Abstract

An active absorption device is proposed based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials. By controlling the conductivity of vanadium dioxide, resonant absorbers are designed to work at wide range of terahertz frequencies. Numerical results show that a broadband terahertz absorber with nearly 100% absorptance can be achieved, and its normalized bandwidth of 90% absorptance is 60% under normal incidence for both transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations when the conductivity of vanadium dioxide is equal to 2000Ω1cm1. Absorptance at peak frequencies can be continuously tuned from 30% to 100% by changing the conductivity from 10Ω1cm1 to 2000Ω1cm1. Absorptance spectra analysis shows a clear independence of polarization and incident angle. The presented results may have tunable spectral applications in sensor, detector, and thermophotovoltaic device working at terahertz frequency bands.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  27. H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(4), 043517 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. R. Malureanu, M. Zalkovskij, Z. Song, C. Gritti, A. Andryieuski, Q. He, L. Zhou, P. U. Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22770–22782 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide(VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13236 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Yao, Z. Song, L. Ye, G. Cai, and Q. H. Liu, “Independent tuning of double plasmonic waves in a free-standing graphene-spacer-grating-spacer-graphene hybrid slab,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16961–16972 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Q. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27836–27848 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z. Song and H. Xu, “Near-infrared transparent conducting metal based on impedance matching plasmonic nanostructures,” EPL 107(5), 57007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Song, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz transparency of optically opaque metallic films,” EPL 106(2), 27005 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, Y. Zhao, M. Holtz, Z. Fan, and A. A. Bernussi, “Effect of substrate orientation on terahertz optical transmission throughVO2thin films and application to functional antireflection coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(9), 2373–2378 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Malureanu, M. Zalkovskij, Z. Song, C. Gritti, A. Andryieuski, Q. He, L. Zhou, P. U. Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22770–22782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(4), 043517 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

An, Z.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Andryieuski, A.

Atwater, H. A.

Averitt, R. D.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banar, B.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernussi, A. A.

Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boyd, E. M.

Butun, S.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cai, G.

Cai, T.

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Q. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27836–27848 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chae, B. G.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Choi, J. W.

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Ventra, M.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dicken, M. J.

Ding, K.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Evans, P. G.

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, R.

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Z.

Z. Song, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz transparency of optically opaque metallic films,” EPL 106(2), 27005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, S.

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

Tang, S.

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, H.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tongay, S.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Valentine, J. G.

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venkatesan, T.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walavalkar, S.

Wang, D.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G. M.

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
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H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Q. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27836–27848 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide(VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, D. H.

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide(VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13236 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, S. A.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, B. I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, J.

Xu, H.

Z. Song and H. Xu, “Near-infrared transparent conducting metal based on impedance matching plasmonic nanostructures,” EPL 107(5), 57007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, H. X.

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, J. Xiao, and Y. Q. Zhuang, “Tunable Pancharatnam-Berry metasurface for dynamical and high-efficiency anomalous reflection,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27836–27848 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z. M.

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Ye, L.

Yin, X.

W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zalkovskij, M.

Zhang, B.

Z. Song, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz transparency of optically opaque metallic films,” EPL 106(2), 27005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Song, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz transparency of optically opaque metallic films,” EPL 106(2), 27005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, J.

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
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R. Malureanu, M. Zalkovskij, Z. Song, C. Gritti, A. Andryieuski, Q. He, L. Zhou, P. U. Jepsen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22770–22782 (2012).
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J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, Y. Q.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

W. Huang, X. Yin, C. Huang, Q. Wang, T. Miao, and Y. Zhu, “Optical switching of a metamaterial by temperature controlling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261908 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Kocer, S. Butun, B. Banar, K. Wang, S. Tongay, J. Wu, and K. Aydin, “Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(16), 161104 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. L. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[Crossref]

EPL (2)

Z. Song and H. Xu, “Near-infrared transparent conducting metal based on impedance matching plasmonic nanostructures,” EPL 107(5), 57007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Song, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Terahertz transparency of optically opaque metallic films,” EPL 106(2), 27005 (2014).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (3)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, J. Rhie, J. S. Kyoung, J. W. Choi, N. Park, S. Hong, B. J. Kim, H. T. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “A vanadium dioxide metamaterial disengaged from insulator-to-metal transition,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6318–6323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. Liu, L. Kang, T. S. Mayer, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13236 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, J. G. Liang, J. Q. Gong, and Z. M. Xu, “Triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle ultra-miniature metamaterial transmission line absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
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Phys. Rev. X (1)

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (4)

H. X. Xu, S. Sun, S. Tang, S. Ma, Q. He, G. M. Wang, T. Cai, H. P. Li, and L. Zhou, “Dynamical control on helicity of electromagnetic waves by tunable metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhang, H. Ma, C. Lan, R. Gao, and J. Zhou, “Microwave tunable metamaterial based on semiconductor-to-metal phase transition,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, L. Kang, and D. H. Werner, “Hybrid resonators and highly tunable terahertz metamaterials enabled by vanadium dioxide(VO2),” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4326 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the V O 2 -based tunable terahertz MM absorber studied in this paper. The red (cyan) part is V O 2 ( Si O 2 ) with the thickness of t 2 =0.5μm ( t 1 =70μm). The yellow part is gold with the thickness of 0.02 μm, width of 2.9 μm, length of 155 μm. The substrate is Si O 2 which is infinite in simulation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated reflectance (a), transmittance (b), and absorptance (c) spectra of the designed system at a series of conductivity values of V O 2 under normal incidence.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The calculated real part of permittivity of V O 2 at a series of conductivities.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Thickness dependence of absorptance under normal incidence when σ=2000 Ω 1 c m 1 .
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Retrieved effective physical parameters (a) permittivity, (b) permeability, (c) refractive index, and (d) impedance in the case of perfect absorption when σ=2000 Ω 1 c m 1 .
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated absorptance spectrum of perfect absorption phenomenon with tuning of polarization angles when σ=2000 Ω 1 c m 1 under normal incidence.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Incident angular dependence of perfect absorptance phenomenon for TE polarization (a) and TM polarization (b) when σ=2000 Ω 1 c m 1 .

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