Abstract

Solution processable organic tandem solar cells offer a promising approach to achieve cost-effective, lightweight and flexible photovoltaics. In order to further enhance the efficiency of optimized organic tandem cells, diffractive light-management nanostructures were designed for an optimal redistribution of the light as function of both wavelength and propagation angles in both sub-cells. As the fabrication of these optical structures is compatible with roll-to-roll production techniques such as hot-embossing or UV NIL imprinting, they present an optimal cost-effective solution for printed photovoltaics. Tandem cells with power conversion efficiencies of 8-10% were fabricated in the ambient atmosphere by doctor blade coating, selected to approximate the conditions during roll-to-roll manufacturing. Application of the light management structure onto an 8.7% efficient encapsulated tandem cell boosted the conversion efficiency of the cell to 9.5%.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

L. Mao, J. Tong, S. Xiong, F. Jiang, F. Qin, W. Meng, B. Luo, Y. Liu, Z. Li, Y. Jiang, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible large-area organic tandem solar cells with high defect tolerance and device yield,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(7), 3186–3192 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (14)

J. Tong, S. Xiong, Y. Zhou, L. Mao, X. Min, Z. Li, F. Jiang, W. Meng, F. Qin, T. Liu, R. Ge, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible all-solution-processed all-plastic multijunction solar cells for powering electronic devices,” Mater. Horiz. 3(5), 452–459 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. J. T. Villers, K. A. O’Hara, D. P. Ostrowski, P. H. Biddle, S. E. Shaheen, M. L. Chabinyc, D. C. Olson, and N. Kopidakis, “Removal of Residual Diiodooctane Improves Photostability of High-Performance Organic Solar Cell Polymers,” Chem. Mater. 28(3), 876–884 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, J. H. Carpenter, C.-Z. Li, J.-S. Yu, H. Ade, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly Efficient Organic Solar Cells with Improved Vertical Donor-Acceptor Compositional Gradient Via an Inverted Off-Center Spinning Method,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 967–974 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Dkhil, M. Pfannmöller, S. Bals, T. Koganezawa, N. Yoshimoto, D. Hannani, M. Gaceur, C. Videlot-Ackermann, O. Margeat, and J. Ackermann, “Square-Centimeter-Sized High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells: How the Processing Atmosphere and Film Quality Influence Performance at Large Scale,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6(13), 1600290 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, and A. Colsmann, “Tandem organic solar cells revisited,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 354–355 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Bae, H. Zhao, Y.-T. Hsieh, L. Zuo, N. D. Marco, Y. S. Rim, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Printable Solar Cells from Advanced Solution-Processible Materials,” Chem 1(2), 197–219 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Berny, N. Blouin, A. Distler, H.-J. Egelhaaf, M. Krompiec, A. Lohr, O. R. Lozman, G. E. Morse, L. Nanson, A. Pron, T. Sauermann, N. Seidler, S. Tierney, P. Tiwana, M. Wagner, and H. Wilson, “Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(5), 1500342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhao, D. Qian, S. Zhang, S. Li, O. Inganäs, F. Gao, and J. Hou, “Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells with over 11% Efficiency and Excellent Thermal Stability,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4734–4739 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, Y. Li, G. Yang, K. Jiang, H. Lin, H. Ade, W. Ma, and H. Yan, “Efficient organic solar cells processed from hydrocarbon solvents,” Nat. Energy 1(2), 15027 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Prosa, M. Tessarolo, M. Bolognesi, T. Cramer, Z. Chen, A. Facchetti, B. Fraboni, M. Seri, G. Ruani, and M. Muccini, “Efficient and Versatile Interconnection Layer by Solvent Treatment of PEDOT:PSS Interlayer for Air-Processed Organic Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 3(23), 1600770 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Hanisch, T. Wahl, C. D. Wessendorf, and E. Ahlswede, “Efficient polymer tandem modules and solar cells by doctor blading,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 4(13), 4771–4775 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Park, J. Berger, Z. Tang, L. Müller-Meskamp, A. F. Lasagni, K. Vandewal, and K. Leo, “Flexible, light trapping substrates for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 093301 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Mayer, B. Gallinet, T. Offermans, and R. Ferrini, “Diffractive nanostructures for enhanced light-harvesting in organic photovoltaic devices,” Opt. Express 24(2), A358–A373 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mertens, J. Mescher, D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the angle-independent photon harvesting in organic homo-tandem solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(10), A898–A906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (8)

N. Li and C. J. Brabec, “Air-processed polymer tandem solar cells with power conversion efficiency exceeding 10%,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(10), 2902–2909 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Guo, N. Li, V. V. Radmilović, V. R. Radmilović, M. Turbiez, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully printed organic tandem solar cells using solution-processed silver nanowires and opaque silver as charge collecting electrodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(6), 1690–1697 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Hosel, H. F. Dam, and F. C. Krebs, “Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells,” Energy Technol. (Weinheim) 3(4), 293–304 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, C.-K. Mai, S. D. Collins, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer Homo-Tandem Solar Cells with Best Efficiency of 11.3%,” Adv. Mater. 27(10), 1767–1773 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a 3-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Timmreck, T. Meyer, J. Gilot, H. Seifert, T. Mueller, A. Furlan, M. Wienk, D. Wynands, J. Hohl-Ebinger, W. Warta, R. A. J. Janssen, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 478–479 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Pfannmöller, H. Heidari, L. Nanson, O. R. Lozman, M. Chrapa, T. Offermans, G. Nisato, and S. Bals, “Quantitative Tomography of Organic Photovoltaic Blends at the Nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6634–6642 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mescher, A. Mertens, A. Egel, S. W. Kettlitz, U. Lemmer, and A. Colsmann, “Illumination angle and layer thickness influence on the photo current generation in organic solar cells: A combined simulative and experimental study,” AIP Adv. 5(7), 077188 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

N. Kooy, K. Mohamed, L. T. Pin, and O. S. Guan, “A review of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 320 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tang, W. Tress, and O. Inganäs, “Light trapping in thin film organic solar cells,” Mater. Today 17(8), 389–396 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Li, D. Baran, G. D. Spyropoulos, H. Zhang, S. Berny, M. Turbiez, T. Ameri, F. C. Krebs, and C. J. Brabec, “Environmentally Printing Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells with High Fill Factors: A Guideline Towards 20% Power Conversion Efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(11), 1400084 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

Y. Liu, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, J. Gao, Y. M. Yang, H. Zhou, L. Dou, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed small-molecule solar cells: breaking the 10% power conversion efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3356(2013).
[Crossref]

S. Esiner, T. Bus, M. M. Wienk, K. Hermans, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Quantification and Validation of the Efficiency Enhancement Reached by Application of a Retroreflective Light Trapping Texture on a Polymer Solar Cell,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(8), 1013–1017 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Cho, H. Kim, S. Jeong, S.-W. Baek, J.-W. Seo, D. Han, K. Kim, Y. Park, S. Yoo, and J.-Y. Lee, “Random and V-groove texturing for efficient light trapping in organic photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 115, 36–41 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, A. Elfwing, J. Bergqvist, W. Tress, and O. Inganäs, “Light Trapping with Dielectric Scatterers in Single- and Tandem-Junction Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(12), 1606–1613 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Chueh, K. Yao, H.-L. Yip, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-X. Xu, K.-S. Chen, C.-Z. Li, P. Liu, F. Huang, Y. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Non-halogenated solvents for environmentally friendly processing of high-performance bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(11), 3241 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. D. Myers, W. Cao, V. Cassidy, S.-H. Eom, R. Zhou, L. Yang, W. You, and J. Xue, “A universal optical approach to enhancing efficiency of organic-based photovoltaic devices,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(5), 6900 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kouijzer, S. Esiner, C. H. Frijters, M. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient inverted tandem polymer solar cells with a solution processed recombination layer,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(8), 945–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Optimizing Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 22(8), E67–E71 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Optimizing Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 22(8), E67–E71 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Meyer and H. Ade, “The effect of angle of incidence on the optical field distribution within thin film organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. Cheynsa, B. P. Rand, B. Verreet, J. Genoe, J. Poortmans, and P. Heremans, “The angular response of ultrathin film organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243310 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient Tandem Polymer Solar Cells Fabricated by All-Solution Processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomiš, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ackermann, J.

