Abstract

For development of next-generation light control, a simple manufacturing technology to produce flexible metamaterials is a key component. Here, we report development of a printing method involving combination of a thermal nanoimprint method and a squeegeeing method, and demonstrate printed optical metamaterials made of commercially available ink consisting of silver nanoparticles. Optical evaluations of printed dipole resonators indicate dipole resonances corresponding to the structure lengths; these resonances are observed at wavelengths of 765–1346 nm. In particular, we report the important finding that, in metamaterials strongly affected by their constituent materials, a metamaterial structure made of the ink exhibits optical properties comparable to those produced by a vacuum deposition process.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (3)

2016 (3)

R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, J. Matsumoto, S. Matsumoto, and H. Hiroshima, “Electric characterisation of fine wires formed with capillary-effect-based screen-printing,” IET Micro Nano Lett. 11(10), 606–610 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, J. Matsumoto, S. Matsumoto, and H. Hiroshima, “Fine and high-aspect-ratio screen printing combined with an imprinting technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26(3), 035005 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Dong, X. Chen, F. Zhou, C. Wang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Gigahertz all-optical modulation using reconfigurable nanophotonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7690–7695 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber on highly flexible substrate,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 231(15), 74–80 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Kanamori, R. Hokari, and K. Hane, “MEMS for Plasmon Control of Optical Metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 2701410 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, J. Kapraun, J. Ferrara, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Flexible photonic metastructures for tunable coloration,” Optica 2(3), 255–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

R. Hokari, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, “Comparison of electromagnetically induced transparency between silver, gold, and aluminum metamaterials at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3526–3537 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hokari, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of planar metamaterials with sharp and strong electromagnetically induced transparency-like characteristics at wavelengths around 820 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(5), 1000–1005 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Perelaer, R. Abbel, S. Wünscher, R. Jani, T. van Lammeren, and U. S. Schubert, “Roll-to-roll compatible sintering of inkjet printed features by photonic and microwave exposure: from non-conductive ink to 40% bulk silver conductivity in less than 15 seconds,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2620–2625 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dintinger, S. Mühlig, C. Rockstuhl, and T. Scharf, “A bottom-up approach to fabricate optical metamaterials by self-assembled metallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(3), 269–278 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

N. R. Han, Z. C. Chen, C. S. Lim, B. Ng, and M. H. Hong, “Broadband multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabrication and characterization on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express 19(8), 6990–6998 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Kang, J. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and H. T. Hahn, “Sintering of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles at room temperature using intense pulsed light,” J. Electron. Mater. 40(11), 2268–2277 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Di Falco, M. Ploschner, and T. F. Krauss, “Flexible metamaterials at visible wavelengths,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 113006 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication of terahertz planar metamaterials using a super-fine ink-jet printer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(1), 16701 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, J. S. Melinger, A. Khachatrian, N. A. Charipar, R. C. Y. Auyeung, and A. Piqué, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterials by laser printing,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 4039–4041 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. H. Lee, Q. Wu, and W. Park, “Metal nanocluster metamaterial fabricated by the colloidal self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 443–445 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Löffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ma, M. Taya, and C. Xu, “Smart sunglasses based on electrochromic polymers,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 48(11), 2224–2228 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Berggren, D. Nilsson, and N. D. Robinson, “Organic materials for printed electronics,” Nat. Mater. 6(1), 3–5 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B.-H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. J. E. van Rens, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors,” Nat. Mater. 3(2), 106–110 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1986 (1)

Abbel, R.

J. Perelaer, R. Abbel, S. Wünscher, R. Jani, T. van Lammeren, and U. S. Schubert, “Roll-to-roll compatible sintering of inkjet printed features by photonic and microwave exposure: from non-conductive ink to 40% bulk silver conductivity in less than 15 seconds,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2620–2625 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abe, Y.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication of terahertz planar metamaterials using a super-fine ink-jet printer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(1), 16701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiyama, K.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication of terahertz planar metamaterials using a super-fine ink-jet printer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(1), 16701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auyeung, R. C. Y.

Averitt, R. D.

X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber on highly flexible substrate,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 231(15), 74–80 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baca, A. J.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, J.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

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I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
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Gelinck, G. H.

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Gupta, S.

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Hsieh, C.-F.

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G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B.-H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. J. E. van Rens, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors,” Nat. Mater. 3(2), 106–110 (2004).
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
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Kang, J. S.

J. S. Kang, J. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and H. T. Hahn, “Sintering of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles at room temperature using intense pulsed light,” J. Electron. Mater. 40(11), 2268–2277 (2011).
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Kawabata, T.

