Y. Zhou, P. Krebs, J. Su, Y. Deng, and J. Zhou, “High-quality autostereoscopic display with spatial and sequential hybrid control,” Appl. Opt. 52(35), 8549–8553 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

Z. Fan, S. Zhang, Y. Weng, G. Chen, and H. Liao, “3D Quantitative Evaluation System for Autostereoscopic Display,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(10), 1185–1196 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fang, J. H.

Ghosh, S.

Hayasaki, Y.

Ho, Y. H.

Hsieh, C. T.

Hsieh, T. Y.

C. Y. Chen, T. Y. Hsieh, Q. L. Deng, W. C. Su, and Z. S. Cheng, “Design of a novel symmetric microprism array for dual-view display,” Displays 31(2), 99–103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsu, S. C.

Hsu, W. H.

Huang, K. C.

Huang, Y. P.

Jian, R.

H. Fan, X. Wang, S. Liang, K. Li, R. Jian, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement of global crosstalk for 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(5), 323–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jung, S. M.

Kang, H.

Kang, I. B.

Karar, V.

Kouno, M.

Krebs, P.

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Liang, P. Krebs, J. Su, D. Lin, K. Li, and J. Zhou, “Full Resolution, Low Crosstalk, and Wide Viewing Angle Auto-Stereoscopic Display With a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Control Using Free-Form Surface Backlight Unit,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(7), 620–624 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, S. An, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Fan, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(8), 695–699 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, H. Liang, J. Wang, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Displaying a full high-definition, high-quality 3D image without glasses,” SPIE Newsroom 4, 1–3 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, H. Liang, H. Fan, Y. Zhou, P. Krebs, J. Su, Y. Deng, and J. Zhou, “High-quality autostereoscopic display with spatial and sequential hybrid control,” Appl. Opt. 52(35), 8549–8553 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B. Y.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, K.

Lee, Y.

K. Tang, Y. Lee, and T. Wu, “The development of luminance uniformity measurement for CNT-BLU based on human visual perception,” J. Chinese Inst. Indust. Eng. 28(3), 179–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, D. H.

G. J. Lv, W. X. Zhao, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “Polarizer Parallax Barrier 3D Display With High Brightness, Resolution and Low Crosstalk,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 120–124 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. X. Zhao, Q. H. Wang, A. H. Wang, and D. H. Li, “Autostereoscopic display based on two-layer lenticular lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4127–4129 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, K.

K. Li, H. Fan, J. Wang, Y. Xu, J. Zhou, and Y. Zhou, “Visual effect of a linear Fresnel lens illuminated with a directional backlight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33(6), 1155–1159 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fan, X. Wang, S. Liang, K. Li, R. Jian, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement of global crosstalk for 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(5), 323–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, H. Fan, H. Ma, S. Liang, K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative evaluation for luminance uniformity in 3D displays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(15), 5792–5799 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Liang, P. Krebs, J. Su, D. Lin, K. Li, and J. Zhou, “Full Resolution, Low Crosstalk, and Wide Viewing Angle Auto-Stereoscopic Display With a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Control Using Free-Form Surface Backlight Unit,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(7), 620–624 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, H. Fan, K. Li, H. Liang, J. Su, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Simulation and control of display uniformity in a backlight illuminated image array,” J. Disp. Technol. 12, 355–362 (2015).

Liang, H.

Y. Zhou, H. Fan, K. Li, H. Liang, J. Su, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Simulation and control of display uniformity in a backlight illuminated image array,” J. Disp. Technol. 12, 355–362 (2015).

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Liang, P. Krebs, J. Su, D. Lin, K. Li, and J. Zhou, “Full Resolution, Low Crosstalk, and Wide Viewing Angle Auto-Stereoscopic Display With a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Control Using Free-Form Surface Backlight Unit,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(7), 620–624 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, H. Liang, J. Wang, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Displaying a full high-definition, high-quality 3D image without glasses,” SPIE Newsroom 4, 1–3 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, S. An, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Fan, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(8), 695–699 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, H. Liang, H. Fan, Y. Zhou, P. Krebs, J. Su, Y. Deng, and J. Zhou, “High-quality autostereoscopic display with spatial and sequential hybrid control,” Appl. Opt. 52(35), 8549–8553 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, S.