S. B. Dkhil, M. Pfannmöller, S. Bals, T. Koganezawa, N. Yoshimoto, D. Hannani, M. Gaceur, C. Videlot-Ackermann, O. Margeat, and J. Ackermann, “Square-Centimeter-Sized High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells: How the Processing Atmosphere and Film Quality Influence Performance at Large Scale,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6(13), 1600290 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adams, J.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ade, H.

J. Zhao, Y. Li, G. Yang, K. Jiang, H. Lin, H. Ade, W. Ma, and H. Yan, “Efficient organic solar cells processed from hydrocarbon solvents,” Nat. Energy 1(2), 15027 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, J. H. Carpenter, C.-Z. Li, J.-S. Yu, H. Ade, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly Efficient Organic Solar Cells with Improved Vertical Donor-Acceptor Compositional Gradient Via an Inverted Off-Center Spinning Method,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 967–974 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Meyer and H. Ade, “The effect of angle of incidence on the optical field distribution within thin film organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 113101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ahlswede, E.

J. Hanisch, T. Wahl, C. D. Wessendorf, and E. Ahlswede, “Efficient polymer tandem modules and solar cells by doctor blading,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 4(13), 4771–4775 (2016).
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Ameri, T.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Li, D. Baran, G. D. Spyropoulos, H. Zhang, S. Berny, M. Turbiez, T. Ameri, F. C. Krebs, and C. J. Brabec, “Environmentally Printing Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells with High Fill Factors: A Guideline Towards 20% Power Conversion Efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(11), 1400084 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andersen, T. R.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andreasen, J. W.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.-H.

S.-H. Bae, H. Zhao, Y.-T. Hsieh, L. Zuo, N. D. Marco, Y. S. Rim, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Printable Solar Cells from Advanced Solution-Processible Materials,” Chem 1(2), 197–219 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baek, S.-W.

C. Cho, H. Kim, S. Jeong, S.-W. Baek, J.-W. Seo, D. Han, K. Kim, Y. Park, S. Yoo, and J.-Y. Lee, “Random and V-groove texturing for efficient light trapping in organic photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 115, 36–41 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bahro, D.

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, and A. Colsmann, “Tandem organic solar cells revisited,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 354–355 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Mertens, J. Mescher, D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the angle-independent photon harvesting in organic homo-tandem solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(10), A898–A906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a 3-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bals, S.

S. B. Dkhil, M. Pfannmöller, S. Bals, T. Koganezawa, N. Yoshimoto, D. Hannani, M. Gaceur, C. Videlot-Ackermann, O. Margeat, and J. Ackermann, “Square-Centimeter-Sized High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells: How the Processing Atmosphere and Film Quality Influence Performance at Large Scale,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6(13), 1600290 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Pfannmöller, H. Heidari, L. Nanson, O. R. Lozman, M. Chrapa, T. Offermans, G. Nisato, and S. Bals, “Quantitative Tomography of Organic Photovoltaic Blends at the Nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6634–6642 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baran, D.

N. Li, D. Baran, G. D. Spyropoulos, H. Zhang, S. Berny, M. Turbiez, T. Ameri, F. C. Krebs, and C. J. Brabec, “Environmentally Printing Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells with High Fill Factors: A Guideline Towards 20% Power Conversion Efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(11), 1400084 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bazan, G. C.

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, C.-K. Mai, S. D. Collins, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer Homo-Tandem Solar Cells with Best Efficiency of 11.3%,” Adv. Mater. 27(10), 1767–1773 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, J.

Y. Park, J. Berger, Z. Tang, L. Müller-Meskamp, A. F. Lasagni, K. Vandewal, and K. Leo, “Flexible, light trapping substrates for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 093301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bergqvist, J.

Z. Tang, A. Elfwing, J. Bergqvist, W. Tress, and O. Inganäs, “Light Trapping with Dielectric Scatterers in Single- and Tandem-Junction Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(12), 1606–1613 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berny, S.

S. Berny, N. Blouin, A. Distler, H.-J. Egelhaaf, M. Krompiec, A. Lohr, O. R. Lozman, G. E. Morse, L. Nanson, A. Pron, T. Sauermann, N. Seidler, S. Tierney, P. Tiwana, M. Wagner, and H. Wilson, “Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(5), 1500342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, D. Baran, G. D. Spyropoulos, H. Zhang, S. Berny, M. Turbiez, T. Ameri, F. C. Krebs, and C. J. Brabec, “Environmentally Printing Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells with High Fill Factors: A Guideline Towards 20% Power Conversion Efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(11), 1400084 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biddle, P. H.

B. J. T. Villers, K. A. O’Hara, D. P. Ostrowski, P. H. Biddle, S. E. Shaheen, M. L. Chabinyc, D. C. Olson, and N. Kopidakis, “Removal of Residual Diiodooctane Improves Photostability of High-Performance Organic Solar Cell Polymers,” Chem. Mater. 28(3), 876–884 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blouin, N.

S. Berny, N. Blouin, A. Distler, H.-J. Egelhaaf, M. Krompiec, A. Lohr, O. R. Lozman, G. E. Morse, L. Nanson, A. Pron, T. Sauermann, N. Seidler, S. Tierney, P. Tiwana, M. Wagner, and H. Wilson, “Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(5), 1500342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolognesi, M.

M. Prosa, M. Tessarolo, M. Bolognesi, T. Cramer, Z. Chen, A. Facchetti, B. Fraboni, M. Seri, G. Ruani, and M. Muccini, “Efficient and Versatile Interconnection Layer by Solvent Treatment of PEDOT:PSS Interlayer for Air-Processed Organic Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 3(23), 1600770 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brabec, C. J.

N. Li and C. J. Brabec, “Air-processed polymer tandem solar cells with power conversion efficiency exceeding 10%,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(10), 2902–2909 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Guo, N. Li, V. V. Radmilović, V. R. Radmilović, M. Turbiez, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully printed organic tandem solar cells using solution-processed silver nanowires and opaque silver as charge collecting electrodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(6), 1690–1697 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Li, D. Baran, G. D. Spyropoulos, H. Zhang, S. Berny, M. Turbiez, T. Ameri, F. C. Krebs, and C. J. Brabec, “Environmentally Printing Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells with High Fill Factors: A Guideline Towards 20% Power Conversion Efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(11), 1400084 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomiš, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bus, T.

S. Esiner, T. Bus, M. M. Wienk, K. Hermans, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Quantification and Validation of the Efficiency Enhancement Reached by Application of a Retroreflective Light Trapping Texture on a Polymer Solar Cell,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(8), 1013–1017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

J. D. Myers, W. Cao, V. Cassidy, S.-H. Eom, R. Zhou, L. Yang, W. You, and J. Xue, “A universal optical approach to enhancing efficiency of organic-based photovoltaic devices,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(5), 6900 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carle, J. E.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carpenter, J. H.

J. Huang, J. H. Carpenter, C.-Z. Li, J.-S. Yu, H. Ade, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly Efficient Organic Solar Cells with Improved Vertical Donor-Acceptor Compositional Gradient Via an Inverted Off-Center Spinning Method,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 967–974 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cassidy, V.

J. D. Myers, W. Cao, V. Cassidy, S.-H. Eom, R. Zhou, L. Yang, W. You, and J. Xue, “A universal optical approach to enhancing efficiency of organic-based photovoltaic devices,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(5), 6900 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chabinyc, M. L.