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I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
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Khachatrian, A.

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
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Kim, D.-H.

D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
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Kim, H.

Kim, H. S.

J. S. Kang, J. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and H. T. Hahn, “Sintering of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles at room temperature using intense pulsed light,” J. Electron. Mater. 40(11), 2268–2277 (2011).
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Kim, J.

D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
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Kim, S. J.

D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
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Kim, T. T.

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
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W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
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M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Löffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
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C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
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J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
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A. Di Falco, M. Ploschner, and T. F. Krauss, “Flexible metamaterials at visible wavelengths,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 113006 (2010).
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R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, and H. Hiroshima, “Development of simple high-resolution embedded printing for transparent metal grid conductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(6), 063107 (2017).
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R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, J. Matsumoto, S. Matsumoto, and H. Hiroshima, “Electric characterisation of fine wires formed with capillary-effect-based screen-printing,” IET Micro Nano Lett. 11(10), 606–610 (2016).
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R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, J. Matsumoto, S. Matsumoto, and H. Hiroshima, “Fine and high-aspect-ratio screen printing combined with an imprinting technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26(3), 035005 (2016).
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D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
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D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
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D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
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Lee, J. H.

Lee, M.

D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
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X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
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Löffelmann, U.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Löffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
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D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
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G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B.-H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. J. E. van Rens, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors,” Nat. Mater. 3(2), 106–110 (2004).
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R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, J. Matsumoto, S. Matsumoto, and H. Hiroshima, “Electric characterisation of fine wires formed with capillary-effect-based screen-printing,” IET Micro Nano Lett. 11(10), 606–610 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, J. Matsumoto, S. Matsumoto, and H. Hiroshima, “Fine and high-aspect-ratio screen printing combined with an imprinting technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26(3), 035005 (2016).
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R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, J. Matsumoto, S. Matsumoto, and H. Hiroshima, “Fine and high-aspect-ratio screen printing combined with an imprinting technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26(3), 035005 (2016).
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R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, J. Matsumoto, S. Matsumoto, and H. Hiroshima, “Electric characterisation of fine wires formed with capillary-effect-based screen-printing,” IET Micro Nano Lett. 11(10), 606–610 (2016).
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M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Löffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
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G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B.-H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. J. E. van Rens, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors,” Nat. Mater. 3(2), 106–110 (2004).
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Metcalfe, G. D.

X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber on highly flexible substrate,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 231(15), 74–80 (2015).
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D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
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W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyamaru, F.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication of terahertz planar metamaterials using a super-fine ink-jet printer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(1), 16701 (2010).
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R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Mühlig, S.

Ng, B.

Nguyen, V. D.

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
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Nickel, D. V.

W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
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M. Berggren, D. Nilsson, and N. D. Robinson, “Organic materials for printed electronics,” Nat. Mater. 6(1), 3–5 (2007).
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Nordlander, P.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ortner, A.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Löffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
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Padilla, W. J.

Pan, C.-L.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication of terahertz planar metamaterials using a super-fine ink-jet printer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(1), 16701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pan, R.-P.

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication of terahertz planar metamaterials using a super-fine ink-jet printer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(1), 16701 (2010).
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Park, M.

D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
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Park, W.

Pastkovsky, S.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, B.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perelaer, J.

J. Perelaer, R. Abbel, S. Wünscher, R. Jani, T. van Lammeren, and U. S. Schubert, “Roll-to-roll compatible sintering of inkjet printed features by photonic and microwave exposure: from non-conductive ink to 40% bulk silver conductivity in less than 15 seconds,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2620–2625 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piqué, A.

Ploschner, M.

A. Di Falco, M. Ploschner, and T. F. Krauss, “Flexible metamaterials at visible wavelengths,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 113006 (2010).
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pollard, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasetyo, F. D.

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pryce, I. M.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, S.

D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rakic, A. D.

Reichel, K.

W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, N. D.

M. Berggren, D. Nilsson, and N. D. Robinson, “Organic materials for printed electronics,” Nat. Mater. 6(1), 3–5 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

Rogers, J. A.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, J.

J. S. Kang, J. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and H. T. Hahn, “Sintering of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles at room temperature using intense pulsed light,” J. Electron. Mater. 40(11), 2268–2277 (2011).
[Crossref]

Scharf, T.

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schrijnemakers, L.

G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B.-H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. J. E. van Rens, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors,” Nat. Mater. 3(2), 106–110 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, U. S.

J. Perelaer, R. Abbel, S. Wünscher, R. Jani, T. van Lammeren, and U. S. Schubert, “Roll-to-roll compatible sintering of inkjet printed features by photonic and microwave exposure: from non-conductive ink to 40% bulk silver conductivity in less than 15 seconds,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2620–2625 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seren, H. R.

