Abstract

Lasing and self-pumped optical parametric oscillation (self-OPO) are achieved in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode micro-resonator, made of neodymium-doped lithium niobate. A laser process providing 5 mW output power at 1.08 μm wavelength is sufficient to pump a self-OPO process within the same high-Q cavity. At 6 mW lasing output power, the sum of signal and idler output powers exceeds 1.2 mW. The wavelength of the generated light ranges from 1.5 to 3.8 μm. Phase matching is provided by a radial quasi-phase-matching structure, which is generated by a current-controlled calligraphic poling technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a quasi-phase-matched self-pumped nonlinear optical process in a micro-resonator, as well as the first self-OPO in a micro-resonator. The concept bears the potential for a highly integrated and wavelength-tunable coherent light source at low cost.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Mode filtering in optical whispering gallery resonators,” Electron. Lett. 41, 495–497 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. S. Werner, B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, S. K. Manjeshwar, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Control of mode anticrossings in whispering gallery microresonators,” Opt. Express 26, 762–771 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2017 (2)

S. J. Herr, Y. Folwill, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Self-frequency doubling in a laser-active whispering-gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2627–2630 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Werner, S. J. Herr, K. Buse, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, C. Razzaghi, and I. Breunig, “Large and accessible conductivity of charged domain walls in lithium niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9862 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

H. Yu, Z. Pan, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Recent advances in self-frequency-doubling crystals,” J. Materiomics 2, 55–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Breunig, “Three-wave mixing in whispering gallery resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 569–587 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

B. Sturman and I. Breunig, “Generic description of second-order nonlinear phenomena in whispering-gallery resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2465–2471 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly Tunable Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillation in Radially Poled Whispering Gallery Resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillations in a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

M. Mohageg, D. V. Strekalov, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Calligraphic poling of Lithium Niobate,” Opt. Express 13, 3408–3419 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Mode filtering in optical whispering gallery resonators,” Electron. Lett. 41, 495–497 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

J. Capmany, D. Callejo, V. Bermúdez, E. Diéguez, D. Artigas, and L. Torner, “Continuous-wave self-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on Yb3+-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 293–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “Influence of the defect structure on the refractive indices of undoped and Mg-doped lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 751–757 (1994).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1969 (1)

L. F. Johnson and A. A. Ballman, “Coherent emission from rare earth ions in electro-optic crystals,” Journal of Applied Physics 40, 297–302 (1969).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

R. G. Smith, K. Nassau, and M. F. Galvin, “Efficient continuous optical second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 256 (1965).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

J. K. Wright, “Enhancement of second harmonic power generated by a dielectric crystal inside a laser cavity,” Proc. IEEE 51, 1663 (1963).
[Crossref]

Aiello, A.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillations in a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andersen, U. L.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillations in a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Artigas, D.

J. Capmany, D. Callejo, V. Bermúdez, E. Diéguez, D. Artigas, and L. Torner, “Continuous-wave self-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on Yb3+-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 293–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ballman, A. A.

L. F. Johnson and A. A. Ballman, “Coherent emission from rare earth ions in electro-optic crystals,” Journal of Applied Physics 40, 297–302 (1969).
[Crossref]

Beckmann, T.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly Tunable Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillation in Radially Poled Whispering Gallery Resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bermúdez, V.

J. Capmany, D. Callejo, V. Bermúdez, E. Diéguez, D. Artigas, and L. Torner, “Continuous-wave self-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on Yb3+-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 293–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Betzler, K.

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “Influence of the defect structure on the refractive indices of undoped and Mg-doped lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 751–757 (1994).
[Crossref]

Breunig, I.

