Abstract

Departing from traditional server-centric data center architectures towards disaggregated systems that can offer increased resource utilization at reduced cost and energy envelopes, the use of high-port switching with highly stringent latency and bandwidth requirements becomes a necessity. We present an optical switch architecture exploiting a hybrid broadcast-and-select/wavelength routing scheme with small-scale optical feedforward buffering. The architecture is experimentally demonstrated at 10Gb/s, reporting error-free performance with a power penalty of <2.5dB. Moreover, network simulations for a 256-node system, revealed low-latency values of only 605nsec, at throughput values reaching 80% when employing 2-packet-size optical buffers, while multi-rack network performance was also investigated.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

2016 (1)

K. Ueda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, K. i. Sato, and T. Watanabe, “Large-Scale and Simple-Configuration Optical Switch Enabled by Asymmetric-Port-Count Subswitches,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

1998 (1)

Akella, V.

Apostolopoulos, D.

Avramopoulos, H.

Bougioukos, M.

Calabretta, N.

Chen, J.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, T.-H.

Cunningham, J. E.

Decker, P. J.

Deng, B.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dignum, M.

Dorren, H. J. S.

Egi, N.

S. Han, N. Egi, A. Panda, S. Ratnasamy, G. Shi, and S. Shenker, “Network support for resource disaggregation in next-generation datacenters,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (ACM, 2013), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Ganger, G. R.

C. Reiss, A. Tumanov, G. R. Ganger, R. H. Katz, and M. A. Kozuch, “Heterogeneity and dynamicity of clouds at scale: Google trace analysis,” in Proceedings of the Third ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing (ACM, 2012), pp. 1–13.
[Crossref]

Gong, D.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, D.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, S.

S. Han, N. Egi, A. Panda, S. Ratnasamy, G. Shi, and S. Shenker, “Network support for resource disaggregation in next-generation datacenters,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (ACM, 2013), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, H.

K. Ueda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. i. Sato, “Large-Scale Optical Switch Utilizing Multistage Cyclic Arrayed-Waveguide Gratings for Intra-Datacenter Interconnection,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ueda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, K. i. Sato, and T. Watanabe, “Large-Scale and Simple-Configuration Optical Switch Enabled by Asymmetric-Port-Count Subswitches,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. i. Sato, H. Hasegawa, T. Niwa, and T. Watanabe, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(9), 46–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, M.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hou, S.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Katz, R. H.

C. Reiss, A. Tumanov, G. R. Ganger, R. H. Katz, and M. A. Kozuch, “Heterogeneity and dynamicity of clouds at scale: Google trace analysis,” in Proceedings of the Third ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing (ACM, 2012), pp. 1–13.
[Crossref]

Kozuch, M. A.

C. Reiss, A. Tumanov, G. R. Ganger, R. H. Katz, and M. A. Kozuch, “Heterogeneity and dynamicity of clouds at scale: Google trace analysis,” in Proceedings of the Third ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing (ACM, 2012), pp. 1–13.
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Li, X.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, F.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, T.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lucente, S. D.

Miliou, A.

Mineo, C.

Mori, Y.

K. Ueda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. i. Sato, “Large-Scale Optical Switch Utilizing Multistage Cyclic Arrayed-Waveguide Gratings for Intra-Datacenter Interconnection,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ueda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, K. i. Sato, and T. Watanabe, “Large-Scale and Simple-Configuration Optical Switch Enabled by Asymmetric-Port-Count Subswitches,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Müller, S.

Nitta, C. J.

Niwa, T.

K. i. Sato, H. Hasegawa, T. Niwa, and T. Watanabe, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(9), 46–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opheim, H.

Panda, A.

S. Han, N. Egi, A. Panda, S. Ratnasamy, G. Shi, and S. Shenker, “Network support for resource disaggregation in next-generation datacenters,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (ACM, 2013), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Penumatcha, R.

Petrantonakis, D.

Pleros, N.

Proietti, R.

Raj, K.

Ratnasamy, S.

S. Han, N. Egi, A. Panda, S. Ratnasamy, G. Shi, and S. Shenker, “Network support for resource disaggregation in next-generation datacenters,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (ACM, 2013), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Reiss, C.

C. Reiss, A. Tumanov, G. R. Ganger, R. H. Katz, and M. A. Kozuch, “Heterogeneity and dynamicity of clouds at scale: Google trace analysis,” in Proceedings of the Third ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing (ACM, 2012), pp. 1–13.
[Crossref]

Resing, J. A. C.

Rongved, E.

Sato, K. i.

K. Ueda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. i. Sato, “Large-Scale Optical Switch Utilizing Multistage Cyclic Arrayed-Waveguide Gratings for Intra-Datacenter Interconnection,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ueda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, K. i. Sato, and T. Watanabe, “Large-Scale and Simple-Configuration Optical Switch Enabled by Asymmetric-Port-Count Subswitches,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. i. Sato, H. Hasegawa, T. Niwa, and T. Watanabe, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(9), 46–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shenker, S.

S. Han, N. Egi, A. Panda, S. Ratnasamy, G. Shi, and S. Shenker, “Network support for resource disaggregation in next-generation datacenters,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (ACM, 2013), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Shi, G.

S. Han, N. Egi, A. Panda, S. Ratnasamy, G. Shi, and S. Shenker, “Network support for resource disaggregation in next-generation datacenters,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (ACM, 2013), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Shubin, I.

Spyropoulou, M.

