Abstract

It is now well established that light trapping is an essential element of thin film solar cell design. Numerous light trapping geometries have already been applied to thin film cells, especially to silicon-based devices. Less attention has been paid to light trapping in GaAs thin film cells, mainly because light trapping is considered less attractive due to the material’s direct bandgap and the fact that GaAs suffers from strong surface recombination, which particularly affects etched nanostructures. Here, we study light trapping structures that are implemented in a high-bandgap material on the back of the GaAs active layer, thereby not perturbing the integrity of the GaAs active layer. We study photonic crystal and quasi-random nanostructures both by simulation and by experiment and find that the photonic crystal structures are superior because they exhibit fewer but stronger resonances that are better matched to the narrow wavelength range where GaAs benefits from light trapping. In fact, we show that a 1500 nm thick cell with photonic crystals achieves the same short circuit current as an unpatterned 4000 nm thick cell. These findings are significant because they afford a sizeable reduction in active layer thickness, and therefore a reduction in expensive epitaxial growth time and cost, yet without compromising performance.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, and A. W. Y. Ho‐Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 49),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25, 144–150 (2017).

A. Mellor, N. P. Hylton, S. A. Maier, and N. Ekins-Daukes, “Interstitial light-trapping design for multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 212–218 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

J. Li, K. Li, C. Schuster, R. Su, X. Wang, B.-H. V. Borges, T. F. Krauss, and E. R. Martins, “Spatial resolution effect of light coupling structures,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18500 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Moon, K. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Heo, and J. Lee, “Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30107 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chandrasekharan, K. Gomez, A. Al-Hourani, S. Kandeepan, T. Rasheed, L. Goratti, L. Reynaud, D. Grace, I. Bucaille, T. Wirth, and S. Allsopp, “Designing and implementing future aerial communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(5), 26–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. M. Geum, M. S. Park, J. Y. Lim, H. D. Yang, J. D. Song, C. Z. Kim, E. Yoon, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saravanan, T. Krishna Teja, R. S. Dubey, and S. Kalainathan, “Design and analysis of GaAs thin film solar cell using an efficient light trapping bottom structure,” Materials Today: Proceedings 3, 2463–2467 (2016).

2015 (2)

S. M. Lee, A. Kwong, D. Jung, J. Faucher, R. Biswas, L. Shen, D. Kang, M. L. Lee, and J. Yoon, “High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10356–10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Vandamme, H. L. Chen, A. Gaucher, B. Behaghel, A. Lemaître, A. Cattoni, C. Dupuis, N. Bardou, J. F. Guillemoles, and S. Collin, “Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells With a Silver Back Mirror,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(2), 565–570 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

F. Priolo, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Galli, and T. F. Krauss, “Silicon nanostructures for photonics and photovoltaics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 19–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, T. W. Hughes, and S. R. Forrest, “Non‐Destructive Wafer Recycling for Low‐Cost Thin‐Film Flexible Optoelectronics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(27), 4284–4291 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Ganapati, O. D. Miller, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Subwavelength Thick Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 175–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Liang, Y. Kang, Y. Huo, Y. Chen, Y. Cui, and J. S. Harris, “High-Efficiency Nanostructured Window GaAs Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4850–4856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, S. H. Eo, and J. H. Jang, “Direct integration of subwavelength structure on a GaAs solar cell by using colloidal lithography and dry etching process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. Process. Meas. Phenom. 31, 1202 (2013).

2012 (2)

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, X. Xiao, K. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, “Reuse of GaAs substrates for epitaxial lift-off by employing protection layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033527 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Battal, T. A. Yogurt, L. E. Aygun, and A. K. Okyay, “Triangular metallic gratings for large absorption enhancement in thin film Si solar cells,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9458–9464 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. J. Schermer, E. Bongers, G. Oomen, W. Köstler, and G. Strobl, “Wafer reuse for repeated growth of III-V solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 155–159 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. B. Shim, J. S. Chun, S. W. Kang, S. W. Cho, S. W. Cho, Y. D. Park, P. Mohanty, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Micromechanical resonators fabricated from lattice-matched and etch-selective GaAs/InGaP/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133505 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. J. Schermer, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. V. Deelen, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, and P. K. Larsen, “Photon confinement in high-efficiency, thin-film III–V solar cells obtained by epitaxial lift-off,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 645–653 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Galiana, I. Reystolle, M. Baudrit, I. Garcia, and C. Algora, “A comparative study of BSF layers for GaAs-based single-junction or multijunction concentrator solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(10), 1387–1392 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. M. A. J. Voncken, J. J. Schermer, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, P. K. Larsen, T. P. J. Peters, B. D. Bruin, A. Klaassen, and J. J. Kelly, “Etching AlAs with HF for Epitaxial Lift-Off Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(5), G347–G352 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Algora, E. Ortiz, I. Rey-Stolle, V. Diaz, R. Pena, V. M. Andreev, V. P. Khvostikov, and V. D. Rumyantsev, “A GaAs solar cell with an efficiency of 26.2% at 1000 suns and 25.0% at 2000 suns,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(5), 840–844 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. V. Geelen, P. R. Hageman, G. J. Bauhuis, P. C. V. Rijsingen, P. Schmidt, and L. J. Giling, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs solar cell from a reusable GaAs substrate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45(1-3), 162–171 (1997).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift‐off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
[Crossref]

Adams, J.

J. Adams, V. Elarde, A. Hains, and C. Stender, “Demonstration of multiple substrate reuses for inverted metamorphic solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2012), 1–6.
[Crossref]

Agrawal, M.

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Algora, C.

