Abstract

We have proposed and investigated the tolerable performance of an optical serial-to-parallel converter with phase operation (OSPC) with lower power consumption than the conventional scheme for the purpose of achieving reduction of both the processing load and the processing latency of the high-speed packet switching systems in the data center. The target OSPC consists of Mach-Zehnder delay interferometers (MZDIs) and balanced photodetectors with silicon (Si) photonic technology. However, we have confirmed that the performance becomes degraded due to optical propagation losses of the delay lines in MZDIs. To solve this issue, unbalanced splitting ratio of a multi-mode interferometer (MMI)-type couplers in the MZDIs has been investigated, but we have found the necessity of improving the tolerance of the splitting ratio deviation. In this paper, we will analytically and experimentally demonstrate the improvement of the characteristics by using an OSPC with variable splitting ratio optical coupler (VSOC) consisting of a symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). By observing the transmission spectra of the device with various applied voltage to the heater, controllability of peak-to-valley ratios of transmission spectra was observed. In addition, splitting ratio of the output symmetric MMI almost matches well with that of the optimized peak-to-valley ratios of transmission spectra by using short-optical pulse injection. We have confirmed the tolerable performance of the Si-photonic OSPC by using VSOC with the symmetric MZI.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (1)

M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. C. Hulme, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “A robust method for characterization of optical waveguides and couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1517–1520 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

H. Kusano, Y. Yanagidate, and H. Uenohara, “Investigation of a Silicon Photonic Optical Serial-to-Parallel Converter with Mach-Zehnder Delay Interferometers and Integrated Ge-Photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(8), 6300109 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

T. Katayama, T. Okamoto, and H. Kawaguchi, “All-optical header recognition and packet switching using polarization bistable VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 802–805 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

G. Yazawa, S. Shimizu, and H. Uenohara, “Optical Serial-to-Parallel Conversion Technique with Phase-shifted Preamble for Optical Label Switching Systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(9), 1222–1229 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

N. Calabretta, W. Wang, T. Ditewig, O. Raz, F. Gomez Agis, S. Zhang, H. de Waardt, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scalable optical packet switches for multiple data formats and data rates packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(7), 483–485 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. Calabretta, M. Presi, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “All-optical asynchronous serial-to-parallel converter circuit for DPSK optical packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(10), 783–785 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array with dual serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion capability or optical label swapping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 67–69 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

H. Uenohara, T. Seki, and K. Kobayashi, “Investigation of high-speed wavelength routing and bit-error-rate performance of an optical packet switch with an optical digital-to-analog conversion-based header processor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(3), 951–953 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Wada, H. Harai, and F. Kubota, “Optical packet switching network based on ultra-fast optical code label processing,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C(7), 1090–1096 (2004).

2003 (2)

R. Takahashi and H. Suzuki, “1-Tb/s 16-b all-optical serial-to-parallel conversion using a surface-reflection optical switch,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 287–289 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Chi, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, L. Xu, I. T. Monroy, C. Peucheret, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, and P. Jeppesen, “Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal,” Electron. Lett. 39(8), 676–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1211–1213 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

K. Kitayama and N. Wada, “Photonic IP routing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1689–1691 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. Blumenthal, P. Prucnal, and J. Sauer, “Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations,” Proc. IEEE 82(11), 1650–1667 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

Blumenthal, D.

D. Blumenthal, P. Prucnal, and J. Sauer, “Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations,” Proc. IEEE 82(11), 1650–1667 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. C. Hulme, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “A robust method for characterization of optical waveguides and couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1517–1520 (2016).
[Crossref]

Calabretta, N.

W. Miao, J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, H. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Novel flat datacenter network architecture based on scalable and flow-controlled optical switch system,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2465–2472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Calabretta, W. Wang, T. Ditewig, O. Raz, F. Gomez Agis, S. Zhang, H. de Waardt, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scalable optical packet switches for multiple data formats and data rates packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(7), 483–485 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Calabretta, M. Presi, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “All-optical asynchronous serial-to-parallel converter circuit for DPSK optical packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(10), 783–785 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cao, J.

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1211–1213 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chi, N.

N. Chi, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, L. Xu, I. T. Monroy, C. Peucheret, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, and P. Jeppesen, “Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal,” Electron. Lett. 39(8), 676–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

Christiansen, L. J.

N. Chi, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, L. Xu, I. T. Monroy, C. Peucheret, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, and P. Jeppesen, “Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal,” Electron. Lett. 39(8), 676–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ciaramella, E.