B. J. T. Villers, K. A. O’Hara, D. P. Ostrowski, P. H. Biddle, S. E. Shaheen, M. L. Chabinyc, D. C. Olson, and N. Kopidakis, “Removal of Residual Diiodooctane Improves Photostability of High-Performance Organic Solar Cell Polymers,” Chem. Mater. 28(3), 876–884 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-Y.

C.-C. Chueh, K. Yao, H.-L. Yip, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-X. Xu, K.-S. Chen, C.-Z. Li, P. Liu, F. Huang, Y. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Non-halogenated solvents for environmentally friendly processing of high-performance bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(11), 3241 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-C.

Y. Liu, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, J. Gao, Y. M. Yang, H. Zhou, L. Dou, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed small-molecule solar cells: breaking the 10% power conversion efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3356(2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.-S.

C.-C. Chueh, K. Yao, H.-L. Yip, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-X. Xu, K.-S. Chen, C.-Z. Li, P. Liu, F. Huang, Y. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Non-halogenated solvents for environmentally friendly processing of high-performance bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(11), 3241 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-C.

C.-C. Chueh, K. Yao, H.-L. Yip, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-X. Xu, K.-S. Chen, C.-Z. Li, P. Liu, F. Huang, Y. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Non-halogenated solvents for environmentally friendly processing of high-performance bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(11), 3241 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

C.-C. Chueh, K. Yao, H.-L. Yip, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-X. Xu, K.-S. Chen, C.-Z. Li, P. Liu, F. Huang, Y. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Non-halogenated solvents for environmentally friendly processing of high-performance bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(11), 3241 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

M. Prosa, M. Tessarolo, M. Bolognesi, T. Cramer, Z. Chen, A. Facchetti, B. Fraboni, M. Seri, G. Ruani, and M. Muccini, “Efficient and Versatile Interconnection Layer by Solvent Treatment of PEDOT:PSS Interlayer for Air-Processed Organic Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 3(23), 1600770 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheynsa, D.

D. Cheynsa, B. P. Rand, B. Verreet, J. Genoe, J. Poortmans, and P. Heremans, “The angular response of ultrathin film organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243310 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.

C. Cho, H. Kim, S. Jeong, S.-W. Baek, J.-W. Seo, D. Han, K. Kim, Y. Park, S. Yoo, and J.-Y. Lee, “Random and V-groove texturing for efficient light trapping in organic photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 115, 36–41 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chrapa, M.

M. Pfannmöller, H. Heidari, L. Nanson, O. R. Lozman, M. Chrapa, T. Offermans, G. Nisato, and S. Bals, “Quantitative Tomography of Organic Photovoltaic Blends at the Nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6634–6642 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chueh, C.-C.

C.-C. Chueh, K. Yao, H.-L. Yip, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-X. Xu, K.-S. Chen, C.-Z. Li, P. Liu, F. Huang, Y. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Non-halogenated solvents for environmentally friendly processing of high-performance bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(11), 3241 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coates, N. E.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient Tandem Polymer Solar Cells Fabricated by All-Solution Processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, S. D.

H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, C.-K. Mai, S. D. Collins, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer Homo-Tandem Solar Cells with Best Efficiency of 11.3%,” Adv. Mater. 27(10), 1767–1773 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colsmann, A.

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, and A. Colsmann, “Tandem organic solar cells revisited,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 354–355 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Mertens, J. Mescher, D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the angle-independent photon harvesting in organic homo-tandem solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(10), A898–A906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a 3-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mescher, A. Mertens, A. Egel, S. W. Kettlitz, U. Lemmer, and A. Colsmann, “Illumination angle and layer thickness influence on the photo current generation in organic solar cells: A combined simulative and experimental study,” AIP Adv. 5(7), 077188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cramer, T.

M. Prosa, M. Tessarolo, M. Bolognesi, T. Cramer, Z. Chen, A. Facchetti, B. Fraboni, M. Seri, G. Ruani, and M. Muccini, “Efficient and Versatile Interconnection Layer by Solvent Treatment of PEDOT:PSS Interlayer for Air-Processed Organic Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 3(23), 1600770 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dam, H. F.

M. Hosel, H. F. Dam, and F. C. Krebs, “Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells,” Energy Technol. (Weinheim) 3(4), 293–304 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dante, M.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient Tandem Polymer Solar Cells Fabricated by All-Solution Processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dennler, G.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomiš, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Distler, A.

S. Berny, N. Blouin, A. Distler, H.-J. Egelhaaf, M. Krompiec, A. Lohr, O. R. Lozman, G. E. Morse, L. Nanson, A. Pron, T. Sauermann, N. Seidler, S. Tierney, P. Tiwana, M. Wagner, and H. Wilson, “Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(5), 1500342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dkhil, S. B.

S. B. Dkhil, M. Pfannmöller, S. Bals, T. Koganezawa, N. Yoshimoto, D. Hannani, M. Gaceur, C. Videlot-Ackermann, O. Margeat, and J. Ackermann, “Square-Centimeter-Sized High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells: How the Processing Atmosphere and Film Quality Influence Performance at Large Scale,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6(13), 1600290 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dou, L.

Y. Liu, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, J. Gao, Y. M. Yang, H. Zhou, L. Dou, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed small-molecule solar cells: breaking the 10% power conversion efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3356(2013).
[Crossref]

Egel, A.

J. Mescher, A. Mertens, A. Egel, S. W. Kettlitz, U. Lemmer, and A. Colsmann, “Illumination angle and layer thickness influence on the photo current generation in organic solar cells: A combined simulative and experimental study,” AIP Adv. 5(7), 077188 (2015).
[Crossref]

Egelhaaf, H.-J.

S. Berny, N. Blouin, A. Distler, H.-J. Egelhaaf, M. Krompiec, A. Lohr, O. R. Lozman, G. E. Morse, L. Nanson, A. Pron, T. Sauermann, N. Seidler, S. Tierney, P. Tiwana, M. Wagner, and H. Wilson, “Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(5), 1500342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elfwing, A.

Z. Tang, A. Elfwing, J. Bergqvist, W. Tress, and O. Inganäs, “Light Trapping with Dielectric Scatterers in Single- and Tandem-Junction Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(12), 1606–1613 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eom, S.-H.

J. D. Myers, W. Cao, V. Cassidy, S.-H. Eom, R. Zhou, L. Yang, W. You, and J. Xue, “A universal optical approach to enhancing efficiency of organic-based photovoltaic devices,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(5), 6900 (2012).
[Crossref]

Erk, P.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
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Esiner, S.

S. Esiner, T. Bus, M. M. Wienk, K. Hermans, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Quantification and Validation of the Efficiency Enhancement Reached by Application of a Retroreflective Light Trapping Texture on a Polymer Solar Cell,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(8), 1013–1017 (2013).
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S. Kouijzer, S. Esiner, C. H. Frijters, M. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient inverted tandem polymer solar cells with a solution processed recombination layer,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(8), 945–949 (2012).
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M. Prosa, M. Tessarolo, M. Bolognesi, T. Cramer, Z. Chen, A. Facchetti, B. Fraboni, M. Seri, G. Ruani, and M. Muccini, “Efficient and Versatile Interconnection Layer by Solvent Treatment of PEDOT:PSS Interlayer for Air-Processed Organic Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 3(23), 1600770 (2016).
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F. Guo, N. Li, V. V. Radmilović, V. R. Radmilović, M. Turbiez, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully printed organic tandem solar cells using solution-processed silver nanowires and opaque silver as charge collecting electrodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(6), 1690–1697 (2015).
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G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomiš, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
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M. Prosa, M. Tessarolo, M. Bolognesi, T. Cramer, Z. Chen, A. Facchetti, B. Fraboni, M. Seri, G. Ruani, and M. Muccini, “Efficient and Versatile Interconnection Layer by Solvent Treatment of PEDOT:PSS Interlayer for Air-Processed Organic Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 3(23), 1600770 (2016).
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S. Kouijzer, S. Esiner, C. H. Frijters, M. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient inverted tandem polymer solar cells with a solution processed recombination layer,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(8), 945–949 (2012).
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G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomiš, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
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L. Mao, J. Tong, S. Xiong, F. Jiang, F. Qin, W. Meng, B. Luo, Y. Liu, Z. Li, Y. Jiang, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible large-area organic tandem solar cells with high defect tolerance and device yield,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(7), 3186–3192 (2017).
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J. Tong, S. Xiong, Y. Zhou, L. Mao, X. Min, Z. Li, F. Jiang, W. Meng, F. Qin, T. Liu, R. Ge, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible all-solution-processed all-plastic multijunction solar cells for powering electronic devices,” Mater. Horiz. 3(5), 452–459 (2016).
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R. Timmreck, T. Meyer, J. Gilot, H. Seifert, T. Mueller, A. Furlan, M. Wienk, D. Wynands, J. Hohl-Ebinger, W. Warta, R. A. J. Janssen, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 478–479 (2015).
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S. B. Dkhil, M. Pfannmöller, S. Bals, T. Koganezawa, N. Yoshimoto, D. Hannani, M. Gaceur, C. Videlot-Ackermann, O. Margeat, and J. Ackermann, “Square-Centimeter-Sized High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells: How the Processing Atmosphere and Film Quality Influence Performance at Large Scale,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6(13), 1600290 (2016).
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T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
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Gao, F.