X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber on highly flexible substrate,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 231(15), 74–80 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shi, G.

W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shigeta, K.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, J.

D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shu, J.

W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, P. J.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Löffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Son, D.

D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
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Song, C.

D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suen, J. Y.

Sun, C.

B. Dong, X. Chen, F. Zhou, C. Wang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Gigahertz all-optical modulation using reconfigurable nanophotonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7690–7695 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takada, N.

R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, and H. Hiroshima, “Development of simple high-resolution embedded printing for transparent metal grid conductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(6), 063107 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, J. Matsumoto, S. Matsumoto, and H. Hiroshima, “Electric characterisation of fine wires formed with capillary-effect-based screen-printing,” IET Micro Nano Lett. 11(10), 606–610 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, J. Matsumoto, S. Matsumoto, and H. Hiroshima, “Fine and high-aspect-ratio screen printing combined with an imprinting technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26(3), 035005 (2016).
[Crossref]

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K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication of terahertz planar metamaterials using a super-fine ink-jet printer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(1), 16701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Taya, M.

C. Ma, M. Taya, and C. Xu, “Smart sunglasses based on electrochromic polymers,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 48(11), 2224–2228 (2008).
[Crossref]

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N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

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K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication of terahertz planar metamaterials using a super-fine ink-jet printer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(1), 16701 (2010).
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G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B.-H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. J. E. van Rens, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors,” Nat. Mater. 3(2), 106–110 (2004).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
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W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
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G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B.-H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. J. E. van Rens, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors,” Nat. Mater. 3(2), 106–110 (2004).
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J. Perelaer, R. Abbel, S. Wünscher, R. Jani, T. van Lammeren, and U. S. Schubert, “Roll-to-roll compatible sintering of inkjet printed features by photonic and microwave exposure: from non-conductive ink to 40% bulk silver conductivity in less than 15 seconds,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2620–2625 (2012).
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G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B.-H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. J. E. van Rens, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors,” Nat. Mater. 3(2), 106–110 (2004).
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G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B.-H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. J. E. van Rens, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors,” Nat. Mater. 3(2), 106–110 (2004).
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B. Dong, X. Chen, F. Zhou, C. Wang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Gigahertz all-optical modulation using reconfigurable nanophotonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7690–7695 (2016).
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X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
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Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
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C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
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X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
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X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber on highly flexible substrate,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 231(15), 74–80 (2015).
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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
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J. Perelaer, R. Abbel, S. Wünscher, R. Jani, T. van Lammeren, and U. S. Schubert, “Roll-to-roll compatible sintering of inkjet printed features by photonic and microwave exposure: from non-conductive ink to 40% bulk silver conductivity in less than 15 seconds,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2620–2625 (2012).
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Ma, M. Taya, and C. Xu, “Smart sunglasses based on electrochromic polymers,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 48(11), 2224–2228 (2008).
[Crossref]

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W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

B. Dong, X. Chen, F. Zhou, C. Wang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Gigahertz all-optical modulation using reconfigurable nanophotonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7690–7695 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber on highly flexible substrate,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 231(15), 74–80 (2015).
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X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber on highly flexible substrate,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 231(15), 74–80 (2015).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
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X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber on highly flexible substrate,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 231(15), 74–80 (2015).
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B. Dong, X. Chen, F. Zhou, C. Wang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, “Gigahertz all-optical modulation using reconfigurable nanophotonic metamolecules,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7690–7695 (2016).
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Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
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Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
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Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Perelaer, R. Abbel, S. Wünscher, R. Jani, T. van Lammeren, and U. S. Schubert, “Roll-to-roll compatible sintering of inkjet printed features by photonic and microwave exposure: from non-conductive ink to 40% bulk silver conductivity in less than 15 seconds,” Adv. Mater. 24(19), 2620–2625 (2012).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