N. Calabretta, M. Presi, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “All-optical asynchronous serial-to-parallel converter circuit for DPSK optical packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(10), 783–785 (2007).
[Crossref]

Contestabile, G.

N. Calabretta, M. Presi, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “All-optical asynchronous serial-to-parallel converter circuit for DPSK optical packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(10), 783–785 (2007).
[Crossref]

Davenport, M. L.

M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. C. Hulme, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “A robust method for characterization of optical waveguides and couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1517–1520 (2016).
[Crossref]

de Waardt, H.

N. Calabretta, W. Wang, T. Ditewig, O. Raz, F. Gomez Agis, S. Zhang, H. de Waardt, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scalable optical packet switches for multiple data formats and data rates packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(7), 483–485 (2010).
[Crossref]

Di Lucente, S.

Ditewig, T.

N. Calabretta, W. Wang, T. Ditewig, O. Raz, F. Gomez Agis, S. Zhang, H. de Waardt, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scalable optical packet switches for multiple data formats and data rates packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(7), 483–485 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dorren, H.

Dorren, H. J. S.

N. Calabretta, W. Wang, T. Ditewig, O. Raz, F. Gomez Agis, S. Zhang, H. de Waardt, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scalable optical packet switches for multiple data formats and data rates packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(7), 483–485 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fujikawa, K.

Furukawa, H.

Gomez Agis, F.

N. Calabretta, W. Wang, T. Ditewig, O. Raz, F. Gomez Agis, S. Zhang, H. de Waardt, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scalable optical packet switches for multiple data formats and data rates packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(7), 483–485 (2010).
[Crossref]

Harai, H.

H. Harai, H. Furukawa, K. Fujikawa, T. Miyazawa, and N. Wada, “Optical packet and circuit integrated networks and software defined networking extension,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2751–2759 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Wada, H. Harai, and F. Kubota, “Optical packet switching network based on ultra-fast optical code label processing,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C(7), 1090–1096 (2004).

Holm-Nielsen, P. V.

N. Chi, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, L. Xu, I. T. Monroy, C. Peucheret, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, and P. Jeppesen, “Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal,” Electron. Lett. 39(8), 676–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hughes, G. D.

Hulme, J. C.

M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. C. Hulme, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “A robust method for characterization of optical waveguides and couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1517–1520 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jeppesen, P.

N. Chi, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, L. Xu, I. T. Monroy, C. Peucheret, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, and P. Jeppesen, “Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal,” Electron. Lett. 39(8), 676–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

Johnson, F. G.

Kamei, S.

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1211–1213 (2002).
[Crossref]

Katayama, T.

T. Katayama, T. Okamoto, and H. Kawaguchi, “All-optical header recognition and packet switching using polarization bistable VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 802–805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kawaguchi, H.

T. Katayama, T. Okamoto, and H. Kawaguchi, “All-optical header recognition and packet switching using polarization bistable VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 802–805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kitayama, K.

K. Kitayama and N. Wada, “Photonic IP routing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1689–1691 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, K.

H. Uenohara, T. Seki, and K. Kobayashi, “Investigation of high-speed wavelength routing and bit-error-rate performance of an optical packet switch with an optical digital-to-analog conversion-based header processor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(3), 951–953 (2004).
[Crossref]

Komljenovic, T.

M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. C. Hulme, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “A robust method for characterization of optical waveguides and couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1517–1520 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kubota, F.

N. Wada, H. Harai, and F. Kubota, “Optical packet switching network based on ultra-fast optical code label processing,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C(7), 1090–1096 (2004).

Kusano, H.

H. Kusano, Y. Yanagidate, and H. Uenohara, “Investigation of a Silicon Photonic Optical Serial-to-Parallel Converter with Mach-Zehnder Delay Interferometers and Integrated Ge-Photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(8), 6300109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. J.

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1211–1213 (2002).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

Miao, W.

Miyazawa, T.

Monroy, I. T.

N. Chi, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, L. Xu, I. T. Monroy, C. Peucheret, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, and P. Jeppesen, “Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal,” Electron. Lett. 39(8), 676–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nakahara, T.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array with dual serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion capability or optical label swapping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 67–69 (2006).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1211–1213 (2002).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, T.

T. Katayama, T. Okamoto, and H. Kawaguchi, “All-optical header recognition and packet switching using polarization bistable VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 802–805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pan, Z.

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1211–1213 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peucheret, C.

N. Chi, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, L. Xu, I. T. Monroy, C. Peucheret, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, and P. Jeppesen, “Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal,” Electron. Lett. 39(8), 676–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

Presi, M.