C. S. Werner, B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, S. K. Manjeshwar, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Control of mode anticrossings in whispering gallery microresonators,” Opt. Express 26, 762–771 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Herr, Y. Folwill, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Self-frequency doubling in a laser-active whispering-gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2627–2630 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Werner, S. J. Herr, K. Buse, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, C. Razzaghi, and I. Breunig, “Large and accessible conductivity of charged domain walls in lithium niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9862 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Breunig, “Three-wave mixing in whispering gallery resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 569–587 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Leidinger, S. Fieberg, N. Waasem, F. Kühnemann, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Comparative study on three highly sensitive absorption measurement techniques characterizing lithium niobate over its entire transparent spectral range,” Opt. Express 23, 21690–21705 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Breunig, B. Sturman, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, and K. Buse, “Whispering gallery modes at the rim of an axisymmetric optical resonator: Analytical versus numerical description and comparison with experiment,” Opt. Express 21, 30683–30692 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Sturman and I. Breunig, “Generic description of second-order nonlinear phenomena in whispering-gallery resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2465–2471 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly Tunable Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillation in Radially Poled Whispering Gallery Resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buse, K.

Byer, R. L.

Callejo, D.

J. Capmany, D. Callejo, V. Bermúdez, E. Diéguez, D. Artigas, and L. Torner, “Continuous-wave self-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on Yb3+-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 293–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany, D. Callejo, V. Bermúdez, E. Diéguez, D. Artigas, and L. Torner, “Continuous-wave self-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on Yb3+-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 293–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Colville, F. G.

Cordova-Plaza, A.

Diéguez, E.

J. Capmany, D. Callejo, V. Bermúdez, E. Diéguez, D. Artigas, and L. Torner, “Continuous-wave self-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on Yb3+-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 293–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Dunn, M. H.

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

Elser, D.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillations in a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, T. Y.

Fieberg, S.

Folwill, Y.

Förtsch, M.

Fürst, J. U.

G. Schunk, J. U. Fürst, M. Förtsch, D. V. Strekalov, U. Vogl, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern,” Opt. Express 22, 30795–30806 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillations in a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Galvin, M. F.

R. G. Smith, K. Nassau, and M. F. Galvin, “Efficient continuous optical second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 256 (1965).
[Crossref]

Grudinin, I. S.

Haertle, D.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly Tunable Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillation in Radially Poled Whispering Gallery Resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herr, S. J.

C. S. Werner, S. J. Herr, K. Buse, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, C. Razzaghi, and I. Breunig, “Large and accessible conductivity of charged domain walls in lithium niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9862 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Herr, Y. Folwill, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Self-frequency doubling in a laser-active whispering-gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2627–2630 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson and A. A. Ballman, “Coherent emission from rare earth ions in electro-optic crystals,” Journal of Applied Physics 40, 297–302 (1969).
[Crossref]

Kühnemann, F.

Leidinger, M.

Leuchs, G.

G. Schunk, J. U. Fürst, M. Förtsch, D. V. Strekalov, U. Vogl, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern,” Opt. Express 22, 30795–30806 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillations in a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Linnenbank, H.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly Tunable Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillation in Radially Poled Whispering Gallery Resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maleki, L.

Manjeshwar, S. K.

Marquardt, C.

G. Schunk, J. U. Fürst, M. Förtsch, D. V. Strekalov, U. Vogl, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern,” Opt. Express 22, 30795–30806 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillations in a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

Mohageg, M.

Nassau, K.

R. G. Smith, K. Nassau, and M. F. Galvin, “Efficient continuous optical second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 256 (1965).
[Crossref]

Pan, Z.

H. Yu, Z. Pan, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Recent advances in self-frequency-doubling crystals,” J. Materiomics 2, 55–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Podivilov, E.

Razzaghi, C.

C. S. Werner, S. J. Herr, K. Buse, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, C. Razzaghi, and I. Breunig, “Large and accessible conductivity of charged domain walls in lithium niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9862 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schlarb, U.

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “Influence of the defect structure on the refractive indices of undoped and Mg-doped lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 751–757 (1994).
[Crossref]

Schunk, G.

Schwefel, H. G. L.

Sedlmeir, F.

Shaw, H. J.

Smith, R. G.

R. G. Smith, K. Nassau, and M. F. Galvin, “Efficient continuous optical second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 256 (1965).
[Crossref]

Soergel, E.