K. Takano, T. Kawabata, C.-F. Hsieh, K. Akiyama, F. Miyamaru, Y. Abe, Y. Tokuda, R.-P. Pan, C.-L. Pan, and M. Hangyo, “Fabrication of terahertz planar metamaterials using a super-fine ink-jet printer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(1), 16701 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
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M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Löffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
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R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, and H. Hiroshima, “Development of simple high-resolution embedded printing for transparent metal grid conductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(6), 063107 (2017).
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Y. Kanamori, R. Hokari, and K. Hane, “MEMS for Plasmon Control of Optical Metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 2701410 (2015).
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R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, J. Matsumoto, S. Matsumoto, and H. Hiroshima, “Electric characterisation of fine wires formed with capillary-effect-based screen-printing,” IET Micro Nano Lett. 11(10), 606–610 (2016).
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J. S. Kang, J. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and H. T. Hahn, “Sintering of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles at room temperature using intense pulsed light,” J. Electron. Mater. 40(11), 2268–2277 (2011).
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R. Hokari, K. Kurihara, N. Takada, J. Matsumoto, S. Matsumoto, and H. Hiroshima, “Fine and high-aspect-ratio screen printing combined with an imprinting technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26(3), 035005 (2016).
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W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
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X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
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Nat. Mater. (3)

G. H. Gelinck, H. E. A. Huitema, E. van Veenendaal, E. Cantatore, L. Schrijnemakers, J. B. P. H. van der Putten, T. C. T. Geuns, M. Beenhakkers, J. B. Giesbers, B.-H. Huisman, E. J. Meijer, E. M. Benito, F. J. Touwslager, A. W. Marsman, B. J. E. van Rens, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Flexible active-matrix displays and shift registers based on solution-processed organic transistors,” Nat. Mater. 3(2), 106–110 (2004).
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D. Son, J. Lee, S. Qiao, R. Ghaffari, J. Kim, J. E. Lee, C. Song, S. J. Kim, D. J. Lee, S. W. Jun, S. Yang, M. Park, J. Shin, K. Do, M. Lee, K. Kang, C. S. Hwang, N. Lu, T. Hyeon, and D.-H. Kim, “Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 397–404 (2014).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
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Polym. Eng. Sci. (1)

C. Ma, M. Taya, and C. Xu, “Smart sunglasses based on electrochromic polymers,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 48(11), 2224–2228 (2008).
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R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
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N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

X. Zhao, K. Fan, J. Zhang, H. R. Seren, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “Optically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber on highly flexible substrate,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 231(15), 74–80 (2015).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Fabrication process of printed optical metamaterials. (b) Printed flexible metamaterials in bent state. (c) Photograph of printed flexible metamaterials before sintering and after sintering at 130°C for 1, 2, and 4 h. (d) SEM images of printed metamaterials (dipole resonators with 250-nm length) for each sintering condition. The black scale bars indicate 200-nm length.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic diagrams of each unit-cell structure with specific dimensions: Type-A and -B dipole resonators, Type-A and -B SRRs, and EIT metamaterial. (b) SEM images of printed metamaterials: Type-A dipole resonator with dy of 350 nm, type-B dipole resonator with dwy of 300 nm and py of 750 nm, type-A and -B SRRs, and EIT metamaterial with ge of 75 nm. (c) SEM image of A−A cross-section in (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental transmittance spectra of (a), (b) silver nanoink coated on film and (c),(d) printed type-A dipole resonator. (a), (c) Before sintering. (b), (d) After sintering for 12 h at 130°C. The polarization directions are parallel to the y- (upper graphs) or x-axes (lower graphs), as indicated by the arrows. (d) Dashed curves showing calculated transmittance spectra of dipole resonators by RCWA simulations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental transmittance spectra of printed type-A dipole resonators as functions of bending radius r for compressive strain along (a) y- and (b) x-axes, and for tensile strain along (c) y- and (d) x-axes. The polarization directions are parallel to the y-axis.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM images and experimental transmittance spectra of printed type-A and -B SRRs. The polarization directions are parallel to the x- (left graph) or y-axes (right graph), as indicated by the arrows. The red and blue curves show the results for the type-A and -B SRRs, respectively. The dashed curves are calculated transmittance spectra of SRRs by RCWA simulations.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SEM images and experimental transmittance spectra of printed EIT metamaterials with ge values of 0, 32, and 110 nm. The polarization directions are parallel to the y-axis. The dashed curves in the bottom graph indicate calculated transmittance spectra of EIT metamaterials by RCWA simulations. The electric and magnetic field amplitude distributions in the unit structures of EIT metamaterials with ge values of 32 and 110 nm at each resonant wavelength are shown. The electric (x-components) and magnetic (z-components) fields were calculated at the pattern half heights.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) SEM image and experimental transmittance spectra of printed type-B dipole resonators as functions of dwy (from 100 to 400 nm) and for different sintering conditions. Bottom graphs: calculated transmittance spectra by RCWA simulations. The polarization directions are parallel to the x- (left graphs) or y-axes (right graphs), as indicated by the arrows. (b) Plots of λ1 (left graph) and λ2 (right graph) resonant wavelengths and transmittances at resonant wavelengths as functions of dwy and sintering conditions.

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