N. Calabretta, M. Presi, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “All-optical asynchronous serial-to-parallel converter circuit for DPSK optical packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(10), 783–785 (2007).
[Crossref]

Prucnal, P.

D. Blumenthal, P. Prucnal, and J. Sauer, “Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations,” Proc. IEEE 82(11), 1650–1667 (1994).
[Crossref]

Raz, O.

N. Calabretta, W. Wang, T. Ditewig, O. Raz, F. Gomez Agis, S. Zhang, H. de Waardt, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scalable optical packet switches for multiple data formats and data rates packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(7), 483–485 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sauer, J.

D. Blumenthal, P. Prucnal, and J. Sauer, “Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations,” Proc. IEEE 82(11), 1650–1667 (1994).
[Crossref]

Seki, T.

H. Uenohara, T. Seki, and K. Kobayashi, “Investigation of high-speed wavelength routing and bit-error-rate performance of an optical packet switch with an optical digital-to-analog conversion-based header processor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(3), 951–953 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, S.

G. Yazawa, S. Shimizu, and H. Uenohara, “Optical Serial-to-Parallel Conversion Technique with Phase-shifted Preamble for Optical Label Switching Systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(9), 1222–1229 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, H.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array with dual serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion capability or optical label swapping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 67–69 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Takahashi and H. Suzuki, “1-Tb/s 16-b all-optical serial-to-parallel conversion using a surface-reflection optical switch,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 287–289 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, R.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array with dual serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion capability or optical label swapping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 67–69 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Takahashi and H. Suzuki, “1-Tb/s 16-b all-optical serial-to-parallel conversion using a surface-reflection optical switch,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 287–289 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takahata, K.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array with dual serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion capability or optical label swapping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 67–69 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tran, M. A.

M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. C. Hulme, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “A robust method for characterization of optical waveguides and couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1517–1520 (2016).
[Crossref]

Uenohara, H.

H. Kusano, Y. Yanagidate, and H. Uenohara, “Investigation of a Silicon Photonic Optical Serial-to-Parallel Converter with Mach-Zehnder Delay Interferometers and Integrated Ge-Photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(8), 6300109 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Yazawa, S. Shimizu, and H. Uenohara, “Optical Serial-to-Parallel Conversion Technique with Phase-shifted Preamble for Optical Label Switching Systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(9), 1222–1229 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Uenohara, T. Seki, and K. Kobayashi, “Investigation of high-speed wavelength routing and bit-error-rate performance of an optical packet switch with an optical digital-to-analog conversion-based header processor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(3), 951–953 (2004).
[Crossref]

Urata, R.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array with dual serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion capability or optical label swapping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 67–69 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wada, N.

H. Harai, H. Furukawa, K. Fujikawa, T. Miyazawa, and N. Wada, “Optical packet and circuit integrated networks and software defined networking extension,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2751–2759 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Wada, H. Harai, and F. Kubota, “Optical packet switching network based on ultra-fast optical code label processing,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C(7), 1090–1096 (2004).

K. Kitayama and N. Wada, “Photonic IP routing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1689–1691 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

N. Calabretta, W. Wang, T. Ditewig, O. Raz, F. Gomez Agis, S. Zhang, H. de Waardt, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scalable optical packet switches for multiple data formats and data rates packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(7), 483–485 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

N. Chi, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, L. Xu, I. T. Monroy, C. Peucheret, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, and P. Jeppesen, “Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal,” Electron. Lett. 39(8), 676–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yanagidate, Y.

H. Kusano, Y. Yanagidate, and H. Uenohara, “Investigation of a Silicon Photonic Optical Serial-to-Parallel Converter with Mach-Zehnder Delay Interferometers and Integrated Ge-Photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(8), 6300109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

Yazawa, G.

G. Yazawa, S. Shimizu, and H. Uenohara, “Optical Serial-to-Parallel Conversion Technique with Phase-shifted Preamble for Optical Label Switching Systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(9), 1222–1229 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. J. B. Yoo, “The role of photonics in future computing and data centers,” IEICE Trans. Commun. 97(7), 1272–1280 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1211–1213 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yvind, K.