B. Galiana, I. Reystolle, M. Baudrit, I. Garcia, and C. Algora, “A comparative study of BSF layers for GaAs-based single-junction or multijunction concentrator solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(10), 1387–1392 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Algora, E. Ortiz, I. Rey-Stolle, V. Diaz, R. Pena, V. M. Andreev, V. P. Khvostikov, and V. D. Rumyantsev, “A GaAs solar cell with an efficiency of 26.2% at 1000 suns and 25.0% at 2000 suns,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(5), 840–844 (2001).
[Crossref]

Al-Hourani, A.

S. Chandrasekharan, K. Gomez, A. Al-Hourani, S. Kandeepan, T. Rasheed, L. Goratti, L. Reynaud, D. Grace, I. Bucaille, T. Wirth, and S. Allsopp, “Designing and implementing future aerial communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(5), 26–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Allsopp, S.

S. Chandrasekharan, K. Gomez, A. Al-Hourani, S. Kandeepan, T. Rasheed, L. Goratti, L. Reynaud, D. Grace, I. Bucaille, T. Wirth, and S. Allsopp, “Designing and implementing future aerial communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(5), 26–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andreev, V. M.

C. Algora, E. Ortiz, I. Rey-Stolle, V. Diaz, R. Pena, V. M. Andreev, V. P. Khvostikov, and V. D. Rumyantsev, “A GaAs solar cell with an efficiency of 26.2% at 1000 suns and 25.0% at 2000 suns,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(5), 840–844 (2001).
[Crossref]

Aygun, L. E.

Bardou, N.

N. Vandamme, H. L. Chen, A. Gaucher, B. Behaghel, A. Lemaître, A. Cattoni, C. Dupuis, N. Bardou, J. F. Guillemoles, and S. Collin, “Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells With a Silver Back Mirror,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(2), 565–570 (2015).
[Crossref]

Battal, E.

Baudrit, M.

B. Galiana, I. Reystolle, M. Baudrit, I. Garcia, and C. Algora, “A comparative study of BSF layers for GaAs-based single-junction or multijunction concentrator solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(10), 1387–1392 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bauhuis, G. J.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. J. Schermer, E. Bongers, G. Oomen, W. Köstler, and G. Strobl, “Wafer reuse for repeated growth of III-V solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 155–159 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Schermer, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. V. Deelen, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, and P. K. Larsen, “Photon confinement in high-efficiency, thin-film III–V solar cells obtained by epitaxial lift-off,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 645–653 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. M. A. J. Voncken, J. J. Schermer, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, P. K. Larsen, T. P. J. Peters, B. D. Bruin, A. Klaassen, and J. J. Kelly, “Etching AlAs with HF for Epitaxial Lift-Off Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(5), G347–G352 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. V. Geelen, P. R. Hageman, G. J. Bauhuis, P. C. V. Rijsingen, P. Schmidt, and L. J. Giling, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs solar cell from a reusable GaAs substrate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45(1-3), 162–171 (1997).
[Crossref]

Behaghel, B.

N. Vandamme, H. L. Chen, A. Gaucher, B. Behaghel, A. Lemaître, A. Cattoni, C. Dupuis, N. Bardou, J. F. Guillemoles, and S. Collin, “Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells With a Silver Back Mirror,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(2), 565–570 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. L. Chen, A. Cattoni, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Lemaitre, A. Delamarre, B. Behaghel, K. Watanabe, M. Sugiyama, and J. F. Guillemoles, “200nm-Thick GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured silver mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2016)
[Crossref]

Bhat, R.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift‐off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
[Crossref]

Biswas, R.

S. M. Lee, A. Kwong, D. Jung, J. Faucher, R. Biswas, L. Shen, D. Kang, M. L. Lee, and J. Yoon, “High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10356–10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bongers, E.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. J. Schermer, E. Bongers, G. Oomen, W. Köstler, and G. Strobl, “Wafer reuse for repeated growth of III-V solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 155–159 (2010).
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Borges, B.-H. V.

J. Li, K. Li, C. Schuster, R. Su, X. Wang, B.-H. V. Borges, T. F. Krauss, and E. R. Martins, “Spatial resolution effect of light coupling structures,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18500 (2016).
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Bruin, B. D.

M. M. A. J. Voncken, J. J. Schermer, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, P. K. Larsen, T. P. J. Peters, B. D. Bruin, A. Klaassen, and J. J. Kelly, “Etching AlAs with HF for Epitaxial Lift-Off Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(5), G347–G352 (2004).
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Bucaille, I.

S. Chandrasekharan, K. Gomez, A. Al-Hourani, S. Kandeepan, T. Rasheed, L. Goratti, L. Reynaud, D. Grace, I. Bucaille, T. Wirth, and S. Allsopp, “Designing and implementing future aerial communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(5), 26–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cattoni, A.

N. Vandamme, H. L. Chen, A. Gaucher, B. Behaghel, A. Lemaître, A. Cattoni, C. Dupuis, N. Bardou, J. F. Guillemoles, and S. Collin, “Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells With a Silver Back Mirror,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(2), 565–570 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Collin, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Cattoni, A. Lemaitre, and J. F. Guillemoles, “Ultrathin GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured back mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, 2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

H. L. Chen, A. Cattoni, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Lemaitre, A. Delamarre, B. Behaghel, K. Watanabe, M. Sugiyama, and J. F. Guillemoles, “200nm-Thick GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured silver mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2016)
[Crossref]

Chandrasekharan, S.

S. Chandrasekharan, K. Gomez, A. Al-Hourani, S. Kandeepan, T. Rasheed, L. Goratti, L. Reynaud, D. Grace, I. Bucaille, T. Wirth, and S. Allsopp, “Designing and implementing future aerial communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(5), 26–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. L.