W. Zhao, D. Qian, S. Zhang, S. Li, O. Inganäs, F. Gao, and J. Hou, “Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells with over 11% Efficiency and Excellent Thermal Stability,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4734–4739 (2016).
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Y. Liu, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, J. Gao, Y. M. Yang, H. Zhou, L. Dou, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed small-molecule solar cells: breaking the 10% power conversion efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3356(2013).
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J. Tong, S. Xiong, Y. Zhou, L. Mao, X. Min, Z. Li, F. Jiang, W. Meng, F. Qin, T. Liu, R. Ge, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible all-solution-processed all-plastic multijunction solar cells for powering electronic devices,” Mater. Horiz. 3(5), 452–459 (2016).
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D. Cheynsa, B. P. Rand, B. Verreet, J. Genoe, J. Poortmans, and P. Heremans, “The angular response of ultrathin film organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243310 (2008).
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T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
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R. Timmreck, T. Meyer, J. Gilot, H. Seifert, T. Mueller, A. Furlan, M. Wienk, D. Wynands, J. Hohl-Ebinger, W. Warta, R. A. J. Janssen, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 478–479 (2015).
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J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Optimizing Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 22(8), E67–E71 (2010).
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J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Optimizing Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 22(8), E67–E71 (2010).
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Glaser, K.

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a 3-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
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M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
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N. Kooy, K. Mohamed, L. T. Pin, and O. S. Guan, “A review of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 320 (2014).
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Guo, F.

F. Guo, N. Li, V. V. Radmilović, V. R. Radmilović, M. Turbiez, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully printed organic tandem solar cells using solution-processed silver nanowires and opaque silver as charge collecting electrodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(6), 1690–1697 (2015).
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Han, D.

C. Cho, H. Kim, S. Jeong, S.-W. Baek, J.-W. Seo, D. Han, K. Kim, Y. Park, S. Yoo, and J.-Y. Lee, “Random and V-groove texturing for efficient light trapping in organic photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 115, 36–41 (2013).
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J. Hanisch, T. Wahl, C. D. Wessendorf, and E. Ahlswede, “Efficient polymer tandem modules and solar cells by doctor blading,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 4(13), 4771–4775 (2016).
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S. B. Dkhil, M. Pfannmöller, S. Bals, T. Koganezawa, N. Yoshimoto, D. Hannani, M. Gaceur, C. Videlot-Ackermann, O. Margeat, and J. Ackermann, “Square-Centimeter-Sized High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells: How the Processing Atmosphere and Film Quality Influence Performance at Large Scale,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6(13), 1600290 (2016).
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H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, C.-K. Mai, S. D. Collins, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer Homo-Tandem Solar Cells with Best Efficiency of 11.3%,” Adv. Mater. 27(10), 1767–1773 (2015).
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J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient Tandem Polymer Solar Cells Fabricated by All-Solution Processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
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M. Pfannmöller, H. Heidari, L. Nanson, O. R. Lozman, M. Chrapa, T. Offermans, G. Nisato, and S. Bals, “Quantitative Tomography of Organic Photovoltaic Blends at the Nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6634–6642 (2015).
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T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heremans, P.

D. Cheynsa, B. P. Rand, B. Verreet, J. Genoe, J. Poortmans, and P. Heremans, “The angular response of ultrathin film organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243310 (2008).
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Hermans, K.

S. Esiner, T. Bus, M. M. Wienk, K. Hermans, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Quantification and Validation of the Efficiency Enhancement Reached by Application of a Retroreflective Light Trapping Texture on a Polymer Solar Cell,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(8), 1013–1017 (2013).
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Hildebrandt, D.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
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Hingerl, K.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomiš, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
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Hohl-Ebinger, J.

R. Timmreck, T. Meyer, J. Gilot, H. Seifert, T. Mueller, A. Furlan, M. Wienk, D. Wynands, J. Hohl-Ebinger, W. Warta, R. A. J. Janssen, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 478–479 (2015).
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Hong, Z.

Y. Liu, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, J. Gao, Y. M. Yang, H. Zhou, L. Dou, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed small-molecule solar cells: breaking the 10% power conversion efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3356(2013).
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Hosel, M.

M. Hosel, H. F. Dam, and F. C. Krebs, “Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells,” Energy Technol. (Weinheim) 3(4), 293–304 (2015).
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T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
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W. Zhao, D. Qian, S. Zhang, S. Li, O. Inganäs, F. Gao, and J. Hou, “Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells with over 11% Efficiency and Excellent Thermal Stability,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4734–4739 (2016).
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S.-H. Bae, H. Zhao, Y.-T. Hsieh, L. Zuo, N. D. Marco, Y. S. Rim, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Printable Solar Cells from Advanced Solution-Processible Materials,” Chem 1(2), 197–219 (2016).
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C.-C. Chueh, K. Yao, H.-L. Yip, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-X. Xu, K.-S. Chen, C.-Z. Li, P. Liu, F. Huang, Y. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Non-halogenated solvents for environmentally friendly processing of high-performance bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(11), 3241 (2013).
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Huang, J.

J. Huang, J. H. Carpenter, C.-Z. Li, J.-S. Yu, H. Ade, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly Efficient Organic Solar Cells with Improved Vertical Donor-Acceptor Compositional Gradient Via an Inverted Off-Center Spinning Method,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 967–974 (2016).
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Hwang, J.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
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Inganäs, O.

W. Zhao, D. Qian, S. Zhang, S. Li, O. Inganäs, F. Gao, and J. Hou, “Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells with over 11% Efficiency and Excellent Thermal Stability,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4734–4739 (2016).
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Z. Tang, W. Tress, and O. Inganäs, “Light trapping in thin film organic solar cells,” Mater. Today 17(8), 389–396 (2014).
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Z. Tang, A. Elfwing, J. Bergqvist, W. Tress, and O. Inganäs, “Light Trapping with Dielectric Scatterers in Single- and Tandem-Junction Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(12), 1606–1613 (2013).
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Janssen, R. A. J.

R. Timmreck, T. Meyer, J. Gilot, H. Seifert, T. Mueller, A. Furlan, M. Wienk, D. Wynands, J. Hohl-Ebinger, W. Warta, R. A. J. Janssen, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 478–479 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Esiner, T. Bus, M. M. Wienk, K. Hermans, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Quantification and Validation of the Efficiency Enhancement Reached by Application of a Retroreflective Light Trapping Texture on a Polymer Solar Cell,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(8), 1013–1017 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kouijzer, S. Esiner, C. H. Frijters, M. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient inverted tandem polymer solar cells with a solution processed recombination layer,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(8), 945–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Optimizing Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 22(8), E67–E71 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Optimizing Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 22(8), E67–E71 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

J. Huang, J. H. Carpenter, C.-Z. Li, J.-S. Yu, H. Ade, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly Efficient Organic Solar Cells with Improved Vertical Donor-Acceptor Compositional Gradient Via an Inverted Off-Center Spinning Method,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 967–974 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-C. Chueh, K. Yao, H.-L. Yip, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-X. Xu, K.-S. Chen, C.-Z. Li, P. Liu, F. Huang, Y. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Non-halogenated solvents for environmentally friendly processing of high-performance bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(11), 3241 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S.