X. Wang, H. Fan, H. Ma, S. Liang, K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative evaluation for luminance uniformity in 3D displays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(15), 5792–5799 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, X. Wang, S. Liang, K. Li, R. Jian, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement of global crosstalk for 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(5), 323–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. C.

Liao, H.

Z. Fan, S. Zhang, Y. Weng, G. Chen, and H. Liao, “3D Quantitative Evaluation System for Autostereoscopic Display,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(10), 1185–1196 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, D.

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Liang, P. Krebs, J. Su, D. Lin, K. Li, and J. Zhou, “Full Resolution, Low Crosstalk, and Wide Viewing Angle Auto-Stereoscopic Display With a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Control Using Free-Form Surface Backlight Unit,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(7), 620–624 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. Y.

Lin, J. R.

Lin, L. C.

Lv, G. J.

G. J. Lv, Q. H. Wang, W. X. Zhao, and J. Wang, “3D display based on parallax barrier with multiview zones,” Appl. Opt. 53(7), 1339–1342 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Lv, W. X. Zhao, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “Polarizer Parallax Barrier 3D Display With High Brightness, Resolution and Low Crosstalk,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 120–124 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, H.

X. Wang, H. Fan, H. Ma, S. Liang, K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative evaluation for luminance uniformity in 3D displays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(15), 5792–5799 (2016).
[Crossref]

McEntee, M. F.

E. U. Ekpo and M. F. McEntee, “An Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of Primary Display Devices,” J. Digit. Imaging 29(2), 175–182 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreno, I.

Mphepö, W.

Muguruma, S.

Mun, S.

M. C. Park and S. Mun, “Overview of Measurement Methods for Factors Affecting the Human Visual System in 3D Displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(11), 877–888 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nagai, Y.

Nishida, N.

Ong, K.

S. Wang, K. Ong, P. Surman, J. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and X. Sun, “Quality of experience measurement for light field 3D displays on multilayer LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(12), 726–740 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, M. C.

M. C. Park and S. Mun, “Overview of Measurement Methods for Factors Affecting the Human Visual System in 3D Displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(11), 877–888 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H. P.

Shieh, H. P. D.

Shimizu, Y.

Su, J.

Y. Zhou, H. Fan, K. Li, H. Liang, J. Su, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Simulation and control of display uniformity in a backlight illuminated image array,” J. Disp. Technol. 12, 355–362 (2015).

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Liang, P. Krebs, J. Su, D. Lin, K. Li, and J. Zhou, “Full Resolution, Low Crosstalk, and Wide Viewing Angle Auto-Stereoscopic Display With a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Control Using Free-Form Surface Backlight Unit,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(7), 620–624 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, H. Liang, H. Fan, Y. Zhou, P. Krebs, J. Su, Y. Deng, and J. Zhou, “High-quality autostereoscopic display with spatial and sequential hybrid control,” Appl. Opt. 52(35), 8549–8553 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, W. C.

C. Y. Chen, T. Y. Hsieh, Q. L. Deng, W. C. Su, and Z. S. Cheng, “Design of a novel symmetric microprism array for dual-view display,” Displays 31(2), 99–103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

S. Wang, K. Ong, P. Surman, J. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and X. Sun, “Quality of experience measurement for light field 3D displays on multilayer LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(12), 726–740 (2016).
[Crossref]

Surman, P.

P. Surman, S. Wang, J. Yuan, and Y. Zheng, “One-stop measurement model for fast and accurate tensor display characterization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(2), 346–355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, K. Ong, P. Surman, J. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and X. Sun, “Quality of experience measurement for light field 3D displays on multilayer LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(12), 726–740 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, K.

K. Tang, Y. Lee, and T. Wu, “The development of luminance uniformity measurement for CNT-BLU based on human visual perception,” J. Chinese Inst. Indust. Eng. 28(3), 179–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, L.

Y. Chang, L. Tang, and C. Yin, “Efficient simulation of intensity profile of light through subpixel-matched lenticular lens array for auto-stereoscopic liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 52(1), 356–359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, T. C.

Tseng, L. W.

Tzonchev, R. I.

Wang, A. H.

Wang, J.