N. Vandamme, H. L. Chen, A. Gaucher, B. Behaghel, A. Lemaître, A. Cattoni, C. Dupuis, N. Bardou, J. F. Guillemoles, and S. Collin, “Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells With a Silver Back Mirror,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(2), 565–570 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. L. Chen, A. Cattoni, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Lemaitre, A. Delamarre, B. Behaghel, K. Watanabe, M. Sugiyama, and J. F. Guillemoles, “200nm-Thick GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured silver mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2016)
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

D. Liang, Y. Kang, Y. Huo, Y. Chen, Y. Cui, and J. S. Harris, “High-Efficiency Nanostructured Window GaAs Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4850–4856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, S. W.

S. B. Shim, J. S. Chun, S. W. Kang, S. W. Cho, S. W. Cho, Y. D. Park, P. Mohanty, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Micromechanical resonators fabricated from lattice-matched and etch-selective GaAs/InGaP/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133505 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. B. Shim, J. S. Chun, S. W. Kang, S. W. Cho, S. W. Cho, Y. D. Park, P. Mohanty, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Micromechanical resonators fabricated from lattice-matched and etch-selective GaAs/InGaP/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choi, W. J.

D. M. Geum, M. S. Park, J. Y. Lim, H. D. Yang, J. D. Song, C. Z. Kim, E. Yoon, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chun, I. S.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chun, J. S.

S. B. Shim, J. S. Chun, S. W. Kang, S. W. Cho, S. W. Cho, Y. D. Park, P. Mohanty, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Micromechanical resonators fabricated from lattice-matched and etch-selective GaAs/InGaP/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. J.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collin, S.

N. Vandamme, H. L. Chen, A. Gaucher, B. Behaghel, A. Lemaître, A. Cattoni, C. Dupuis, N. Bardou, J. F. Guillemoles, and S. Collin, “Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells With a Silver Back Mirror,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(2), 565–570 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Collin, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Cattoni, A. Lemaitre, and J. F. Guillemoles, “Ultrathin GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured back mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, 2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

D. Liang, Y. Kang, Y. Huo, Y. Chen, Y. Cui, and J. S. Harris, “High-Efficiency Nanostructured Window GaAs Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4850–4856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deelen, J. V.

J. J. Schermer, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. V. Deelen, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, and P. K. Larsen, “Photon confinement in high-efficiency, thin-film III–V solar cells obtained by epitaxial lift-off,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 645–653 (2006).
[Crossref]

Delamarre, A.

H. L. Chen, A. Cattoni, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Lemaitre, A. Delamarre, B. Behaghel, K. Watanabe, M. Sugiyama, and J. F. Guillemoles, “200nm-Thick GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured silver mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2016)
[Crossref]

Depauw, V.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diaz, V.

C. Algora, E. Ortiz, I. Rey-Stolle, V. Diaz, R. Pena, V. M. Andreev, V. P. Khvostikov, and V. D. Rumyantsev, “A GaAs solar cell with an efficiency of 26.2% at 1000 suns and 25.0% at 2000 suns,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(5), 840–844 (2001).
[Crossref]

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dubey, R. S.

S. Saravanan, T. Krishna Teja, R. S. Dubey, and S. Kalainathan, “Design and analysis of GaAs thin film solar cell using an efficient light trapping bottom structure,” Materials Today: Proceedings 3, 2463–2467 (2016).

Dunlop, E. D.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, and A. W. Y. Ho‐Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 49),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25, 144–150 (2017).

Dupuis, C.

N. Vandamme, H. L. Chen, A. Gaucher, B. Behaghel, A. Lemaître, A. Cattoni, C. Dupuis, N. Bardou, J. F. Guillemoles, and S. Collin, “Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells With a Silver Back Mirror,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(2), 565–570 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ekins-Daukes, N.

A. Mellor, N. P. Hylton, S. A. Maier, and N. Ekins-Daukes, “Interstitial light-trapping design for multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 212–218 (2017).
[Crossref]

Elarde, V.

J. Adams, V. Elarde, A. Hains, and C. Stender, “Demonstration of multiple substrate reuses for inverted metamorphic solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2012), 1–6.
[Crossref]

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, and A. W. Y. Ho‐Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 49),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25, 144–150 (2017).

Eo, S. H.

D. S. Kim, S. H. Eo, and J. H. Jang, “Direct integration of subwavelength structure on a GaAs solar cell by using colloidal lithography and dry etching process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. Process. Meas. Phenom. 31, 1202 (2013).

Faucher, J.

S. M. Lee, A. Kwong, D. Jung, J. Faucher, R. Biswas, L. Shen, D. Kang, M. L. Lee, and J. Yoon, “High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10356–10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, N.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, T. W. Hughes, and S. R. Forrest, “Non‐Destructive Wafer Recycling for Low‐Cost Thin‐Film Flexible Optoelectronics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(27), 4284–4291 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, X. Xiao, K. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, “Reuse of GaAs substrates for epitaxial lift-off by employing protection layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033527 (2012).
[Crossref]

Galiana, B.

B. Galiana, I. Reystolle, M. Baudrit, I. Garcia, and C. Algora, “A comparative study of BSF layers for GaAs-based single-junction or multijunction concentrator solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(10), 1387–1392 (2006).
[Crossref]

Galli, M.

F. Priolo, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Galli, and T. F. Krauss, “Silicon nanostructures for photonics and photovoltaics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 19–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganapati, V.

V. Ganapati, O. D. Miller, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Subwavelength Thick Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 175–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

Garcia, I.

B. Galiana, I. Reystolle, M. Baudrit, I. Garcia, and C. Algora, “A comparative study of BSF layers for GaAs-based single-junction or multijunction concentrator solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(10), 1387–1392 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gaucher, A.