C. Cho, H. Kim, S. Jeong, S.-W. Baek, J.-W. Seo, D. Han, K. Kim, Y. Park, S. Yoo, and J.-Y. Lee, “Random and V-groove texturing for efficient light trapping in organic photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 115, 36–41 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, F.

L. Mao, J. Tong, S. Xiong, F. Jiang, F. Qin, W. Meng, B. Luo, Y. Liu, Z. Li, Y. Jiang, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible large-area organic tandem solar cells with high defect tolerance and device yield,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(7), 3186–3192 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Tong, S. Xiong, Y. Zhou, L. Mao, X. Min, Z. Li, F. Jiang, W. Meng, F. Qin, T. Liu, R. Ge, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible all-solution-processed all-plastic multijunction solar cells for powering electronic devices,” Mater. Horiz. 3(5), 452–459 (2016).
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Jiang, K.

J. Zhao, Y. Li, G. Yang, K. Jiang, H. Lin, H. Ade, W. Ma, and H. Yan, “Efficient organic solar cells processed from hydrocarbon solvents,” Nat. Energy 1(2), 15027 (2016).
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Jiang, Y.

L. Mao, J. Tong, S. Xiong, F. Jiang, F. Qin, W. Meng, B. Luo, Y. Liu, Z. Li, Y. Jiang, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible large-area organic tandem solar cells with high defect tolerance and device yield,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(7), 3186–3192 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jorgensen, M.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
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Kettlitz, S. W.

J. Mescher, A. Mertens, A. Egel, S. W. Kettlitz, U. Lemmer, and A. Colsmann, “Illumination angle and layer thickness influence on the photo current generation in organic solar cells: A combined simulative and experimental study,” AIP Adv. 5(7), 077188 (2015).
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Kim, H.

C. Cho, H. Kim, S. Jeong, S.-W. Baek, J.-W. Seo, D. Han, K. Kim, Y. Park, S. Yoo, and J.-Y. Lee, “Random and V-groove texturing for efficient light trapping in organic photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 115, 36–41 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, and A. J. Heeger, “Efficient Tandem Polymer Solar Cells Fabricated by All-Solution Processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

C. Cho, H. Kim, S. Jeong, S.-W. Baek, J.-W. Seo, D. Han, K. Kim, Y. Park, S. Yoo, and J.-Y. Lee, “Random and V-groove texturing for efficient light trapping in organic photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 115, 36–41 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kippelen, B.

L. Mao, J. Tong, S. Xiong, F. Jiang, F. Qin, W. Meng, B. Luo, Y. Liu, Z. Li, Y. Jiang, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible large-area organic tandem solar cells with high defect tolerance and device yield,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(7), 3186–3192 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Tong, S. Xiong, Y. Zhou, L. Mao, X. Min, Z. Li, F. Jiang, W. Meng, F. Qin, T. Liu, R. Ge, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible all-solution-processed all-plastic multijunction solar cells for powering electronic devices,” Mater. Horiz. 3(5), 452–459 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koganezawa, T.

S. B. Dkhil, M. Pfannmöller, S. Bals, T. Koganezawa, N. Yoshimoto, D. Hannani, M. Gaceur, C. Videlot-Ackermann, O. Margeat, and J. Ackermann, “Square-Centimeter-Sized High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells: How the Processing Atmosphere and Film Quality Influence Performance at Large Scale,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6(13), 1600290 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kooy, N.

N. Kooy, K. Mohamed, L. T. Pin, and O. S. Guan, “A review of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 320 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kopidakis, N.

B. J. T. Villers, K. A. O’Hara, D. P. Ostrowski, P. H. Biddle, S. E. Shaheen, M. L. Chabinyc, D. C. Olson, and N. Kopidakis, “Removal of Residual Diiodooctane Improves Photostability of High-Performance Organic Solar Cell Polymers,” Chem. Mater. 28(3), 876–884 (2016).
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Koppitz, M.

A. Mertens, J. Mescher, D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the angle-independent photon harvesting in organic homo-tandem solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(10), A898–A906 (2016).
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D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, and A. Colsmann, “Tandem organic solar cells revisited,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 354–355 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a 3-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kouijzer, S.

S. Kouijzer, S. Esiner, C. H. Frijters, M. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient inverted tandem polymer solar cells with a solution processed recombination layer,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(8), 945–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krebs, F. C.

M. Hosel, H. F. Dam, and F. C. Krebs, “Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells,” Energy Technol. (Weinheim) 3(4), 293–304 (2015).
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T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

O’Hara, K. A.

B. J. T. Villers, K. A. O’Hara, D. P. Ostrowski, P. H. Biddle, S. E. Shaheen, M. L. Chabinyc, D. C. Olson, and N. Kopidakis, “Removal of Residual Diiodooctane Improves Photostability of High-Performance Organic Solar Cell Polymers,” Chem. Mater. 28(3), 876–884 (2016).
[Crossref]

Offermans, T.

J. Mayer, B. Gallinet, T. Offermans, and R. Ferrini, “Diffractive nanostructures for enhanced light-harvesting in organic photovoltaic devices,” Opt. Express 24(2), A358–A373 (2016).
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M. Pfannmöller, H. Heidari, L. Nanson, O. R. Lozman, M. Chrapa, T. Offermans, G. Nisato, and S. Bals, “Quantitative Tomography of Organic Photovoltaic Blends at the Nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6634–6642 (2015).
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Olson, D. C.

B. J. T. Villers, K. A. O’Hara, D. P. Ostrowski, P. H. Biddle, S. E. Shaheen, M. L. Chabinyc, D. C. Olson, and N. Kopidakis, “Removal of Residual Diiodooctane Improves Photostability of High-Performance Organic Solar Cell Polymers,” Chem. Mater. 28(3), 876–884 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ostrowski, D. P.

B. J. T. Villers, K. A. O’Hara, D. P. Ostrowski, P. H. Biddle, S. E. Shaheen, M. L. Chabinyc, D. C. Olson, and N. Kopidakis, “Removal of Residual Diiodooctane Improves Photostability of High-Performance Organic Solar Cell Polymers,” Chem. Mater. 28(3), 876–884 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

Y. Park, J. Berger, Z. Tang, L. Müller-Meskamp, A. F. Lasagni, K. Vandewal, and K. Leo, “Flexible, light trapping substrates for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 093301 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Cho, H. Kim, S. Jeong, S.-W. Baek, J.-W. Seo, D. Han, K. Kim, Y. Park, S. Yoo, and J.-Y. Lee, “Random and V-groove texturing for efficient light trapping in organic photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 115, 36–41 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pfannmöller, M.

S. B. Dkhil, M. Pfannmöller, S. Bals, T. Koganezawa, N. Yoshimoto, D. Hannani, M. Gaceur, C. Videlot-Ackermann, O. Margeat, and J. Ackermann, “Square-Centimeter-Sized High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells: How the Processing Atmosphere and Film Quality Influence Performance at Large Scale,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6(13), 1600290 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Pfannmöller, H. Heidari, L. Nanson, O. R. Lozman, M. Chrapa, T. Offermans, G. Nisato, and S. Bals, “Quantitative Tomography of Organic Photovoltaic Blends at the Nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6634–6642 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, M.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
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Pin, L. T.

N. Kooy, K. Mohamed, L. T. Pin, and O. S. Guan, “A review of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 320 (2014).
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Poortmans, J.

