Abstract

We have experimentally investigated the collisional dynamics in femtosecond-laser-induced plasmas and presented the evidence for electron-impact excitation through enhanced high-order harmonic (HH) generation. The measurements were carried out by using an elliptically polarized pump pulse to induce the underdense plasmas and by using a time-delayed linearly polarized probe pulse to drive the HH generation from the plasmas. We found that the rise time of this enhanced HH generation was insensitive to the ellipticity degree (ED) of pump pulse but sensitive to its laser intensity (LI). With further comparison between physical scenarios and qualitative analysis, we demonstrated that the atomic excitation causing the HH enhancement should be attributed to the electron-impact excitation, i.e., the excitation from the collision between neutral atoms and electrons during the lifetime of the underdense plasma.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595–601 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. Hay, R. Velotta, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation efficiency increased by controlled dissociation of molecular iodine,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35(4), 1051–1060 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, H C. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Modulation of Ultrashort Light Pulses using Molecular RotationalWave Packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 023805 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. F. H. M. Faisal, A. Abdurrouf, K. Miyazaki, and G. Miyaji, “Origin of Anomalous Spectra of Dynamic Alignments Observed in N2 and O2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143001 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. B. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1108 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 529–532 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7(6), 464–467 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043409 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature 466(7306), 604–607 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. F. Lépine, M. Y. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond molecular dynamics: fact or fiction?” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 195–204 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. S. Landsman, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Hofmann, M. Smolarski, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Rydberg state creation by tunnel ionization,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013001 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. L. Shi, W. Li, H. Zhou, L. Ding, and H. Zeng, “Impact excitation of neon atoms by heated seed electrons in filamentary plasma gratings,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 398–400 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. X. Gao, G. Patwardhan, S. Schrauth, D. Zhu, T. Popmintchev, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, and A. L. Gaeta, “Picosecond ionization dynamics in femtosecond filaments at high pressures,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 013412 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. P. M. Paul, T. O. Clatterbuck, C. Lyngå, P. Colosimo, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Enhanced High Harmonic Generation from an Optically Prepared Excited Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113906 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma Luminescence from Femtosecond Filaments in Air: Evidence for Impact Excitation with Circularly Polarized Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(6), 063003 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).
  35. R. W. Wagenaar and F. J. Heer, “Total cross sections for electron scattering from Ar, Kr and Xe,” J. Phys. B 18(10), 2021–2036 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  36. K. P. Subramanian and V. Kumar, “Total electron scattering cross sections for argon, krypton and xenon at low electron energies,” J. Phys. B 20(20), 5505–5515 (1987).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. B. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

M. A. Fareed, V. V. Strelkov, N. Thiré, S. Mondal, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and T. Ozaki, “High-order harmonic generation from the dressed autoionizing states,” Nat. Commun. 8, 16061 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gao, G. Patwardhan, S. Schrauth, D. Zhu, T. Popmintchev, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, and A. L. Gaeta, “Picosecond ionization dynamics in femtosecond filaments at high pressures,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 013412 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

G. Ndabashimiye, S. Ghimire, M. Wu, D. A. Browne, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and D. A. Reis, “Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit,” Nature 534(7608), 520–523 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

X. Yuan, P. Wei, C. Liu, Z. Zeng, Y. Zheng, J. Jiang, X. Ge, and R. Li, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from excited argon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041110 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521(7553), 498–502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma Luminescence from Femtosecond Filaments in Air: Evidence for Impact Excitation with Circularly Polarized Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(6), 063003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

F. Lépine, M. Y. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond molecular dynamics: fact or fiction?” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 195–204 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. S. Landsman, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Hofmann, M. Smolarski, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Rydberg state creation by tunnel ionization,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013001 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Shi, W. Li, H. Zhou, L. Ding, and H. Zeng, “Impact excitation of neon atoms by heated seed electrons in filamentary plasma gratings,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 398–400 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2691 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7(6), 464–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043409 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. Dichiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. Dimauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crysta,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature 466(7306), 604–607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

F. H. M. Faisal, A. Abdurrouf, K. Miyazaki, and G. Miyaji, “Origin of Anomalous Spectra of Dynamic Alignments Observed in N2 and O2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, T. O. Clatterbuck, C. Lyngå, P. Colosimo, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Enhanced High Harmonic Generation from an Optically Prepared Excited Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113906 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

N. Hay, R. Velotta, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation efficiency increased by controlled dissociation of molecular iodine,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35(4), 1051–1060 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, H C. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Modulation of Ultrashort Light Pulses using Molecular RotationalWave Packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 023805 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595–601 (1987).
[Crossref]

K. P. Subramanian and V. Kumar, “Total electron scattering cross sections for argon, krypton and xenon at low electron energies,” J. Phys. B 20(20), 5505–5515 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

1985 (1)

R. W. Wagenaar and F. J. Heer, “Total cross sections for electron scattering from Ar, Kr and Xe,” J. Phys. B 18(10), 2021–2036 (1985).
[Crossref]

Abdurrouf, A.