X. Wang, H. Fan, H. Ma, S. Liang, K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative evaluation for luminance uniformity in 3D displays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(15), 5792–5799 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, X. Wang, S. Liang, K. Li, R. Jian, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement of global crosstalk for 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(5), 323–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Li, H. Fan, J. Wang, Y. Xu, J. Zhou, and Y. Zhou, “Visual effect of a linear Fresnel lens illuminated with a directional backlight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33(6), 1155–1159 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, H. Fan, K. Li, H. Liang, J. Su, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Simulation and control of display uniformity in a backlight illuminated image array,” J. Disp. Technol. 12, 355–362 (2015).

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Liang, P. Krebs, J. Su, D. Lin, K. Li, and J. Zhou, “Full Resolution, Low Crosstalk, and Wide Viewing Angle Auto-Stereoscopic Display With a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Control Using Free-Form Surface Backlight Unit,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(7), 620–624 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, S. An, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Fan, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(8), 695–699 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, H. Liang, J. Wang, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Displaying a full high-definition, high-quality 3D image without glasses,” SPIE Newsroom 4, 1–3 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lv, Q. H. Wang, W. X. Zhao, and J. Wang, “3D display based on parallax barrier with multiview zones,” Appl. Opt. 53(7), 1339–1342 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, H. Liang, H. Fan, Y. Zhou, P. Krebs, J. Su, Y. Deng, and J. Zhou, “High-quality autostereoscopic display with spatial and sequential hybrid control,” Appl. Opt. 52(35), 8549–8553 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. H.

Wang, S.

P. Surman, S. Wang, J. Yuan, and Y. Zheng, “One-stop measurement model for fast and accurate tensor display characterization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(2), 346–355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, K. Ong, P. Surman, J. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and X. Sun, “Quality of experience measurement for light field 3D displays on multilayer LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(12), 726–740 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

H. Fan, X. Wang, S. Liang, K. Li, R. Jian, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement of global crosstalk for 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(5), 323–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, H. Fan, H. Ma, S. Liang, K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative evaluation for luminance uniformity in 3D displays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(15), 5792–5799 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, M. K.

Weng, Y.

Z. Fan, S. Zhang, Y. Weng, G. Chen, and H. Liao, “3D Quantitative Evaluation System for Autostereoscopic Display,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(10), 1185–1196 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. L.

Wu, T.

K. Tang, Y. Lee, and T. Wu, “The development of luminance uniformity measurement for CNT-BLU based on human visual perception,” J. Chinese Inst. Indust. Eng. 28(3), 179–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Yamamoto, H.

Yin, C.

Y. Chang, L. Tang, and C. Yin, “Efficient simulation of intensity profile of light through subpixel-matched lenticular lens array for auto-stereoscopic liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 52(1), 356–359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, J.

P. Surman, S. Wang, J. Yuan, and Y. Zheng, “One-stop measurement model for fast and accurate tensor display characterization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(2), 346–355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, K. Ong, P. Surman, J. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and X. Sun, “Quality of experience measurement for light field 3D displays on multilayer LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(12), 726–740 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Z. Fan, S. Zhang, Y. Weng, G. Chen, and H. Liao, “3D Quantitative Evaluation System for Autostereoscopic Display,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(10), 1185–1196 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W. X.

Zheng, Y.

P. Surman, S. Wang, J. Yuan, and Y. Zheng, “One-stop measurement model for fast and accurate tensor display characterization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(2), 346–355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, K. Ong, P. Surman, J. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and X. Sun, “Quality of experience measurement for light field 3D displays on multilayer LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(12), 726–740 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

H. Fan, X. Wang, S. Liang, K. Li, R. Jian, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement of global crosstalk for 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(5), 323–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, H. Fan, H. Ma, S. Liang, K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative evaluation for luminance uniformity in 3D displays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(15), 5792–5799 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Li, H. Fan, J. Wang, Y. Xu, J. Zhou, and Y. Zhou, “Visual effect of a linear Fresnel lens illuminated with a directional backlight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33(6), 1155–1159 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, H. Fan, K. Li, H. Liang, J. Su, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Simulation and control of display uniformity in a backlight illuminated image array,” J. Disp. Technol. 12, 355–362 (2015).

