Abstract

We designed and demonstrated a liquid crystal (LC) photon sieve (PS) device which can be integrated on a conventional diffusive projection screen and switched to record images. The device fabrication method and assembly of it by using Smectic A (SmA) LC material is also presented. In the PS state, the device comprises diffusive elements, which simultaneously allow to image the scene in front of the device on a camera sensor behind itself and display another image projected onto the device. The image captured using the PS has acceptable visual quality. The projected images, from an external picture source, on the diffusive elements can be observed with a quality comparable to the full scattering state. The projected images are observed with almost no detectable features of the device at the observation distance. The device offers a built-in solution for eye-to-eye video conferencing applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. R. Kollarits, C. Woodworth, J. Ribera, and R. Gitlin, “34.4: An eye contact camera/display system for videophone applications using a conventional direct-view LCD,” in Society for Information Display, International Symposium (1996), pp. 765–768.
  2. R. Yang and Z. Zhang, “Eye gaze correction with stereovision for video-teleconferencing,” in European Conference on Computer Vision (Springer, 2002), pp. 479–494.
  3. T. Inoue, T. Takahashi, T. Hirayama, Y. Kawanishi, D. Deguchi, I. Ide, H. Murase, T. Kurozumi, and K. Kashino, “Image transformation of eye areas for synthesizing eye-contacts in video conferencing,” in Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 3: VISAPP (2016), pp. 273–279.
  4. Catcheye, https://catch-eye.com/ , (2018).
  5. S. Izadi, S. Hodges, S. Taylor, D. Rosenfeld, N. Villar, A. Butler, and J. Westhues, “Going beyond the display: a surface technology with an electronically switchable diffuser,” ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST ’08) (2008).
  6. A. Ö. Yöntem, B. Robertson, D. Chu, and Centre for Photonic Devices and Sensors Group, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA, United Kingdom, are preparing a manuscript to be tentatively called “An optically transparent mechanics design for rear projection based modular media-wall.”
  7. Nikon, “Phase Fresnel lens,” http://imaging.nikon.com/lineup/lens/glossary.htm#pf , (2018).
  8. L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414, 184–188 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. G. Andersen, “Large optical photon sieve,” Opt. Lett. 30(22), 2976–2978 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Hea, L. Zhaoa, Y. Tanga, and S. Huaa, “A hybrid doubled achromat based on a photon sieve,” Optik 125(3), 958–961 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Ö. Yöntem, D. Chu, and Centre for Photonic Devices and Sensors Group, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA, United Kingdom, are preparing a manuscript to be tentatively called “A photon sieve array and imaging improvement by pinhole rearragement”.
  12. H. Lipson and K. Walkley, “On the validity of Babinet’s principle for Fraunhofer diffraction,” J. Mod. Opt. 15(1), 83–91, (1968).
  13. J. R. Jiménez and E. Hita, “Babinet’s principle in scalar theory of diffraction,” Optical Rev. 8(6), 495–497, (2001).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Ganci, “Fraunhofer diffraction by a thin wire and Babinet’s principle,” Am. J. of Phys. 73(1), 83–84, (2005).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, D. P. Chu, and T. V. Clapp, Handbook of Liquid Crystal: vol 8, Applications of LCs, Part 1, Display Devices (Wiley-VCH, 2014).

2014 (1)

Y. Hea, L. Zhaoa, Y. Tanga, and S. Huaa, “A hybrid doubled achromat based on a photon sieve,” Optik 125(3), 958–961 (2014).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

G. Andersen, “Large optical photon sieve,” Opt. Lett. 30(22), 2976–2978 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Ganci, “Fraunhofer diffraction by a thin wire and Babinet’s principle,” Am. J. of Phys. 73(1), 83–84, (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

J. R. Jiménez and E. Hita, “Babinet’s principle in scalar theory of diffraction,” Optical Rev. 8(6), 495–497, (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

H. Lipson and K. Walkley, “On the validity of Babinet’s principle for Fraunhofer diffraction,” J. Mod. Opt. 15(1), 83–91, (1968).

Adelung, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, G.

Berndt, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, A.

S. Izadi, S. Hodges, S. Taylor, D. Rosenfeld, N. Villar, A. Butler, and J. Westhues, “Going beyond the display: a surface technology with an electronically switchable diffuser,” ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST ’08) (2008).

Chu, D.

A. Ö. Yöntem, B. Robertson, D. Chu, and Centre for Photonic Devices and Sensors Group, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA, United Kingdom, are preparing a manuscript to be tentatively called “An optically transparent mechanics design for rear projection based modular media-wall.”