N. Vandamme, H. L. Chen, A. Gaucher, B. Behaghel, A. Lemaître, A. Cattoni, C. Dupuis, N. Bardou, J. F. Guillemoles, and S. Collin, “Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells With a Silver Back Mirror,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(2), 565–570 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geelen, A. V.

A. V. Geelen, P. R. Hageman, G. J. Bauhuis, P. C. V. Rijsingen, P. Schmidt, and L. J. Giling, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs solar cell from a reusable GaAs substrate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45(1-3), 162–171 (1997).
[Crossref]

Geum, D. M.

D. M. Geum, M. S. Park, J. Y. Lim, H. D. Yang, J. D. Song, C. Z. Kim, E. Yoon, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giling, L. J.

A. V. Geelen, P. R. Hageman, G. J. Bauhuis, P. C. V. Rijsingen, P. Schmidt, and L. J. Giling, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs solar cell from a reusable GaAs substrate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45(1-3), 162–171 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gmitter, T.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift‐off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
[Crossref]

Goffard, J.

S. Collin, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Cattoni, A. Lemaitre, and J. F. Guillemoles, “Ultrathin GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured back mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, 2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

H. L. Chen, A. Cattoni, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Lemaitre, A. Delamarre, B. Behaghel, K. Watanabe, M. Sugiyama, and J. F. Guillemoles, “200nm-Thick GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured silver mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2016)
[Crossref]

Gomez, K.

S. Chandrasekharan, K. Gomez, A. Al-Hourani, S. Kandeepan, T. Rasheed, L. Goratti, L. Reynaud, D. Grace, I. Bucaille, T. Wirth, and S. Allsopp, “Designing and implementing future aerial communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(5), 26–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Goratti, L.

S. Chandrasekharan, K. Gomez, A. Al-Hourani, S. Kandeepan, T. Rasheed, L. Goratti, L. Reynaud, D. Grace, I. Bucaille, T. Wirth, and S. Allsopp, “Designing and implementing future aerial communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(5), 26–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grace, D.

S. Chandrasekharan, K. Gomez, A. Al-Hourani, S. Kandeepan, T. Rasheed, L. Goratti, L. Reynaud, D. Grace, I. Bucaille, T. Wirth, and S. Allsopp, “Designing and implementing future aerial communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(5), 26–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, and A. W. Y. Ho‐Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 49),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25, 144–150 (2017).

Gregorkiewicz, T.

F. Priolo, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Galli, and T. F. Krauss, “Silicon nanostructures for photonics and photovoltaics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 19–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guillemoles, J. F.

N. Vandamme, H. L. Chen, A. Gaucher, B. Behaghel, A. Lemaître, A. Cattoni, C. Dupuis, N. Bardou, J. F. Guillemoles, and S. Collin, “Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells With a Silver Back Mirror,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(2), 565–570 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Collin, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Cattoni, A. Lemaitre, and J. F. Guillemoles, “Ultrathin GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured back mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, 2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

H. L. Chen, A. Cattoni, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Lemaitre, A. Delamarre, B. Behaghel, K. Watanabe, M. Sugiyama, and J. F. Guillemoles, “200nm-Thick GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured silver mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2016)
[Crossref]

Hageman, P. R.

A. V. Geelen, P. R. Hageman, G. J. Bauhuis, P. C. V. Rijsingen, P. Schmidt, and L. J. Giling, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs solar cell from a reusable GaAs substrate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45(1-3), 162–171 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hains, A.

J. Adams, V. Elarde, A. Hains, and C. Stender, “Demonstration of multiple substrate reuses for inverted metamorphic solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2012), 1–6.
[Crossref]

Harbison, J. P.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift‐off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. S.

D. Liang, Y. Kang, Y. Huo, Y. Chen, Y. Cui, and J. S. Harris, “High-Efficiency Nanostructured Window GaAs Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4850–4856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haverkamp, E. J.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. J. Schermer, E. Bongers, G. Oomen, W. Köstler, and G. Strobl, “Wafer reuse for repeated growth of III-V solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 155–159 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Schermer, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. V. Deelen, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, and P. K. Larsen, “Photon confinement in high-efficiency, thin-film III–V solar cells obtained by epitaxial lift-off,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 645–653 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

S. Moon, K. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Heo, and J. Lee, “Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30107 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, and A. W. Y. Ho‐Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 49),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25, 144–150 (2017).

Ho-Baillie, A. W. Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, and A. W. Y. Ho‐Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 49),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25, 144–150 (2017).

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hughes, T. W.

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, T. W. Hughes, and S. R. Forrest, “Non‐Destructive Wafer Recycling for Low‐Cost Thin‐Film Flexible Optoelectronics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(27), 4284–4291 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huijben, J. C. C. M.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huo, Y.

D. Liang, Y. Kang, Y. Huo, Y. Chen, Y. Cui, and J. S. Harris, “High-Efficiency Nanostructured Window GaAs Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4850–4856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hylton, N. P.

A. Mellor, N. P. Hylton, S. A. Maier, and N. Ekins-Daukes, “Interstitial light-trapping design for multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 212–218 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jang, J. H.

D. S. Kim, S. H. Eo, and J. H. Jang, “Direct integration of subwavelength structure on a GaAs solar cell by using colloidal lithography and dry etching process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. Process. Meas. Phenom. 31, 1202 (2013).

Jo, S.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, D.

S. M. Lee, A. Kwong, D. Jung, J. Faucher, R. Biswas, L. Shen, D. Kang, M. L. Lee, and J. Yoon, “High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10356–10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, I.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalainathan, S.

S. Saravanan, T. Krishna Teja, R. S. Dubey, and S. Kalainathan, “Design and analysis of GaAs thin film solar cell using an efficient light trapping bottom structure,” Materials Today: Proceedings 3, 2463–2467 (2016).