F. H. M. Faisal, A. Abdurrouf, K. Miyazaki, and G. Miyaji, “Origin of Anomalous Spectra of Dynamic Alignments Observed in N2 and O2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

S. Ghimire, A. D. Dichiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. Dimauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crysta,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. M. Paul, T. O. Clatterbuck, C. Lyngå, P. Colosimo, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Enhanced High Harmonic Generation from an Optically Prepared Excited Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113906 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Baertschy, M.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, H C. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Modulation of Ultrashort Light Pulses using Molecular RotationalWave Packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. B. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, H C. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Modulation of Ultrashort Light Pulses using Molecular RotationalWave Packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bertrand, J. B.

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature 466(7306), 604–607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bian, X. B.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. B. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binhammer, T.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boyer, K.

Brabec, T.

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Browne, D. A.

G. Ndabashimiye, S. Ghimire, M. Wu, D. A. Browne, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and D. A. Reis, “Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit,” Nature 534(7608), 520–523 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. B. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castillejo, M.

N. Hay, R. Velotta, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation efficiency increased by controlled dissociation of molecular iodine,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35(4), 1051–1060 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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P. M. Paul, T. O. Clatterbuck, C. Lyngå, P. Colosimo, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Enhanced High Harmonic Generation from an Optically Prepared Excited Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113906 (2005).
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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
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M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
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N. Hay, R. Velotta, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation efficiency increased by controlled dissociation of molecular iodine,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35(4), 1051–1060 (2002).
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M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 023805 (2002).
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N. Hay, R. Velotta, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation efficiency increased by controlled dissociation of molecular iodine,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35(4), 1051–1060 (2002).
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McDonald, C. R.

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
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McIntyre, I. A.

McPherson, A.

Midorikawa, K.

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2691 (2013).
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T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
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S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma Luminescence from Femtosecond Filaments in Air: Evidence for Impact Excitation with Circularly Polarized Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(6), 063003 (2015).
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F. H. M. Faisal, A. Abdurrouf, K. Miyazaki, and G. Miyaji, “Origin of Anomalous Spectra of Dynamic Alignments Observed in N2 and O2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143001 (2007).
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Mondal, S.

M. A. Fareed, V. V. Strelkov, N. Thiré, S. Mondal, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and T. Ozaki, “High-order harmonic generation from the dressed autoionizing states,” Nat. Commun. 8, 16061 (2017).
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T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 529–532 (2012).
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D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2691 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

X. Gao, G. Patwardhan, S. Schrauth, D. Zhu, T. Popmintchev, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, and A. L. Gaeta, “Picosecond ionization dynamics in femtosecond filaments at high pressures,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 013412 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
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R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, H C. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Modulation of Ultrashort Light Pulses using Molecular RotationalWave Packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
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S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma Luminescence from Femtosecond Filaments in Air: Evidence for Impact Excitation with Circularly Polarized Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(6), 063003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2691 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. Ndabashimiye, S. Ghimire, M. Wu, D. A. Browne, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and D. A. Reis, “Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit,” Nature 534(7608), 520–523 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. A. Fareed, V. V. Strelkov, N. Thiré, S. Mondal, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and T. Ozaki, “High-order harmonic generation from the dressed autoionizing states,” Nat. Commun. 8, 16061 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7(6), 464–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Gao, G. Patwardhan, S. Schrauth, D. Zhu, T. Popmintchev, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, and A. L. Gaeta, “Picosecond ionization dynamics in femtosecond filaments at high pressures,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 013412 (2017).
[Crossref]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, T. O. Clatterbuck, C. Lyngå, P. Colosimo, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Enhanced High Harmonic Generation from an Optically Prepared Excited Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113906 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. S. Landsman, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Hofmann, M. Smolarski, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Rydberg state creation by tunnel ionization,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Plaja, L.

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, D.

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

X. Gao, G. Patwardhan, S. Schrauth, D. Zhu, T. Popmintchev, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, and A. L. Gaeta, “Picosecond ionization dynamics in femtosecond filaments at high pressures,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 013412 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popruzhenko, S. V.