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Liang, P. Krebs, J. Su, D. Lin, K. Li, and J. Zhou, “Full Resolution, Low Crosstalk, and Wide Viewing Angle Auto-Stereoscopic Display With a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Control Using Free-Form Surface Backlight Unit,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(7), 620–624 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, S. An, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Fan, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(8), 695–699 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, H. Liang, J. Wang, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Displaying a full high-definition, high-quality 3D image without glasses,” SPIE Newsroom 4, 1–3 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, H. Liang, H. Fan, Y. Zhou, P. Krebs, J. Su, Y. Deng, and J. Zhou, “High-quality autostereoscopic display with spatial and sequential hybrid control,” Appl. Opt. 52(35), 8549–8553 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

X. Wang, H. Fan, H. Ma, S. Liang, K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative evaluation for luminance uniformity in 3D displays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(15), 5792–5799 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, X. Wang, S. Liang, K. Li, R. Jian, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement of global crosstalk for 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(5), 323–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Li, H. Fan, J. Wang, Y. Xu, J. Zhou, and Y. Zhou, “Visual effect of a linear Fresnel lens illuminated with a directional backlight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33(6), 1155–1159 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Liang, P. Krebs, J. Su, D. Lin, K. Li, and J. Zhou, “Full Resolution, Low Crosstalk, and Wide Viewing Angle Auto-Stereoscopic Display With a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Control Using Free-Form Surface Backlight Unit,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(7), 620–624 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, H. Fan, K. Li, H. Liang, J. Su, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Simulation and control of display uniformity in a backlight illuminated image array,” J. Disp. Technol. 12, 355–362 (2015).

H. Liang, S. An, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Fan, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(8), 695–699 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, H. Liang, J. Wang, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Displaying a full high-definition, high-quality 3D image without glasses,” SPIE Newsroom 4, 1–3 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, H. Liang, H. Fan, Y. Zhou, P. Krebs, J. Su, Y. Deng, and J. Zhou, “High-quality autostereoscopic display with spatial and sequential hybrid control,” Appl. Opt. 52(35), 8549–8553 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (8)

G. J. Lv, Q. H. Wang, W. X. Zhao, and J. Wang, “3D display based on parallax barrier with multiview zones,” Appl. Opt. 53(7), 1339–1342 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chen, Y. P. Huang, S. C. Chuang, C. L. Wu, H. P. Shieh, W. Mphepö, C. T. Hsieh, and S. C. Hsu, “Liquid crystal panel for high efficiency barrier type autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Appl. Opt. 48(18), 3446–3454 (2009).
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K. W. Chien and H. P. D. Shieh, “Time-multiplexed three-dimensional displays based on directional backlights with fast-switching liquid-crystal displays,” Appl. Opt. 45(13), 3106–3110 (2006).
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T. C. Teng and L. W. Tseng, “Design of a bidirectional backlight using a pair of stacked light guide plates for large dual-view and 3D displays,” Appl. Opt. 54(3), 509–516 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chang, L. Tang, and C. Yin, “Efficient simulation of intensity profile of light through subpixel-matched lenticular lens array for auto-stereoscopic liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 52(1), 356–359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, H. Liang, H. Fan, Y. Zhou, P. Krebs, J. Su, Y. Deng, and J. Zhou, “High-quality autostereoscopic display with spatial and sequential hybrid control,” Appl. Opt. 52(35), 8549–8553 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, M. Avendaño-Alejo, and R. I. Tzonchev, “Designing light-emitting diode arrays for uniform near-field irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 45(10), 2265–2272 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Displays (1)

C. Y. Chen, T. Y. Hsieh, Q. L. Deng, W. C. Su, and Z. S. Cheng, “Design of a novel symmetric microprism array for dual-view display,” Displays 31(2), 99–103 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Chinese Inst. Indust. Eng. (1)

K. Tang, Y. Lee, and T. Wu, “The development of luminance uniformity measurement for CNT-BLU based on human visual perception,” J. Chinese Inst. Indust. Eng. 28(3), 179–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Digit. Imaging (1)

E. U. Ekpo and M. F. McEntee, “An Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of Primary Display Devices,” J. Digit. Imaging 29(2), 175–182 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. J. Lv, W. X. Zhao, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “Polarizer Parallax Barrier 3D Display With High Brightness, Resolution and Low Crosstalk,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 120–124 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. C. Park and S. Mun, “Overview of Measurement Methods for Factors Affecting the Human Visual System in 3D Displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(11), 877–888 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Fan, S. Zhang, Y. Weng, G. Chen, and H. Liao, “3D Quantitative Evaluation System for Autostereoscopic Display,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(10), 1185–1196 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, H. Fan, K. Li, H. Liang, J. Su, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Simulation and control of display uniformity in a backlight illuminated image array,” J. Disp. Technol. 12, 355–362 (2015).