Kandeepan, S.

S. Chandrasekharan, K. Gomez, A. Al-Hourani, S. Kandeepan, T. Rasheed, L. Goratti, L. Reynaud, D. Grace, I. Bucaille, T. Wirth, and S. Allsopp, “Designing and implementing future aerial communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(5), 26–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kang, D.

S. M. Lee, A. Kwong, D. Jung, J. Faucher, R. Biswas, L. Shen, D. Kang, M. L. Lee, and J. Yoon, “High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10356–10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S. W.

S. B. Shim, J. S. Chun, S. W. Kang, S. W. Cho, S. W. Cho, Y. D. Park, P. Mohanty, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Micromechanical resonators fabricated from lattice-matched and etch-selective GaAs/InGaP/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kang, Y.

D. Liang, Y. Kang, Y. Huo, Y. Chen, Y. Cui, and J. S. Harris, “High-Efficiency Nanostructured Window GaAs Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4850–4856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kayes, B. M.

B. M. Kayes, H. Nie, R. Twist, and S. G. Spruytte, “27.6% Conversion efficiency, a new record for single-junction solar cells under 1 sun illumination,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2011), 000004–000008.
[Crossref]

Kelly, J. J.

M. M. A. J. Voncken, J. J. Schermer, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, P. K. Larsen, T. P. J. Peters, B. D. Bruin, A. Klaassen, and J. J. Kelly, “Etching AlAs with HF for Epitaxial Lift-Off Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(5), G347–G352 (2004).
[Crossref]

Khvostikov, V. P.

C. Algora, E. Ortiz, I. Rey-Stolle, V. Diaz, R. Pena, V. M. Andreev, V. P. Khvostikov, and V. D. Rumyantsev, “A GaAs solar cell with an efficiency of 26.2% at 1000 suns and 25.0% at 2000 suns,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(5), 840–844 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. Z.

D. M. Geum, M. S. Park, J. Y. Lim, H. D. Yang, J. D. Song, C. Z. Kim, E. Yoon, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Kim, H. S.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
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Kim, J.

S. B. Shim, J. S. Chun, S. W. Kang, S. W. Cho, S. W. Cho, Y. D. Park, P. Mohanty, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Micromechanical resonators fabricated from lattice-matched and etch-selective GaAs/InGaP/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133505 (2007).
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S. Moon, K. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Heo, and J. Lee, “Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30107 (2016).
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Krishna Teja, T.

S. Saravanan, T. Krishna Teja, R. S. Dubey, and S. Kalainathan, “Design and analysis of GaAs thin film solar cell using an efficient light trapping bottom structure,” Materials Today: Proceedings 3, 2463–2467 (2016).

Kwong, A.

S. M. Lee, A. Kwong, D. Jung, J. Faucher, R. Biswas, L. Shen, D. Kang, M. L. Lee, and J. Yoon, “High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10356–10365 (2015).
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J. J. Schermer, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. V. Deelen, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, and P. K. Larsen, “Photon confinement in high-efficiency, thin-film III–V solar cells obtained by epitaxial lift-off,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 645–653 (2006).
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S. Moon, K. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Heo, and J. Lee, “Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30107 (2016).
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S. M. Lee, A. Kwong, D. Jung, J. Faucher, R. Biswas, L. Shen, D. Kang, M. L. Lee, and J. Yoon, “High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10356–10365 (2015).
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S. M. Lee, A. Kwong, D. Jung, J. Faucher, R. Biswas, L. Shen, D. Kang, M. L. Lee, and J. Yoon, “High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10356–10365 (2015).
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Li, J.

J. Li, K. Li, C. Schuster, R. Su, X. Wang, B.-H. V. Borges, T. F. Krauss, and E. R. Martins, “Spatial resolution effect of light coupling structures,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18500 (2016).
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E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
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J. Li, K. Li, C. Schuster, R. Su, X. Wang, B.-H. V. Borges, T. F. Krauss, and E. R. Martins, “Spatial resolution effect of light coupling structures,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18500 (2016).
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Li, X.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
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D. Liang, Y. Kang, Y. Huo, Y. Chen, Y. Cui, and J. S. Harris, “High-Efficiency Nanostructured Window GaAs Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4850–4856 (2013).
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Liu, J.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
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Liu, Y.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
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Martins, E. R.

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E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
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Meitl, M.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
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Menard, E.

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S. Moon, K. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Heo, and J. Lee, “Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30107 (2016).
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Mulder, P.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. J. Schermer, E. Bongers, G. Oomen, W. Köstler, and G. Strobl, “Wafer reuse for repeated growth of III-V solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 155–159 (2010).
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G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
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J. J. Schermer, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. V. Deelen, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, and P. K. Larsen, “Photon confinement in high-efficiency, thin-film III–V solar cells obtained by epitaxial lift-off,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 645–653 (2006).
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M. M. A. J. Voncken, J. J. Schermer, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, P. K. Larsen, T. P. J. Peters, B. D. Bruin, A. Klaassen, and J. J. Kelly, “Etching AlAs with HF for Epitaxial Lift-Off Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(5), G347–G352 (2004).
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B. M. Kayes, H. Nie, R. Twist, and S. G. Spruytte, “27.6% Conversion efficiency, a new record for single-junction solar cells under 1 sun illumination,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2011), 000004–000008.
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J. J. Schermer, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. V. Deelen, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, and P. K. Larsen, “Photon confinement in high-efficiency, thin-film III–V solar cells obtained by epitaxial lift-off,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 645–653 (2006).
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M. M. A. J. Voncken, J. J. Schermer, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, P. K. Larsen, T. P. J. Peters, B. D. Bruin, A. Klaassen, and J. J. Kelly, “Etching AlAs with HF for Epitaxial Lift-Off Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(5), G347–G352 (2004).
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Oomen, G.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. J. Schermer, E. Bongers, G. Oomen, W. Köstler, and G. Strobl, “Wafer reuse for repeated growth of III-V solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 155–159 (2010).
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J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
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D. M. Geum, M. S. Park, J. Y. Lim, H. D. Yang, J. D. Song, C. Z. Kim, E. Yoon, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20610 (2016).
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Park, Y. D.