C. S. Werner, S. J. Herr, K. Buse, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, C. Razzaghi, and I. Breunig, “Large and accessible conductivity of charged domain walls in lithium niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9862 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steigerwald, H.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly Tunable Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillation in Radially Poled Whispering Gallery Resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D.

A. A. Savchenkov, I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Morphology-dependent photonic circuit elements,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1313–1315 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Mode filtering in optical whispering gallery resonators,” Electron. Lett. 41, 495–497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Strekalov, D. V.

Sturman, B.

Torner, L.

J. Capmany, D. Callejo, V. Bermúdez, E. Diéguez, D. Artigas, and L. Torner, “Continuous-wave self-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on Yb3+-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 293–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

Vogl, U.

Waasem, N.

Wang, J.

H. Yu, Z. Pan, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Recent advances in self-frequency-doubling crystals,” J. Materiomics 2, 55–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Werner, C. S.

C. S. Werner, B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, S. K. Manjeshwar, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Control of mode anticrossings in whispering gallery microresonators,” Opt. Express 26, 762–771 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Werner, S. J. Herr, K. Buse, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, C. Razzaghi, and I. Breunig, “Large and accessible conductivity of charged domain walls in lithium niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9862 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, J. K.

J. K. Wright, “Enhancement of second harmonic power generated by a dielectric crystal inside a laser cavity,” Proc. IEEE 51, 1663 (1963).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, Z. Pan, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Recent advances in self-frequency-doubling crystals,” J. Materiomics 2, 55–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

H. Yu, Z. Pan, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Recent advances in self-frequency-doubling crystals,” J. Materiomics 2, 55–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Capmany, D. Callejo, V. Bermúdez, E. Diéguez, D. Artigas, and L. Torner, “Continuous-wave self-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on Yb3+-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 293–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. G. Smith, K. Nassau, and M. F. Galvin, “Efficient continuous optical second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 256 (1965).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Mode filtering in optical whispering gallery resonators,” Electron. Lett. 41, 495–497 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Materiomics (1)

H. Yu, Z. Pan, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Recent advances in self-frequency-doubling crystals,” J. Materiomics 2, 55–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Journal of Applied Physics (1)

L. F. Johnson and A. A. Ballman, “Coherent emission from rare earth ions in electro-optic crystals,” Journal of Applied Physics 40, 297–302 (1969).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

I. Breunig, “Three-wave mixing in whispering gallery resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 569–587 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “Influence of the defect structure on the refractive indices of undoped and Mg-doped lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 751–757 (1994).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillations in a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly Tunable Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillation in Radially Poled Whispering Gallery Resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. K. Wright, “Enhancement of second harmonic power generated by a dielectric crystal inside a laser cavity,” Proc. IEEE 51, 1663 (1963).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. S. Werner, S. J. Herr, K. Buse, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, C. Razzaghi, and I. Breunig, “Large and accessible conductivity of charged domain walls in lithium niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 9862 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Tuning curves for OPOs, pumped at 1084 nm wavelength in a WGR made from MgO:LN with 262 radial domain lines. The major radius R and the minor radius r are 1 mm and 0.25 mm, respectively. The transversal mode numbers p and q of pump, signal, and idler WGMs have a strong influence onto the tuning behavior of a WGR-based OPO. The dotted lines refer to M = 261, the solid ones to M = 262, and the dashed lines to M = 263.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Quasi-phase-matching structure after domain selective etching under dark field illumination. Domain walls appear as bright lines. The dotted circle marks the anticipated shape of the WGR. The solid circle refer to the trajectories of the fs-laser for cutting out the WGR preform. The central cross serves as a spatial reference mark. (b) Magnification of the marked square in part (a). (c) Work flow of the WGR fabrication. (d) Experimental setup. Dichroic mirrors (DM) and a beam splitter (BS) steer the light beams to the power detectors and the spectrometer. (e) Photograph of the WGR on a brass post with coupling prism.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized spectra of all observed self-OPO processes. The numbers indicate signal and idler wavelength pairs. The values above the spectrometer cut-off wavelength of 2.55 μm are calculated values.

Equations (1)

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m p = m s + m i + M .

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