D. Cheynsa, B. P. Rand, B. Verreet, J. Genoe, J. Poortmans, and P. Heremans, “The angular response of ultrathin film organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243310 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pron, A.

S. Berny, N. Blouin, A. Distler, H.-J. Egelhaaf, M. Krompiec, A. Lohr, O. R. Lozman, G. E. Morse, L. Nanson, A. Pron, T. Sauermann, N. Seidler, S. Tierney, P. Tiwana, M. Wagner, and H. Wilson, “Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(5), 1500342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prosa, M.

M. Prosa, M. Tessarolo, M. Bolognesi, T. Cramer, Z. Chen, A. Facchetti, B. Fraboni, M. Seri, G. Ruani, and M. Muccini, “Efficient and Versatile Interconnection Layer by Solvent Treatment of PEDOT:PSS Interlayer for Air-Processed Organic Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 3(23), 1600770 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qian, D.

W. Zhao, D. Qian, S. Zhang, S. Li, O. Inganäs, F. Gao, and J. Hou, “Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells with over 11% Efficiency and Excellent Thermal Stability,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4734–4739 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, F.

L. Mao, J. Tong, S. Xiong, F. Jiang, F. Qin, W. Meng, B. Luo, Y. Liu, Z. Li, Y. Jiang, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible large-area organic tandem solar cells with high defect tolerance and device yield,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(7), 3186–3192 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Tong, S. Xiong, Y. Zhou, L. Mao, X. Min, Z. Li, F. Jiang, W. Meng, F. Qin, T. Liu, R. Ge, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible all-solution-processed all-plastic multijunction solar cells for powering electronic devices,” Mater. Horiz. 3(5), 452–459 (2016).
[Crossref]

Radmilovic, V. R.

F. Guo, N. Li, V. V. Radmilović, V. R. Radmilović, M. Turbiez, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully printed organic tandem solar cells using solution-processed silver nanowires and opaque silver as charge collecting electrodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(6), 1690–1697 (2015).
[Crossref]

Radmilovic, V. V.

F. Guo, N. Li, V. V. Radmilović, V. R. Radmilović, M. Turbiez, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully printed organic tandem solar cells using solution-processed silver nanowires and opaque silver as charge collecting electrodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(6), 1690–1697 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rand, B. P.

D. Cheynsa, B. P. Rand, B. Verreet, J. Genoe, J. Poortmans, and P. Heremans, “The angular response of ultrathin film organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243310 (2008).
[Crossref]

Riede, M.

R. Timmreck, T. Meyer, J. Gilot, H. Seifert, T. Mueller, A. Furlan, M. Wienk, D. Wynands, J. Hohl-Ebinger, W. Warta, R. A. J. Janssen, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 478–479 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rim, Y. S.

S.-H. Bae, H. Zhao, Y.-T. Hsieh, L. Zuo, N. D. Marco, Y. S. Rim, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Printable Solar Cells from Advanced Solution-Processible Materials,” Chem 1(2), 197–219 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ruani, G.

M. Prosa, M. Tessarolo, M. Bolognesi, T. Cramer, Z. Chen, A. Facchetti, B. Fraboni, M. Seri, G. Ruani, and M. Muccini, “Efficient and Versatile Interconnection Layer by Solvent Treatment of PEDOT:PSS Interlayer for Air-Processed Organic Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 3(23), 1600770 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sauermann, T.

S. Berny, N. Blouin, A. Distler, H.-J. Egelhaaf, M. Krompiec, A. Lohr, O. R. Lozman, G. E. Morse, L. Nanson, A. Pron, T. Sauermann, N. Seidler, S. Tierney, P. Tiwana, M. Wagner, and H. Wilson, “Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(5), 1500342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scharber, M. C.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomiš, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scheel, A.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, G.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seidler, N.

S. Berny, N. Blouin, A. Distler, H.-J. Egelhaaf, M. Krompiec, A. Lohr, O. R. Lozman, G. E. Morse, L. Nanson, A. Pron, T. Sauermann, N. Seidler, S. Tierney, P. Tiwana, M. Wagner, and H. Wilson, “Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(5), 1500342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seifert, H.

R. Timmreck, T. Meyer, J. Gilot, H. Seifert, T. Mueller, A. Furlan, M. Wienk, D. Wynands, J. Hohl-Ebinger, W. Warta, R. A. J. Janssen, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 478–479 (2015).
[Crossref]

Seo, J.-W.

C. Cho, H. Kim, S. Jeong, S.-W. Baek, J.-W. Seo, D. Han, K. Kim, Y. Park, S. Yoo, and J.-Y. Lee, “Random and V-groove texturing for efficient light trapping in organic photovoltaic cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 115, 36–41 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seri, M.

M. Prosa, M. Tessarolo, M. Bolognesi, T. Cramer, Z. Chen, A. Facchetti, B. Fraboni, M. Seri, G. Ruani, and M. Muccini, “Efficient and Versatile Interconnection Layer by Solvent Treatment of PEDOT:PSS Interlayer for Air-Processed Organic Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 3(23), 1600770 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shaheen, S. E.

B. J. T. Villers, K. A. O’Hara, D. P. Ostrowski, P. H. Biddle, S. E. Shaheen, M. L. Chabinyc, D. C. Olson, and N. Kopidakis, “Removal of Residual Diiodooctane Improves Photostability of High-Performance Organic Solar Cell Polymers,” Chem. Mater. 28(3), 876–884 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sondergaard, R. R.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spiecker, E.

F. Guo, N. Li, V. V. Radmilović, V. R. Radmilović, M. Turbiez, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully printed organic tandem solar cells using solution-processed silver nanowires and opaque silver as charge collecting electrodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(6), 1690–1697 (2015).
[Crossref]

Spyropoulos, G. D.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Li, D. Baran, G. D. Spyropoulos, H. Zhang, S. Berny, M. Turbiez, T. Ameri, F. C. Krebs, and C. J. Brabec, “Environmentally Printing Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells with High Fill Factors: A Guideline Towards 20% Power Conversion Efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(11), 1400084 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sundarraj, S.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z.

Y. Park, J. Berger, Z. Tang, L. Müller-Meskamp, A. F. Lasagni, K. Vandewal, and K. Leo, “Flexible, light trapping substrates for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 093301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, W. Tress, and O. Inganäs, “Light trapping in thin film organic solar cells,” Mater. Today 17(8), 389–396 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, A. Elfwing, J. Bergqvist, W. Tress, and O. Inganäs, “Light Trapping with Dielectric Scatterers in Single- and Tandem-Junction Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(12), 1606–1613 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tessarolo, M.

M. Prosa, M. Tessarolo, M. Bolognesi, T. Cramer, Z. Chen, A. Facchetti, B. Fraboni, M. Seri, G. Ruani, and M. Muccini, “Efficient and Versatile Interconnection Layer by Solvent Treatment of PEDOT:PSS Interlayer for Air-Processed Organic Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 3(23), 1600770 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tierney, S.

S. Berny, N. Blouin, A. Distler, H.-J. Egelhaaf, M. Krompiec, A. Lohr, O. R. Lozman, G. E. Morse, L. Nanson, A. Pron, T. Sauermann, N. Seidler, S. Tierney, P. Tiwana, M. Wagner, and H. Wilson, “Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(5), 1500342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timmreck, R.

R. Timmreck, T. Meyer, J. Gilot, H. Seifert, T. Mueller, A. Furlan, M. Wienk, D. Wynands, J. Hohl-Ebinger, W. Warta, R. A. J. Janssen, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 478–479 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tiwana, P.

S. Berny, N. Blouin, A. Distler, H.-J. Egelhaaf, M. Krompiec, A. Lohr, O. R. Lozman, G. E. Morse, L. Nanson, A. Pron, T. Sauermann, N. Seidler, S. Tierney, P. Tiwana, M. Wagner, and H. Wilson, “Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(5), 1500342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomiš, I.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomiš, K. Hingerl, and T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tong, J.