A. Ö. Yöntem, D. Chu, and Centre for Photonic Devices and Sensors Group, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA, United Kingdom, are preparing a manuscript to be tentatively called “A photon sieve array and imaging improvement by pinhole rearragement”.

Chu, D. P.

W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, D. P. Chu, and T. V. Clapp, Handbook of Liquid Crystal: vol 8, Applications of LCs, Part 1, Display Devices (Wiley-VCH, 2014).

Clapp, T. V.

W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, D. P. Chu, and T. V. Clapp, Handbook of Liquid Crystal: vol 8, Applications of LCs, Part 1, Display Devices (Wiley-VCH, 2014).

Crossland, W. A.

W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, D. P. Chu, and T. V. Clapp, Handbook of Liquid Crystal: vol 8, Applications of LCs, Part 1, Display Devices (Wiley-VCH, 2014).

Davey, A. B.

W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, D. P. Chu, and T. V. Clapp, Handbook of Liquid Crystal: vol 8, Applications of LCs, Part 1, Display Devices (Wiley-VCH, 2014).

Deguchi, D.

T. Inoue, T. Takahashi, T. Hirayama, Y. Kawanishi, D. Deguchi, I. Ide, H. Murase, T. Kurozumi, and K. Kashino, “Image transformation of eye areas for synthesizing eye-contacts in video conferencing,” in Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 3: VISAPP (2016), pp. 273–279.

Ganci, S.

S. Ganci, “Fraunhofer diffraction by a thin wire and Babinet’s principle,” Am. J. of Phys. 73(1), 83–84, (2005).
[Crossref]

Gitlin, R.

R. Kollarits, C. Woodworth, J. Ribera, and R. Gitlin, “34.4: An eye contact camera/display system for videophone applications using a conventional direct-view LCD,” in Society for Information Display, International Symposium (1996), pp. 765–768.

Harm, S.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hea, Y.

Y. Hea, L. Zhaoa, Y. Tanga, and S. Huaa, “A hybrid doubled achromat based on a photon sieve,” Optik 125(3), 958–961 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, T.

T. Inoue, T. Takahashi, T. Hirayama, Y. Kawanishi, D. Deguchi, I. Ide, H. Murase, T. Kurozumi, and K. Kashino, “Image transformation of eye areas for synthesizing eye-contacts in video conferencing,” in Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 3: VISAPP (2016), pp. 273–279.

Hita, E.

J. R. Jiménez and E. Hita, “Babinet’s principle in scalar theory of diffraction,” Optical Rev. 8(6), 495–497, (2001).
[Crossref]

Hodges, S.

S. Izadi, S. Hodges, S. Taylor, D. Rosenfeld, N. Villar, A. Butler, and J. Westhues, “Going beyond the display: a surface technology with an electronically switchable diffuser,” ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST ’08) (2008).

Huaa, S.

Y. Hea, L. Zhaoa, Y. Tanga, and S. Huaa, “A hybrid doubled achromat based on a photon sieve,” Optik 125(3), 958–961 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ide, I.

T. Inoue, T. Takahashi, T. Hirayama, Y. Kawanishi, D. Deguchi, I. Ide, H. Murase, T. Kurozumi, and K. Kashino, “Image transformation of eye areas for synthesizing eye-contacts in video conferencing,” in Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 3: VISAPP (2016), pp. 273–279.

Inoue, T.

T. Inoue, T. Takahashi, T. Hirayama, Y. Kawanishi, D. Deguchi, I. Ide, H. Murase, T. Kurozumi, and K. Kashino, “Image transformation of eye areas for synthesizing eye-contacts in video conferencing,” in Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 3: VISAPP (2016), pp. 273–279.

Izadi, S.

S. Izadi, S. Hodges, S. Taylor, D. Rosenfeld, N. Villar, A. Butler, and J. Westhues, “Going beyond the display: a surface technology with an electronically switchable diffuser,” ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST ’08) (2008).

Jiménez, J. R.

J. R. Jiménez and E. Hita, “Babinet’s principle in scalar theory of diffraction,” Optical Rev. 8(6), 495–497, (2001).
[Crossref]

Johnson, R. L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kashino, K.

T. Inoue, T. Takahashi, T. Hirayama, Y. Kawanishi, D. Deguchi, I. Ide, H. Murase, T. Kurozumi, and K. Kashino, “Image transformation of eye areas for synthesizing eye-contacts in video conferencing,” in Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 3: VISAPP (2016), pp. 273–279.