N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reis, D. A.

G. Ndabashimiye, S. Ghimire, M. Wu, D. A. Browne, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and D. A. Reis, “Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit,” Nature 534(7608), 520–523 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ghimire, A. D. Dichiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. Dimauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crysta,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rhodes, C. K.

Romanov, D. A.

X. Gao, G. Patwardhan, S. Schrauth, D. Zhu, T. Popmintchev, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, and A. L. Gaeta, “Picosecond ionization dynamics in femtosecond filaments at high pressures,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 013412 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saenz, A.

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, H.

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandner, W.

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

G. Ndabashimiye, S. Ghimire, M. Wu, D. A. Browne, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and D. A. Reis, “Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit,” Nature 534(7608), 520–523 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. E.

M. A. Fareed, V. V. Strelkov, N. Thiré, S. Mondal, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and T. Ozaki, “High-order harmonic generation from the dressed autoionizing states,” Nat. Commun. 8, 16061 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7(6), 464–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schrauth, S.

X. Gao, G. Patwardhan, S. Schrauth, D. Zhu, T. Popmintchev, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, and A. L. Gaeta, “Picosecond ionization dynamics in femtosecond filaments at high pressures,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 013412 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schulz, E.

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shi, L.

Shi, W.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. B. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, B.

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiner, A. D.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7(6), 464–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shvetsov-Shilovski, N. I.

N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sistrunk, E.

S. Ghimire, A. D. Dichiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. Dimauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crysta,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smirnova, O.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smolarski, M.

A. S. Landsman, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Hofmann, M. Smolarski, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Rydberg state creation by tunnel ionization,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steingrube, D. S.

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Strelkov, V. V.

M. A. Fareed, V. V. Strelkov, N. Thiré, S. Mondal, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and T. Ozaki, “High-order harmonic generation from the dressed autoionizing states,” Nat. Commun. 8, 16061 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramanian, K. P.

K. P. Subramanian and V. Kumar, “Total electron scattering cross sections for argon, krypton and xenon at low electron energies,” J. Phys. B 20(20), 5505–5515 (1987).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, E. J.

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2691 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tarazkar, M.

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiré, N.

M. A. Fareed, V. V. Strelkov, N. Thiré, S. Mondal, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and T. Ozaki, “High-order harmonic generation from the dressed autoionizing states,” Nat. Commun. 8, 16061 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trallero-Herrero, C.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7(6), 464–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vampa, G.

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 023805 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Hay, R. Velotta, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation efficiency increased by controlled dissociation of molecular iodine,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35(4), 1051–1060 (2002).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, D.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7(6), 464–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature 466(7306), 604–607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vockerodt, T.

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

F. Lépine, M. Y. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond molecular dynamics: fact or fiction?” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 195–204 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wagenaar, R. W.

R. W. Wagenaar and F. J. Heer, “Total cross sections for electron scattering from Ar, Kr and Xe,” J. Phys. B 18(10), 2021–2036 (1985).
[Crossref]

Wagner, N.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, H C. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Modulation of Ultrashort Light Pulses using Molecular RotationalWave Packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043409 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. B. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, P.

X. Yuan, P. Wei, C. Liu, Z. Zeng, Y. Zheng, J. Jiang, X. Ge, and R. Li, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from excited argon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weinacht, T. C.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, H C. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Modulation of Ultrashort Light Pulses using Molecular RotationalWave Packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wörner, H. J.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7(6), 464–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature 466(7306), 604–607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M.

G. Ndabashimiye, S. Ghimire, M. Wu, D. A. Browne, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and D. A. Reis, “Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit,” Nature 534(7608), 520–523 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Z.

Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043409 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

X. Yuan, P. Wei, C. Liu, Z. Zeng, Y. Zheng, J. Jiang, X. Ge, and R. Li, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from excited argon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

Zeng, Z.

X. Yuan, P. Wei, C. Liu, Z. Zeng, Y. Zheng, J. Jiang, X. Ge, and R. Li, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from excited argon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhai, C.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. B. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhai, Z.

Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043409 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. B. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

X. Yuan, P. Wei, C. Liu, Z. Zeng, Y. Zheng, J. Jiang, X. Ge, and R. Li, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from excited argon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

Zhu, D.

X. Gao, G. Patwardhan, S. Schrauth, D. Zhu, T. Popmintchev, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, and A. L. Gaeta, “Picosecond ionization dynamics in femtosecond filaments at high pressures,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 013412 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Q.

Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043409 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. B. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Yuan, P. Wei, C. Liu, Z. Zeng, Y. Zheng, J. Jiang, X. Ge, and R. Li, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from excited argon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(4), 041110 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

N. Hay, R. Velotta, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation efficiency increased by controlled dissociation of molecular iodine,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35(4), 1051–1060 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (2)

R. W. Wagenaar and F. J. Heer, “Total cross sections for electron scattering from Ar, Kr and Xe,” J. Phys. B 18(10), 2021–2036 (1985).
[Crossref]

K. P. Subramanian and V. Kumar, “Total electron scattering cross sections for argon, krypton and xenon at low electron energies,” J. Phys. B 20(20), 5505–5515 (1987).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (3)

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2691 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Fareed, V. V. Strelkov, N. Thiré, S. Mondal, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and T. Ozaki, “High-order harmonic generation from the dressed autoionizing states,” Nat. Commun. 8, 16061 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. B. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Lépine, M. Y. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond molecular dynamics: fact or fiction?” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 195–204 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7(6), 464–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. Dichiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. Dimauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crysta,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (6)

T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521(7553), 498–502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ndabashimiye, S. Ghimire, M. Wu, D. A. Browne, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and D. A. Reis, “Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit,” Nature 534(7608), 520–523 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature 435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature 466(7306), 604–607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

A. S. Landsman, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Hofmann, M. Smolarski, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Rydberg state creation by tunnel ionization,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013001 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys. 13(4), 043022 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

X. Gao, G. Patwardhan, S. Schrauth, D. Zhu, T. Popmintchev, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, and A. L. Gaeta, “Picosecond ionization dynamics in femtosecond filaments at high pressures,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 013412 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhai, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. Yan, P. Fu, and B. Wang, “High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043409 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66(2), 023805 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

F. H. M. Faisal, A. Abdurrouf, K. Miyazaki, and G. Miyaji, “Origin of Anomalous Spectra of Dynamic Alignments Observed in N2 and O2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143001 (2007).
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R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, H C. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase Modulation of Ultrashort Light Pulses using Molecular RotationalWave Packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
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P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
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T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
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P. M. Paul, T. O. Clatterbuck, C. Lyngå, P. Colosimo, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, and K. C. Kulander, “Enhanced High Harmonic Generation from an Optically Prepared Excited Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113906 (2005).
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S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma Luminescence from Femtosecond Filaments in Air: Evidence for Impact Excitation with Circularly Polarized Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(6), 063003 (2015).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
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Science (1)

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimentally measured harmonic yield as a function of time delay between the pump and probe pulses. (a)-(c) For different pump LIs: (a) 2.0 × 1014, (b) 2.5 × 1014, and (c) 3.5 × 1014 W/cm2, with the same ED of 0.35. (d)-(f) For different pump EDs: (d) 0.25, (e) 0.45, and (f) 0.60, with the same LI of 3.5 × 1014 W/cm2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 HH yield obtained by summing over all the harmonics shown in Fig. 1, (a) from Fig. 1(a)-1(c), the rise time of the enhancements are 25, 18 and 5.5 ps for the LIs of 2.0 × 1014, 2.5 × 1014, and 3.5 × 1014 W/cm2, respectively; (b) from Fig. 1(d)-1(f), the rise time of the enhancements are 5, 6, and 7 ps for the EDs of 0.25, 0.45 and 0.60, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Delay-dependent HH signals in Argon for different pump LIs of (a) 1 × 1014 W/cm2, (b) 2 × 1014 W/cm2, (c) 3.5 × 1014 W/cm2 and (d) 5 × 1014 W/cm2. (e) Physical scenarios at different pump laser LIs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 HH yield as a function of time delay. (a) The rise time for the different pump LIs: 5.5 ps for 3.5 × 1014 W/cm2, 18 ps for 2.5 × 1014 W/cm2, and 25 ps for 2.0 × 1014 W/cm2. (b) The rise time for the different gas pressures: 2 ps for 50 Torr, 5.5 ps for 20 Torr, and 7 ps for 15 Torr. (c) The mean time (x-axis) of the electron-neutral collisions as a function of neutral population (y-axis) for the free-electron energies of 3, 5, and 15 eV. (d) The mean collision time (x-axis) between the released electrons and the neutrals (50% of population) as a function of free-electron kinetic energy (y-axis) for the gas pressures of 15, 20 and 50 Torr.

Equations (1)

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t e a t o m = λ e a t o m υ e = ( n σ ) 1 ( 2 E k / m e ) 1 / 2 =   k B T m e 1 / 2 2 η P σ E k 1 / 2

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