N. Chi, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, L. Xu, I. T. Monroy, C. Peucheret, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, and P. Jeppesen, “Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal,” Electron. Lett. 39(8), 676–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

N. Chi, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, L. Xu, I. T. Monroy, C. Peucheret, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, and P. Jeppesen, “Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal,” Electron. Lett. 39(8), 676–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

N. Calabretta, W. Wang, T. Ditewig, O. Raz, F. Gomez Agis, S. Zhang, H. de Waardt, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scalable optical packet switches for multiple data formats and data rates packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(7), 483–485 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1211–1213 (2002).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. Chi, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, L. Xu, I. T. Monroy, C. Peucheret, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, and P. Jeppesen, “Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal,” Electron. Lett. 39(8), 676–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. Yazawa, S. Shimizu, and H. Uenohara, “Optical Serial-to-Parallel Conversion Technique with Phase-shifted Preamble for Optical Label Switching Systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(9), 1222–1229 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Kusano, Y. Yanagidate, and H. Uenohara, “Investigation of a Silicon Photonic Optical Serial-to-Parallel Converter with Mach-Zehnder Delay Interferometers and Integrated Ge-Photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(8), 6300109 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (9)

M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. C. Hulme, M. L. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “A robust method for characterization of optical waveguides and couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1517–1520 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Kitayama and N. Wada, “Photonic IP routing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1689–1691 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Takahashi and H. Suzuki, “1-Tb/s 16-b all-optical serial-to-parallel conversion using a surface-reflection optical switch,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 287–289 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Katayama, T. Okamoto, and H. Kawaguchi, “All-optical header recognition and packet switching using polarization bistable VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 802–805 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, and H. Suzuki, “An optically clocked transistor array with dual serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion capability or optical label swapping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 67–69 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Uenohara, T. Seki, and K. Kobayashi, “Investigation of high-speed wavelength routing and bit-error-rate performance of an optical packet switch with an optical digital-to-analog conversion-based header processor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(3), 951–953 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Calabretta, M. Presi, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “All-optical asynchronous serial-to-parallel converter circuit for DPSK optical packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(10), 783–785 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Calabretta, W. Wang, T. Ditewig, O. Raz, F. Gomez Agis, S. Zhang, H. de Waardt, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scalable optical packet switches for multiple data formats and data rates packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(7), 483–485 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, and S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1211–1213 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, “The role of photonics in future computing and data centers,” IEICE Trans. Commun. 97(7), 1272–1280 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

N. Wada, H. Harai, and F. Kubota, “Optical packet switching network based on ultra-fast optical code label processing,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C(7), 1090–1096 (2004).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. Blumenthal, P. Prucnal, and J. Sauer, “Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations,” Proc. IEEE 82(11), 1650–1667 (1994).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

R. Tucker, “Optical packet-switched WDM networks—A cost and energy perspectives,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2008 (OFC/NFOEC2008), OMG1, San Diego (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ibrahim, H.Ishikawa,T. Segawa, T. Nakahara, Y. Suzaki, and R. Takahassi,”100-Gb/s Optical Packet Switching Technologies for Data Center Networks”, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper PW4B.2.

Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: An AWGR-Based Low-Latency OpticalSwitch for High-Performance Computing and Data Centers” IEEE J. Select. Topics in Quantum Electron., 19(2), March/April (2013)

T. Nakahara, Y. Suzaki, R. Urata, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, “Enhanced multi-hop operation using hybrid optoelectronic router with TTL-based selective FEC”, Proc. 39th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC2011), Th.12.A.5, Geneva (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic structure of an optical serial-to-parallel converter. (a) Basic principle of a single bit extraction (b) whole structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Extracted bit transmittance as a function of MMI power transmittance.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 BER as a function of number of splitting bits.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation model for MMI splitting ratio tolerance. (a) Input-side MMI varied (b) all three MMIs varied.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulation results of BER as a function of splitting ratio. (a) Input-side MMI (b) all three MMIs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Structure of a silicon photonic OSPC. (a) Cross section of the waveguide (b) layout of a 2 × 2 MMI.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 CAD layout of a silicon photonic OSPC for 8-bit operation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Transmittance vs. MMI length (Simulation and results).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Transmittance as a function of input electrical power for a VSOC.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Simulation results of transmissivity of an OSPC. (a) splitting ratio of 70:30 (b) splitting ratio of 50:50 (c) peak-to-valley ratio.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Experimental results of transmittance as a function of wavelength under the condition of applied voltage to the heater of (a) 1.5V, (b) 2.1V, and (c) 3.5V, respectively.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Scheme for evaluating splitting ratio of the OSPC by using short optical pulse injection.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Waveforms of output short pulses with heater voltage of (a) 1.5V (b) 2.1V and (c) 3.5V.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Optimized splitting ratio (Simulation and Experiments).

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Table 2 Evaluated input and output splitting ratios.

Equations (1)

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{ α R 1 R 2 ( 1 R 1 )(1 R 2 ) =X α R 1 ( 1R 2 ) ( 1 R 1 ) R 2 =Y

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