Kawanishi, Y.

T. Inoue, T. Takahashi, T. Hirayama, Y. Kawanishi, D. Deguchi, I. Ide, H. Murase, T. Kurozumi, and K. Kashino, “Image transformation of eye areas for synthesizing eye-contacts in video conferencing,” in Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 3: VISAPP (2016), pp. 273–279.

Kipp, L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kollarits, R.

R. Kollarits, C. Woodworth, J. Ribera, and R. Gitlin, “34.4: An eye contact camera/display system for videophone applications using a conventional direct-view LCD,” in Society for Information Display, International Symposium (1996), pp. 765–768.

Kurozumi, T.

T. Inoue, T. Takahashi, T. Hirayama, Y. Kawanishi, D. Deguchi, I. Ide, H. Murase, T. Kurozumi, and K. Kashino, “Image transformation of eye areas for synthesizing eye-contacts in video conferencing,” in Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 3: VISAPP (2016), pp. 273–279.

Lipson, H.

H. Lipson and K. Walkley, “On the validity of Babinet’s principle for Fraunhofer diffraction,” J. Mod. Opt. 15(1), 83–91, (1968).

Murase, H.

T. Inoue, T. Takahashi, T. Hirayama, Y. Kawanishi, D. Deguchi, I. Ide, H. Murase, T. Kurozumi, and K. Kashino, “Image transformation of eye areas for synthesizing eye-contacts in video conferencing,” in Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 3: VISAPP (2016), pp. 273–279.

Ribera, J.

R. Kollarits, C. Woodworth, J. Ribera, and R. Gitlin, “34.4: An eye contact camera/display system for videophone applications using a conventional direct-view LCD,” in Society for Information Display, International Symposium (1996), pp. 765–768.

Robertson, B.

A. Ö. Yöntem, B. Robertson, D. Chu, and Centre for Photonic Devices and Sensors Group, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA, United Kingdom, are preparing a manuscript to be tentatively called “An optically transparent mechanics design for rear projection based modular media-wall.”

Rosenfeld, D.

S. Izadi, S. Hodges, S. Taylor, D. Rosenfeld, N. Villar, A. Butler, and J. Westhues, “Going beyond the display: a surface technology with an electronically switchable diffuser,” ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST ’08) (2008).

Seemann, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skibowski, M.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, T.

T. Inoue, T. Takahashi, T. Hirayama, Y. Kawanishi, D. Deguchi, I. Ide, H. Murase, T. Kurozumi, and K. Kashino, “Image transformation of eye areas for synthesizing eye-contacts in video conferencing,” in Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 3: VISAPP (2016), pp. 273–279.

Tanga, Y.

Y. Hea, L. Zhaoa, Y. Tanga, and S. Huaa, “A hybrid doubled achromat based on a photon sieve,” Optik 125(3), 958–961 (2014).
[Crossref]

Taylor, S.

S. Izadi, S. Hodges, S. Taylor, D. Rosenfeld, N. Villar, A. Butler, and J. Westhues, “Going beyond the display: a surface technology with an electronically switchable diffuser,” ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST ’08) (2008).

Villar, N.

S. Izadi, S. Hodges, S. Taylor, D. Rosenfeld, N. Villar, A. Butler, and J. Westhues, “Going beyond the display: a surface technology with an electronically switchable diffuser,” ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST ’08) (2008).

Walkley, K.

H. Lipson and K. Walkley, “On the validity of Babinet’s principle for Fraunhofer diffraction,” J. Mod. Opt. 15(1), 83–91, (1968).

Westhues, J.

S. Izadi, S. Hodges, S. Taylor, D. Rosenfeld, N. Villar, A. Butler, and J. Westhues, “Going beyond the display: a surface technology with an electronically switchable diffuser,” ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST ’08) (2008).

Woodworth, C.

R. Kollarits, C. Woodworth, J. Ribera, and R. Gitlin, “34.4: An eye contact camera/display system for videophone applications using a conventional direct-view LCD,” in Society for Information Display, International Symposium (1996), pp. 765–768.

Yang, R.

R. Yang and Z. Zhang, “Eye gaze correction with stereovision for video-teleconferencing,” in European Conference on Computer Vision (Springer, 2002), pp. 479–494.

Yöntem, A. Ö.

A. Ö. Yöntem, B. Robertson, D. Chu, and Centre for Photonic Devices and Sensors Group, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA, United Kingdom, are preparing a manuscript to be tentatively called “An optically transparent mechanics design for rear projection based modular media-wall.”