S. B. Shim, J. S. Chun, S. W. Kang, S. W. Cho, S. W. Cho, Y. D. Park, P. Mohanty, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Micromechanical resonators fabricated from lattice-matched and etch-selective GaAs/InGaP/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133505 (2007).
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Pena, R.

C. Algora, E. Ortiz, I. Rey-Stolle, V. Diaz, R. Pena, V. M. Andreev, V. P. Khvostikov, and V. D. Rumyantsev, “A GaAs solar cell with an efficiency of 26.2% at 1000 suns and 25.0% at 2000 suns,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(5), 840–844 (2001).
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Peters, T. P. J.

M. M. A. J. Voncken, J. J. Schermer, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, P. K. Larsen, T. P. J. Peters, B. D. Bruin, A. Klaassen, and J. J. Kelly, “Etching AlAs with HF for Epitaxial Lift-Off Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(5), G347–G352 (2004).
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Priolo, F.

F. Priolo, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Galli, and T. F. Krauss, “Silicon nanostructures for photonics and photovoltaics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 19–32 (2014).
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C. Algora, E. Ortiz, I. Rey-Stolle, V. Diaz, R. Pena, V. M. Andreev, V. P. Khvostikov, and V. D. Rumyantsev, “A GaAs solar cell with an efficiency of 26.2% at 1000 suns and 25.0% at 2000 suns,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(5), 840–844 (2001).
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Rijsingen, P. C. V.

A. V. Geelen, P. R. Hageman, G. J. Bauhuis, P. C. V. Rijsingen, P. Schmidt, and L. J. Giling, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs solar cell from a reusable GaAs substrate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45(1-3), 162–171 (1997).
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Rogers, J. A.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
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C. Algora, E. Ortiz, I. Rey-Stolle, V. Diaz, R. Pena, V. M. Andreev, V. P. Khvostikov, and V. D. Rumyantsev, “A GaAs solar cell with an efficiency of 26.2% at 1000 suns and 25.0% at 2000 suns,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(5), 840–844 (2001).
[Crossref]

Saravanan, S.

S. Saravanan, T. Krishna Teja, R. S. Dubey, and S. Kalainathan, “Design and analysis of GaAs thin film solar cell using an efficient light trapping bottom structure,” Materials Today: Proceedings 3, 2463–2467 (2016).

Schermer, J. J.

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. J. Schermer, E. Bongers, G. Oomen, W. Köstler, and G. Strobl, “Wafer reuse for repeated growth of III-V solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 155–159 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Schermer, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. V. Deelen, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, and P. K. Larsen, “Photon confinement in high-efficiency, thin-film III–V solar cells obtained by epitaxial lift-off,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 645–653 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. M. A. J. Voncken, J. J. Schermer, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, P. K. Larsen, T. P. J. Peters, B. D. Bruin, A. Klaassen, and J. J. Kelly, “Etching AlAs with HF for Epitaxial Lift-Off Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(5), G347–G352 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, P.

A. V. Geelen, P. R. Hageman, G. J. Bauhuis, P. C. V. Rijsingen, P. Schmidt, and L. J. Giling, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs solar cell from a reusable GaAs substrate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45(1-3), 162–171 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schuster, C.

J. Li, K. Li, C. Schuster, R. Su, X. Wang, B.-H. V. Borges, T. F. Krauss, and E. R. Martins, “Spatial resolution effect of light coupling structures,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18500 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, L.

S. M. Lee, A. Kwong, D. Jung, J. Faucher, R. Biswas, L. Shen, D. Kang, M. L. Lee, and J. Yoon, “High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10356–10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, S. B.

S. B. Shim, J. S. Chun, S. W. Kang, S. W. Cho, S. W. Cho, Y. D. Park, P. Mohanty, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Micromechanical resonators fabricated from lattice-matched and etch-selective GaAs/InGaP/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Song, J. D.

D. M. Geum, M. S. Park, J. Y. Lim, H. D. Yang, J. D. Song, C. Z. Kim, E. Yoon, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spruytte, S. G.

B. M. Kayes, H. Nie, R. Twist, and S. G. Spruytte, “27.6% Conversion efficiency, a new record for single-junction solar cells under 1 sun illumination,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2011), 000004–000008.
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G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. J. Schermer, E. Bongers, G. Oomen, W. Köstler, and G. Strobl, “Wafer reuse for repeated growth of III-V solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 155–159 (2010).
[Crossref]

Su, R.

J. Li, K. Li, C. Schuster, R. Su, X. Wang, B.-H. V. Borges, T. F. Krauss, and E. R. Martins, “Spatial resolution effect of light coupling structures,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18500 (2016).
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Sugiyama, M.

H. L. Chen, A. Cattoni, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Lemaitre, A. Delamarre, B. Behaghel, K. Watanabe, M. Sugiyama, and J. F. Guillemoles, “200nm-Thick GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured silver mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2016)
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Sun, K.

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, X. Xiao, K. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, “Reuse of GaAs substrates for epitaxial lift-off by employing protection layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033527 (2012).
[Crossref]

Twist, R.

B. M. Kayes, H. Nie, R. Twist, and S. G. Spruytte, “27.6% Conversion efficiency, a new record for single-junction solar cells under 1 sun illumination,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2011), 000004–000008.
[Crossref]

Vandamme, N.