L. Mao, J. Tong, S. Xiong, F. Jiang, F. Qin, W. Meng, B. Luo, Y. Liu, Z. Li, Y. Jiang, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible large-area organic tandem solar cells with high defect tolerance and device yield,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(7), 3186–3192 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Tong, S. Xiong, Y. Zhou, L. Mao, X. Min, Z. Li, F. Jiang, W. Meng, F. Qin, T. Liu, R. Ge, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible all-solution-processed all-plastic multijunction solar cells for powering electronic devices,” Mater. Horiz. 3(5), 452–459 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tress, W.

Z. Tang, W. Tress, and O. Inganäs, “Light trapping in thin film organic solar cells,” Mater. Today 17(8), 389–396 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, A. Elfwing, J. Bergqvist, W. Tress, and O. Inganäs, “Light Trapping with Dielectric Scatterers in Single- and Tandem-Junction Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(12), 1606–1613 (2013).
[Crossref]

Turbiez, M.

F. Guo, N. Li, V. V. Radmilović, V. R. Radmilović, M. Turbiez, E. Spiecker, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “Fully printed organic tandem solar cells using solution-processed silver nanowires and opaque silver as charge collecting electrodes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(6), 1690–1697 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Li, D. Baran, G. D. Spyropoulos, H. Zhang, S. Berny, M. Turbiez, T. Ameri, F. C. Krebs, and C. J. Brabec, “Environmentally Printing Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells with High Fill Factors: A Guideline Towards 20% Power Conversion Efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(11), 1400084 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Kouijzer, S. Esiner, C. H. Frijters, M. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient inverted tandem polymer solar cells with a solution processed recombination layer,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(8), 945–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Uhrich, C.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Valimaki, M.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vandewal, K.

Y. Park, J. Berger, Z. Tang, L. Müller-Meskamp, A. F. Lasagni, K. Vandewal, and K. Leo, “Flexible, light trapping substrates for organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 093301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Verreet, B.

D. Cheynsa, B. P. Rand, B. Verreet, J. Genoe, J. Poortmans, and P. Heremans, “The angular response of ultrathin film organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243310 (2008).
[Crossref]

Videlot-Ackermann, C.

S. B. Dkhil, M. Pfannmöller, S. Bals, T. Koganezawa, N. Yoshimoto, D. Hannani, M. Gaceur, C. Videlot-Ackermann, O. Margeat, and J. Ackermann, “Square-Centimeter-Sized High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells: How the Processing Atmosphere and Film Quality Influence Performance at Large Scale,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6(13), 1600290 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vilkman, M.

T. R. Andersen, H. F. Dam, M. Hosel, M. Helgesen, J. E. Carle, T. T. Larsen-Olsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, J. W. Andreasen, J. Adams, N. Li, F. Machui, G. D. Spyropoulos, T. Ameri, N. Lemaitre, M. Legros, A. Scheel, D. Gaiser, K. Kreul, S. Berny, O. R. Lozman, S. Nordman, M. Valimaki, M. Vilkman, R. R. Sondergaard, M. Jorgensen, C. J. Brabec, and F. C. Krebs, “Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2925–2933 (2014).
[Crossref]

Villers, B. J. T.

B. J. T. Villers, K. A. O’Hara, D. P. Ostrowski, P. H. Biddle, S. E. Shaheen, M. L. Chabinyc, D. C. Olson, and N. Kopidakis, “Removal of Residual Diiodooctane Improves Photostability of High-Performance Organic Solar Cell Polymers,” Chem. Mater. 28(3), 876–884 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wagner, M.

S. Berny, N. Blouin, A. Distler, H.-J. Egelhaaf, M. Krompiec, A. Lohr, O. R. Lozman, G. E. Morse, L. Nanson, A. Pron, T. Sauermann, N. Seidler, S. Tierney, P. Tiwana, M. Wagner, and H. Wilson, “Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(5), 1500342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahl, T.

J. Hanisch, T. Wahl, C. D. Wessendorf, and E. Ahlswede, “Efficient polymer tandem modules and solar cells by doctor blading,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 4(13), 4771–4775 (2016).
[Crossref]

Warta, W.

R. Timmreck, T. Meyer, J. Gilot, H. Seifert, T. Mueller, A. Furlan, M. Wienk, D. Wynands, J. Hohl-Ebinger, W. Warta, R. A. J. Janssen, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 478–479 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weiss, A.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wessendorf, C. D.

J. Hanisch, T. Wahl, C. D. Wessendorf, and E. Ahlswede, “Efficient polymer tandem modules and solar cells by doctor blading,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 4(13), 4771–4775 (2016).
[Crossref]

Widmer, J.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wienk, M.

R. Timmreck, T. Meyer, J. Gilot, H. Seifert, T. Mueller, A. Furlan, M. Wienk, D. Wynands, J. Hohl-Ebinger, W. Warta, R. A. J. Janssen, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 478–479 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wienk, M. M.

S. Esiner, T. Bus, M. M. Wienk, K. Hermans, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Quantification and Validation of the Efficiency Enhancement Reached by Application of a Retroreflective Light Trapping Texture on a Polymer Solar Cell,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(8), 1013–1017 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kouijzer, S. Esiner, C. H. Frijters, M. Turbiez, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Efficient inverted tandem polymer solar cells with a solution processed recombination layer,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(8), 945–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Optimizing Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 22(8), E67–E71 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Optimizing Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 22(8), E67–E71 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, H.

S. Berny, N. Blouin, A. Distler, H.-J. Egelhaaf, M. Krompiec, A. Lohr, O. R. Lozman, G. E. Morse, L. Nanson, A. Pron, T. Sauermann, N. Seidler, S. Tierney, P. Tiwana, M. Wagner, and H. Wilson, “Solar Trees: First Large-Scale Demonstration of Fully Solution Coated, Semitransparent, Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Modules,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 3(5), 1500342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wynands, D.

R. Timmreck, T. Meyer, J. Gilot, H. Seifert, T. Mueller, A. Furlan, M. Wienk, D. Wynands, J. Hohl-Ebinger, W. Warta, R. A. J. Janssen, M. Riede, and K. Leo, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 478–479 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W.-M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiong, S.

L. Mao, J. Tong, S. Xiong, F. Jiang, F. Qin, W. Meng, B. Luo, Y. Liu, Z. Li, Y. Jiang, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible large-area organic tandem solar cells with high defect tolerance and device yield,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(7), 3186–3192 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Tong, S. Xiong, Y. Zhou, L. Mao, X. Min, Z. Li, F. Jiang, W. Meng, F. Qin, T. Liu, R. Ge, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible all-solution-processed all-plastic multijunction solar cells for powering electronic devices,” Mater. Horiz. 3(5), 452–459 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.-X.

C.-C. Chueh, K. Yao, H.-L. Yip, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-X. Xu, K.-S. Chen, C.-Z. Li, P. Liu, F. Huang, Y. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Non-halogenated solvents for environmentally friendly processing of high-performance bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(11), 3241 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xue, J.

J. D. Myers, W. Cao, V. Cassidy, S.-H. Eom, R. Zhou, L. Yang, W. You, and J. Xue, “A universal optical approach to enhancing efficiency of organic-based photovoltaic devices,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(5), 6900 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

J. Zhao, Y. Li, G. Yang, K. Jiang, H. Lin, H. Ade, W. Ma, and H. Yan, “Efficient organic solar cells processed from hydrocarbon solvents,” Nat. Energy 1(2), 15027 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, G.

J. Zhao, Y. Li, G. Yang, K. Jiang, H. Lin, H. Ade, W. Ma, and H. Yan, “Efficient organic solar cells processed from hydrocarbon solvents,” Nat. Energy 1(2), 15027 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

J. D. Myers, W. Cao, V. Cassidy, S.-H. Eom, R. Zhou, L. Yang, W. You, and J. Xue, “A universal optical approach to enhancing efficiency of organic-based photovoltaic devices,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(5), 6900 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

S.-H. Bae, H. Zhao, Y.-T. Hsieh, L. Zuo, N. D. Marco, Y. S. Rim, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Printable Solar Cells from Advanced Solution-Processible Materials,” Chem 1(2), 197–219 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, J. Gao, Y. M. Yang, H. Zhou, L. Dou, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed small-molecule solar cells: breaking the 10% power conversion efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3356(2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. M.