Srinivasan, A.

Teng, P. K.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thacker, H. D.

Torudbakken, O.

Tucker, R. S.

Tumanov, A.

C. Reiss, A. Tumanov, G. R. Ganger, R. H. Katz, and M. A. Kozuch, “Heterogeneity and dynamicity of clouds at scale: Google trace analysis,” in Proceedings of the Third ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing (ACM, 2012), pp. 1–13.
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.

K. Ueda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. i. Sato, “Large-Scale Optical Switch Utilizing Multistage Cyclic Arrayed-Waveguide Gratings for Intra-Datacenter Interconnection,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ueda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, K. i. Sato, and T. Watanabe, “Large-Scale and Simple-Configuration Optical Switch Enabled by Asymmetric-Port-Count Subswitches,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vyrsokinos, K.

Wang, D.

Wang, Y.

Watanabe, T.

K. Ueda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, K. i. Sato, and T. Watanabe, “Large-Scale and Simple-Configuration Optical Switch Enabled by Asymmetric-Port-Count Subswitches,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. i. Sato, H. Hasegawa, T. Niwa, and T. Watanabe, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(9), 46–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wen De, Z.

Xiang, A. C.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, T.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Yang, Y.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yeo, Y.-K.

Yin, Y.

Yoo, S. J. B.

Yu, R.

Zhao, X.

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

K. i. Sato, H. Hasegawa, T. Niwa, and T. Watanabe, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(9), 46–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

K. Ueda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, K. i. Sato, and T. Watanabe, “Large-Scale and Simple-Configuration Optical Switch Enabled by Asymmetric-Port-Count Subswitches,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Ueda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. i. Sato, “Large-Scale Optical Switch Utilizing Multistage Cyclic Arrayed-Waveguide Gratings for Intra-Datacenter Interconnection,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

B. Deng, M. He, J. Chen, D. Gong, D. Guo, S. Hou, X. Li, F. Liang, C. Liu, G. Liu, P. K. Teng, A. C. Xiang, T. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Ye, X. Zhao, and T. Liu, “Component Prototypes Towards a Low-Latency, Small-Form-Factor Optical Link for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Phase-I Trigger Upgrade,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 62(1), 250–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (8)

Polatis, “SERIES 7000 - 384x384 port Software-Defined Optical Circuit Switch” (2016), retrieved http://www.polatis.com/series-7000-384x384-port-software-controlled-optical-circuit-switch-sdn-enabled.asp .

Q. Chen, V. Mishra, N. Parsons, and G. S. Zervas, “Hardware Programmable Network Function Service Chain on Optical Rack-Scale Data Centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th2A.35.
[Crossref]

JEPPIX, “The road to a multi-billion Euro market in Integrated Photonics” (2015), retrieved https://phi.ele.tue.nl/jpx/JePPIXRoadmap2015.pdf .

Cisco, “Cisco Global Cloud Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2015–2020” (2016), retrieved http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/global-cloud-index-gci/white-paper-c11-738085.pdf .

S. Di, D. Kondo, and F. Cappello, “Characterizing Cloud Applications on a Google Data Center,” in 2013 42nd International Conference on Parallel Processing (2013), pp. 468–473.
[Crossref]

C. Reiss, A. Tumanov, G. R. Ganger, R. H. Katz, and M. A. Kozuch, “Heterogeneity and dynamicity of clouds at scale: Google trace analysis,” in Proceedings of the Third ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing (ACM, 2012), pp. 1–13.
[Crossref]

S. Han, N. Egi, A. Panda, S. Ratnasamy, G. Shi, and S. Shenker, “Network support for resource disaggregation in next-generation datacenters,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (ACM, 2013), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

K. Katrinis, D. Syrivelis, D. Pnevmatikatos, G. Zervas, D. Theodoropoulos, I. Koutsopoulos, K. Hasharoni, D. Raho, C. Pinto, F. Espina, S. Lopez-Buedo, Q. Chen, M. Nemirovsky, D. Roca, H. Klos, and T. Berends, “Rack-scale disaggregated cloud data centers: The dReDBox project vision,” in 2016 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE) (2016), pp. 690–695.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of a 256-node D.C., organized in 16 Rack-Trays with 16 nodes per tray, interconnected via a 256x256 ToR switch.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Detailed Layout of the 256x256 switch architecture utilizing optical feed-forward buffers with a max size of K packets, (b) Process flow on FPGA controller for incoming packets.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup of a complete switch Plane comprising 2 input ports and 1 tray contention resolution block with 2 optical packet buffers, interconnected to a 16x16 AWGR
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Incoming SFP and (b) XFP data stream traces and eyes, (c)-(d) Output oscilloscope traces and spectrums when routing all packets to output channels 8 & 9 of the AWGR, (e)-(i) FPGA traces during the header processing/scheduling operations of packets #A, #D, #B, #E and #C, (j)-(n) Output oscilloscope traces and eyes when routing each packet to different output of the AWGR.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) BER measurements for packets routed to AWGR output port #8, (b) Power penalty deviation at 10−9 error rate, for all possible combinations of buffering at the TCR block and subsequent AWGR output channel selection at the TLS.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulation results for different number of buffers per TCR (a) Single-rack throughput, (b) Single-rack mean latency, (c) Single-rack p90 latency, (d) schematic of the 4-rack system, (e) 4-rack throughput, (f) 4-rack mean latency, (g) 4-rack p90 latency

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