N. Vandamme, H. L. Chen, A. Gaucher, B. Behaghel, A. Lemaître, A. Cattoni, C. Dupuis, N. Bardou, J. F. Guillemoles, and S. Collin, “Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells With a Silver Back Mirror,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(2), 565–570 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Collin, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Cattoni, A. Lemaitre, and J. F. Guillemoles, “Ultrathin GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured back mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, 2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

H. L. Chen, A. Cattoni, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Lemaitre, A. Delamarre, B. Behaghel, K. Watanabe, M. Sugiyama, and J. F. Guillemoles, “200nm-Thick GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured silver mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2016)
[Crossref]

Voncken, M. M. A. J.

M. M. A. J. Voncken, J. J. Schermer, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, P. K. Larsen, T. P. J. Peters, B. D. Bruin, A. Klaassen, and J. J. Kelly, “Etching AlAs with HF for Epitaxial Lift-Off Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(5), G347–G352 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

J. Li, K. Li, C. Schuster, R. Su, X. Wang, B.-H. V. Borges, T. F. Krauss, and E. R. Martins, “Spatial resolution effect of light coupling structures,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18500 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, and A. W. Y. Ho‐Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 49),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25, 144–150 (2017).

Watanabe, K.

H. L. Chen, A. Cattoni, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Lemaitre, A. Delamarre, B. Behaghel, K. Watanabe, M. Sugiyama, and J. F. Guillemoles, “200nm-Thick GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured silver mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2016)
[Crossref]

Wirth, T.

S. Chandrasekharan, K. Gomez, A. Al-Hourani, S. Kandeepan, T. Rasheed, L. Goratti, L. Reynaud, D. Grace, I. Bucaille, T. Wirth, and S. Allsopp, “Designing and implementing future aerial communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(5), 26–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, X. Xiao, K. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, “Reuse of GaAs substrates for epitaxial lift-off by employing protection layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033527 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yablonovitch, E.

V. Ganapati, O. D. Miller, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Subwavelength Thick Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 175–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift‐off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. D.

D. M. Geum, M. S. Park, J. Y. Lim, H. D. Yang, J. D. Song, C. Z. Kim, E. Yoon, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, Y.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yogurt, T. A.

Yoon, E.

D. M. Geum, M. S. Park, J. Y. Lim, H. D. Yang, J. D. Song, C. Z. Kim, E. Yoon, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, J.

S. M. Lee, A. Kwong, D. Jung, J. Faucher, R. Biswas, L. Shen, D. Kang, M. L. Lee, and J. Yoon, “High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10356–10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, L.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmerman, J. D.

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, T. W. Hughes, and S. R. Forrest, “Non‐Destructive Wafer Recycling for Low‐Cost Thin‐Film Flexible Optoelectronics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(27), 4284–4291 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, X. Xiao, K. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, “Reuse of GaAs substrates for epitaxial lift-off by employing protection layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033527 (2012).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

S. M. Lee, A. Kwong, D. Jung, J. Faucher, R. Biswas, L. Shen, D. Kang, M. L. Lee, and J. Yoon, “High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10356–10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, T. W. Hughes, and S. R. Forrest, “Non‐Destructive Wafer Recycling for Low‐Cost Thin‐Film Flexible Optoelectronics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(27), 4284–4291 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. B. Shim, J. S. Chun, S. W. Kang, S. W. Cho, S. W. Cho, Y. D. Park, P. Mohanty, N. Kim, and J. Kim, “Micromechanical resonators fabricated from lattice-matched and etch-selective GaAs/InGaP/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133505 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift‐off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
[Crossref]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

S. Chandrasekharan, K. Gomez, A. Al-Hourani, S. Kandeepan, T. Rasheed, L. Goratti, L. Reynaud, D. Grace, I. Bucaille, T. Wirth, and S. Allsopp, “Designing and implementing future aerial communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(5), 26–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (2)

N. Vandamme, H. L. Chen, A. Gaucher, B. Behaghel, A. Lemaître, A. Cattoni, C. Dupuis, N. Bardou, J. F. Guillemoles, and S. Collin, “Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells With a Silver Back Mirror,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(2), 565–570 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Ganapati, O. D. Miller, and E. Yablonovitch, “Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Subwavelength Thick Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 175–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

C. Algora, E. Ortiz, I. Rey-Stolle, V. Diaz, R. Pena, V. M. Andreev, V. P. Khvostikov, and V. D. Rumyantsev, “A GaAs solar cell with an efficiency of 26.2% at 1000 suns and 25.0% at 2000 suns,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(5), 840–844 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, X. Xiao, K. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, “Reuse of GaAs substrates for epitaxial lift-off by employing protection layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033527 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

M. M. A. J. Voncken, J. J. Schermer, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, P. K. Larsen, T. P. J. Peters, B. D. Bruin, A. Klaassen, and J. J. Kelly, “Etching AlAs with HF for Epitaxial Lift-Off Applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151(5), G347–G352 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. Process. Meas. Phenom. (1)

D. S. Kim, S. H. Eo, and J. H. Jang, “Direct integration of subwavelength structure on a GaAs solar cell by using colloidal lithography and dry etching process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. Process. Meas. Phenom. 31, 1202 (2013).

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

A. V. Geelen, P. R. Hageman, G. J. Bauhuis, P. C. V. Rijsingen, P. Schmidt, and L. J. Giling, “Epitaxial lift-off GaAs solar cell from a reusable GaAs substrate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 45(1-3), 162–171 (1997).
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Materials Today: Proceedings (1)

S. Saravanan, T. Krishna Teja, R. S. Dubey, and S. Kalainathan, “Design and analysis of GaAs thin film solar cell using an efficient light trapping bottom structure,” Materials Today: Proceedings 3, 2463–2467 (2016).