A. Ö. Yöntem, D. Chu, and Centre for Photonic Devices and Sensors Group, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA, United Kingdom, are preparing a manuscript to be tentatively called “A photon sieve array and imaging improvement by pinhole rearragement”.

Zhang, Z.

R. Yang and Z. Zhang, “Eye gaze correction with stereovision for video-teleconferencing,” in European Conference on Computer Vision (Springer, 2002), pp. 479–494.

Zhaoa, L.

Y. Hea, L. Zhaoa, Y. Tanga, and S. Huaa, “A hybrid doubled achromat based on a photon sieve,” Optik 125(3), 958–961 (2014).
[Crossref]

Am. J. of Phys. (1)

S. Ganci, “Fraunhofer diffraction by a thin wire and Babinet’s principle,” Am. J. of Phys. 73(1), 83–84, (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. Lipson and K. Walkley, “On the validity of Babinet’s principle for Fraunhofer diffraction,” J. Mod. Opt. 15(1), 83–91, (1968).

Nature (1)

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optical Rev. (1)

J. R. Jiménez and E. Hita, “Babinet’s principle in scalar theory of diffraction,” Optical Rev. 8(6), 495–497, (2001).
[Crossref]

Optik (1)

Y. Hea, L. Zhaoa, Y. Tanga, and S. Huaa, “A hybrid doubled achromat based on a photon sieve,” Optik 125(3), 958–961 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

A. Ö. Yöntem, D. Chu, and Centre for Photonic Devices and Sensors Group, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA, United Kingdom, are preparing a manuscript to be tentatively called “A photon sieve array and imaging improvement by pinhole rearragement”.

R. Kollarits, C. Woodworth, J. Ribera, and R. Gitlin, “34.4: An eye contact camera/display system for videophone applications using a conventional direct-view LCD,” in Society for Information Display, International Symposium (1996), pp. 765–768.

R. Yang and Z. Zhang, “Eye gaze correction with stereovision for video-teleconferencing,” in European Conference on Computer Vision (Springer, 2002), pp. 479–494.

T. Inoue, T. Takahashi, T. Hirayama, Y. Kawanishi, D. Deguchi, I. Ide, H. Murase, T. Kurozumi, and K. Kashino, “Image transformation of eye areas for synthesizing eye-contacts in video conferencing,” in Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 3: VISAPP (2016), pp. 273–279.

Catcheye, https://catch-eye.com/ , (2018).

S. Izadi, S. Hodges, S. Taylor, D. Rosenfeld, N. Villar, A. Butler, and J. Westhues, “Going beyond the display: a surface technology with an electronically switchable diffuser,” ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST ’08) (2008).

A. Ö. Yöntem, B. Robertson, D. Chu, and Centre for Photonic Devices and Sensors Group, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA, United Kingdom, are preparing a manuscript to be tentatively called “An optically transparent mechanics design for rear projection based modular media-wall.”

Nikon, “Phase Fresnel lens,” http://imaging.nikon.com/lineup/lens/glossary.htm#pf , (2018).

W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, D. P. Chu, and T. V. Clapp, Handbook of Liquid Crystal: vol 8, Applications of LCs, Part 1, Display Devices (Wiley-VCH, 2014).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The concept of eye-to-eye video conferencing. A focusing element is embedded in the diffusive media which is used to project images from a rear projection source. The focusing element images the scene on the other side of the diffusive media to the same side as the projection source. Proper physical placement of one or more focusing elements will allow an eye-to-eye video transmission between similar units.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The image of photon sieve mask is shown on the left. The inset shows the detailed microscopic image. Diameter of a single PS is measured 1.624mm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Patterned ITO electrode (peripheral region of two adjacent Fresnel lens) by photolithography. Measured diameters: a = 16.68μm, b = 16.62μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The images of PS device on a black background. When the device is in the scattering mode (a), all regions become diffusive. In the clear mode (b), the LC molecules are trapped under the circular photon sieve features. The light is diffracted around these diffusive regions. Inset shows a single PS structure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The optical setup used to test the device in the concept described in Fig. 1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) and (b) are fully scattered and partially cleared PS states, respectively. The insets are the actual images captures on the corresponding screens. In the inset image of (b), the gaps between the photon sieves are due to the designed mask. It should be obvious to the reader that a square design for the photon sieve will prevent such gaps.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The recorded image of the test object at the 2f imaging distance when PS is (a) on and (b) off. The PS structure on the diffuser images the test object when it is switched on. The inset shows close up of an image of the object and the corresponding result when the background is removed.

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