H. Liang, S. An, J. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Fan, P. Krebs, and J. Zhou, “Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(8), 695–699 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Liang, P. Krebs, J. Su, D. Lin, K. Li, and J. Zhou, “Full Resolution, Low Crosstalk, and Wide Viewing Angle Auto-Stereoscopic Display With a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Control Using Free-Form Surface Backlight Unit,” J. Disp. Technol. 11(7), 620–624 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

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S. Wang, K. Ong, P. Surman, J. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and X. Sun, “Quality of experience measurement for light field 3D displays on multilayer LCDs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(12), 726–740 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Fan, X. Wang, S. Liang, K. Li, R. Jian, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative measurement of global crosstalk for 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(5), 323–329 (2016).
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Optik (Stuttg.) (1)

X. Wang, H. Fan, H. Ma, S. Liang, K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Quantitative evaluation for luminance uniformity in 3D displays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(15), 5792–5799 (2016).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme of reverse ray tracing process for a DB3D display
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The structure of (a) the Fresnel lens array and (b) the backlight unit on XoZ plane. The rays transmitting through the lens can be traced back according to geometric optics. Rays finally reach the backlight units at point B.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The structure of directional backlight system. The Fresnel lens array spatially directs the light into several viewing points, and the electric module temporally switches left-eye and right-eye images with synchronous signals to generate parallax 3D images.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The image of the screen captured by the SLR camera, including three display units. X and Y are the horizontal axis and vertical axis on the screen, respectively. The black profile in Fig. 4(b) is the horizontal cut of optical intensity distribution from Fig. 4(a). Red line in (b) shows the ideal optical intensity distribution of a perfect uniform screen.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Seven viewing positions (A-G) are tested in the experimental results, compared with (b) the simulation results. And their uniformity value UM are also evaluated in the graph Fig. 5(c) and 5(d), respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optimization for the inter-unit uniformity. The simulated results at xP = 30mm are tested here. The first column (a, d, g, i) shows the intensity distribution of backlights and the inter-unit uniformity before optimization, while the second column (b, e, h, k) and the third column (c, f, i, l) show the results after 1st and 2nd step of optimization. The average inter-unit uniformity UM of these three configuration are compared in Fig. 6(m).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The inter-unit uniformity obtained at various viewing positions before (Fig. 7(a) – (c)) and after (Fig. 7(d) – (f)) the optimization. The viewing positions in (a) & (d), (b) & (e), and (c) & (f) are xP = −90 mm, −30 mm and 90 mm, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The display uniformity before (a) and after (b) optimization in the built system.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Inter-unit uniformity at sweet points before and after optimization.

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U= I max I min I max + I min 100%
M= L P 0
U M (P)= i=1 N [1T( S i ;P)] 2 N
U ¯ M (P)= i=1 M U M (P) M
x S = x P +(D z P )tanθ
y S = y P +(D z P )tanφ
z S =D
z= D F l i+1 l i (x l i )+( D F + d F ), l i x l i+1
x F = D F cotθ D F l i+1 l i + cotθ x S l i D F l i+1 l i cotθ D F l i+1 l i
z F =cotθ( x F x S )+ z S
y F = y S +tanφ( z F z S )
θ F = sin 1 {sin[ sin 1 ( sin(θ+ β i ) n A n L )+ β i ] n L n A }, β i = tan 1 ( l i+1 l i D F )
x F '= x F +(D+ D F + d F z F )tan( sin 1 ( sin(θ+ β i ) n A n L )+ β i )
y F '= y F +(D+ D F + d F z F )tanφ
z F '=D+ D F + d F
cot θ F ( x B x F ')+ z F '=G( x B )
z B =cot θ F ( x B x F ')+ z F '
y B = y F '+tanφ( z B D D F d F )
T(S;P)= [ Σ T 0 (B;r) cos(k θ B )dΣ π p 2 ] γ , Σ:| r r P |=p

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