Y. Liu, C.-C. Chen, Z. Hong, J. Gao, Y. M. Yang, H. Zhou, L. Dou, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed small-molecule solar cells: breaking the 10% power conversion efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3356(2013).
[Crossref]

Yao, K.

C.-C. Chueh, K. Yao, H.-L. Yip, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-X. Xu, K.-S. Chen, C.-Z. Li, P. Liu, F. Huang, Y. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Non-halogenated solvents for environmentally friendly processing of high-performance bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(11), 3241 (2013).
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C.-C. Chueh, K. Yao, H.-L. Yip, C.-Y. Chang, Y.-X. Xu, K.-S. Chen, C.-Z. Li, P. Liu, F. Huang, Y. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Non-halogenated solvents for environmentally friendly processing of high-performance bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6(11), 3241 (2013).
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S. B. Dkhil, M. Pfannmöller, S. Bals, T. Koganezawa, N. Yoshimoto, D. Hannani, M. Gaceur, C. Videlot-Ackermann, O. Margeat, and J. Ackermann, “Square-Centimeter-Sized High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells: How the Processing Atmosphere and Film Quality Influence Performance at Large Scale,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6(13), 1600290 (2016).
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J. D. Myers, W. Cao, V. Cassidy, S.-H. Eom, R. Zhou, L. Yang, W. You, and J. Xue, “A universal optical approach to enhancing efficiency of organic-based photovoltaic devices,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(5), 6900 (2012).
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J. Huang, J. H. Carpenter, C.-Z. Li, J.-S. Yu, H. Ade, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Highly Efficient Organic Solar Cells with Improved Vertical Donor-Acceptor Compositional Gradient Via an Inverted Off-Center Spinning Method,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 967–974 (2016).
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N. Li, D. Baran, G. D. Spyropoulos, H. Zhang, S. Berny, M. Turbiez, T. Ameri, F. C. Krebs, and C. J. Brabec, “Environmentally Printing Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells with High Fill Factors: A Guideline Towards 20% Power Conversion Efficiency,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(11), 1400084 (2014).
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W. Zhao, D. Qian, S. Zhang, S. Li, O. Inganäs, F. Gao, and J. Hou, “Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells with over 11% Efficiency and Excellent Thermal Stability,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4734–4739 (2016).
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H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, C.-K. Mai, S. D. Collins, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer Homo-Tandem Solar Cells with Best Efficiency of 11.3%,” Adv. Mater. 27(10), 1767–1773 (2015).
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S.-H. Bae, H. Zhao, Y.-T. Hsieh, L. Zuo, N. D. Marco, Y. S. Rim, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Printable Solar Cells from Advanced Solution-Processible Materials,” Chem 1(2), 197–219 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, Y. Li, G. Yang, K. Jiang, H. Lin, H. Ade, W. Ma, and H. Yan, “Efficient organic solar cells processed from hydrocarbon solvents,” Nat. Energy 1(2), 15027 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, D. Qian, S. Zhang, S. Li, O. Inganäs, F. Gao, and J. Hou, “Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells with over 11% Efficiency and Excellent Thermal Stability,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4734–4739 (2016).
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H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, C.-K. Mai, S. D. Collins, G. C. Bazan, T.-Q. Nguyen, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer Homo-Tandem Solar Cells with Best Efficiency of 11.3%,” Adv. Mater. 27(10), 1767–1773 (2015).
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[Crossref]

Zhou, R.

J. D. Myers, W. Cao, V. Cassidy, S.-H. Eom, R. Zhou, L. Yang, W. You, and J. Xue, “A universal optical approach to enhancing efficiency of organic-based photovoltaic devices,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5(5), 6900 (2012).
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Zhou, Y.

L. Mao, J. Tong, S. Xiong, F. Jiang, F. Qin, W. Meng, B. Luo, Y. Liu, Z. Li, Y. Jiang, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible large-area organic tandem solar cells with high defect tolerance and device yield,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 5(7), 3186–3192 (2017).
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J. Tong, S. Xiong, Y. Zhou, L. Mao, X. Min, Z. Li, F. Jiang, W. Meng, F. Qin, T. Liu, R. Ge, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible all-solution-processed all-plastic multijunction solar cells for powering electronic devices,” Mater. Horiz. 3(5), 452–459 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Tong, S. Xiong, Y. Zhou, L. Mao, X. Min, Z. Li, F. Jiang, W. Meng, F. Qin, T. Liu, R. Ge, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, B. Kippelen, and Y. Zhou, “Flexible all-solution-processed all-plastic multijunction solar cells for powering electronic devices,” Mater. Horiz. 3(5), 452–459 (2016).
[Crossref]

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S.-H. Bae, H. Zhao, Y.-T. Hsieh, L. Zuo, N. D. Marco, Y. S. Rim, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Printable Solar Cells from Advanced Solution-Processible Materials,” Chem 1(2), 197–219 (2016).
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J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Optimizing Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 22(8), E67–E71 (2010).
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W. Zhao, D. Qian, S. Zhang, S. Li, O. Inganäs, F. Gao, and J. Hou, “Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells with over 11% Efficiency and Excellent Thermal Stability,” Adv. Mater. 28(23), 4734–4739 (2016).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Stack of the tandem cell with additional light management structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) 2D surface plot of the thickness dependent photocurrent in front and back active layers of the homo-tandem cell. The intersection of the plots represents the thicknesses for photocurrent matching. (b) EQE spectra of the hero tandem device in this work and of a representative single junction device ITO / PEDOT:PSS / PTB7-Th:PC71BM (110 nm) / ZnO / Al.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dark field STEM image of a focused ion beam cross-section of the tandem cell, with (inset on the right) a selected area where spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy was applied for mapping of the nanomorphology. Red: fullerene rich; Green: polymer rich; purple: ZnO nanoparticles.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Simulated absorption of the two subcells in the tandem stack and (b) the respective angle-dependent current generation. (c) Absorption in-/decrease for redirected light for the front subcell and (d) for the back subcell with respect to normal incidence.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulations of the absorption enhancement in the front active layer with two different light management geometries. (a) Up to 7% increase can be obtained by a periodic nanostructure with a squared profile and (b) up to 9% increase in the absorption can be expected for a Lorentzian shape.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SEM images of the squared (a) and the Lorentzian (b) shaped periodic nanostructures. (c) Its beneficial effect on the generated current in the tandem device can be recognized in the J-V curve. (d) This increase translates directly onto the device efficiency in multiple devices under test and is reversible, if the structure is removed from the surface and reapplied.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulations of the absorption enhancement with the Lorentzian structure using the parameters updated according to STEM measurements (Fig. 3). (a) >8% increase in the absorbance can be obtained in the front active layer while (b) up to 7% increase in the absorption can be expected for the back active layer.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Hero device measured at CSEM (a) four days after fabrication and at KIT (b) after 11 days for comparison.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 J-V data of 57 tandem cells on 13 substrates (5 cm x 5 cm). The efficiency reported is the efficiency obtained from J-V measurements under approximate AM1.5g illumination corrected with the Jsc obtained by integrating the EQE spectra and convoluting with the AM1.5 solar spectrum. Devices on substrates 1-7 with active areas of 0.24 cm2 were masked to 0.04 cm2 during illumination, and devices on substrates 8-13 with active areas of 1.4 cm2 were masked to 1 cm2. Values in brackets denote the mean value. The mean efficiency of all 57 cells is 8.1%. Performance data of a representative data set of single junction cells fabricated under identical conditions are included at the end of the table.

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