Nano Lett. (1)

D. Liang, Y. Kang, Y. Huo, Y. Chen, Y. Cui, and J. S. Harris, “High-Efficiency Nanostructured Window GaAs Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4850–4856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, V. Depauw, Z. Chen, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Deterministic quasi-random nanostructures for photon control,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2665 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Priolo, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Galli, and T. F. Krauss, “Silicon nanostructures for photonics and photovoltaics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(1), 19–32 (2014).
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Nature (1)

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (2)

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, and A. W. Y. Ho‐Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 49),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25, 144–150 (2017).

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. J. Schermer, E. Bongers, G. Oomen, W. Köstler, and G. Strobl, “Wafer reuse for repeated growth of III-V solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 155–159 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

S. Moon, K. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Heo, and J. Lee, “Highly efficient single-junction GaAs thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30107 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Geum, M. S. Park, J. Y. Lim, H. D. Yang, J. D. Song, C. Z. Kim, E. Yoon, S. Kim, and W. J. Choi, “Ultra-high-throughput Production of III-V/Si Wafer for Electronic and Photonic Applications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20610 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, K. Li, C. Schuster, R. Su, X. Wang, B.-H. V. Borges, T. F. Krauss, and E. R. Martins, “Spatial resolution effect of light coupling structures,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18500 (2016).
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Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Galiana, I. Reystolle, M. Baudrit, I. Garcia, and C. Algora, “A comparative study of BSF layers for GaAs-based single-junction or multijunction concentrator solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21(10), 1387–1392 (2006).
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Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. C. C. M. Huijben, and J. J. Schermer, “26.1% thin-film GaAs solar cell using epitaxial lift-off,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(9), 1488–1491 (2009).
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A. Mellor, N. P. Hylton, S. A. Maier, and N. Ekins-Daukes, “Interstitial light-trapping design for multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159, 212–218 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. J. Schermer, G. J. Bauhuis, P. Mulder, E. J. Haverkamp, J. V. Deelen, A. T. J. V. Niftrik, and P. K. Larsen, “Photon confinement in high-efficiency, thin-film III–V solar cells obtained by epitaxial lift-off,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 645–653 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

S. Collin, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Cattoni, A. Lemaitre, and J. F. Guillemoles, “Ultrathin GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured back mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, 2015), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

H. L. Chen, A. Cattoni, N. Vandamme, J. Goffard, A. Lemaitre, A. Delamarre, B. Behaghel, K. Watanabe, M. Sugiyama, and J. F. Guillemoles, “200nm-Thick GaAs solar cells with a nanostructured silver mirror,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2016)
[Crossref]

B. M. Kayes, H. Nie, R. Twist, and S. G. Spruytte, “27.6% Conversion efficiency, a new record for single-junction solar cells under 1 sun illumination,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2011), 000004–000008.
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J. Adams, V. Elarde, A. Hains, and C. Stender, “Demonstration of multiple substrate reuses for inverted metamorphic solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2012), 1–6.
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Structure of the GaAs solar cell and (b) its performance as a function of active layer thickness. The integrated absorption was calculated for different GaAs thicknesses in the wavelength regime of 400 nm-600 nm (black), 600 nm-900 nm (red) and 400 nm-900 nm (blue). A 60 nm layer of Si3N4 is applied as an ARC. The green dashed line highlights the thickness of 1 μm below which the absorption drops significantly. The orange dashed line highlights the thickness of 4 μm, above which the absorption no longer increases, which we refer to as the saturation thickness.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Structure of the GaAs solar cell on silicon substrate with light trapping nanostructure. (b) Calculated integrated absorption of a GaAs solar cell with (red) and without (black) light trapping structure (planar reflector) applied, as a function of GaAs thickness.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) SEM of an optimised GaAs PhCs structure fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching. One unit cell of the PhC structure is highlighted by the red square. The period, hole diameter and etch depth are 600 nm, 396 nm and 50 nm, respectively (b) Corresponding k-space distribution. The z component is the amplitude of the 2D Fourier transform of the structure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) SEM micrograph of the optimised GaAs quasi-random structure fabricated by EBL and ICP etching. One unit cell with 16x16 pixels of the quasi-random structure is highlighted by the red square. The period and etch depth are 1600 nm and 50 nm. (b) Corresponding Fourier distribution. The z component is the amplitude of the 2D Fourier transform of the structure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The lower set of three curves compares the absorption of without light trapping structure (planar reflector) (green), quasi-random (red) and photonic crystal (black) 135 nm thick GaAs, highlighting the superiority of the photonic crystal pattern even at very low thickness. The upper set of two curves compares 4000 nm thick without light trapping structure (planar reflector) GaAs (blue) with photonic crystal patterned 1500 nm thick GaAs (magenta) to demonstrate their comparable performance.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The fabrication process steps required to fabricate the light trapping nanostructure on the rear of a 135 nm thick GaAs absorber layer.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison between measured (blue circles) and calculated (red solid line) absorption of the experimental structure (a) with PhC structure and (b) with quasi-random structure. The calculated absorption of the GaAs layer corresponding to each structure is shown by black dashed line. The area between the black dashed and red solid lines correspond to parasitic absorption in the Au layer, which the experiment cannot separate. The measured and calculated absorption of a 135 nm thick GaAs layer without light tapping (planar reflector) is also shown for reference by the green triangle symbols and the red dashed line.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Jsc values for GaAs solar cells of different GaAs thickness with and without light trapping structures.

Equations (2)

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Abs= 400 900 A( λ )I( λ ) λ hc dλ 400 900 I( λ ) λ hc dλ
J sc = e hc 400 900 I( λ ) A( λ )λdλ

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