Abstract

Wavefront sensors are an important tool to characterize coherent beams of extreme ultraviolet radiation. However, conventional Hartmann-type sensors do not allow for independent wavefront characterization of different spectral components that may be present in a beam, which limits their applicability for intrinsically broadband high-harmonic generation (HHG) sources. Here we introduce a wavefront sensor that measures the wavefronts of all the harmonics in a HHG beam in a single camera exposure. By replacing the mask apertures with transmission gratings at different orientations, we simultaneously detect harmonic wavefronts and spectra, and obtain sensitivity to spatiotemporal structure such as pulse front tilt as well. We demonstrate the capabilities of the sensor through a parallel measurement of the wavefronts of 9 harmonics in a wavelength range between 25 and 49 nm, with up to λ/32 precision.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

S. Künzel, G. O. Williams, W. Boutu, E. Galtier, B. Barbrel, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, U. Zastrau, G. Dovillaire, R. W. Lee, H. Merdji, P. Zeitoun, and M. Fajardo, “Shot-to-shot intensity and wavefront stability of high-harmonic generation,” Appl. Opt. 54, 4745–4749 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

X. Ge, W. Boutu, D. Gauthier, F. Wang, A. Borta, B. Barbrel, M. Ducousso, A. I. Gonzalez, B. Carré, D. Guillaumet, M. Perdrix, O. Gobert, J. Gautier, G. Lambert, F. R. N. C. Maia, J. Hajdu, P. Zeitoun, and H. Merdji, “Impact of wave front and coherence optimization in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 11441–11447 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photon. 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. T. Lloyd, K. O’Keeffe, and S. M. Hooker, “Complete spatial characterization of an optical wavefront using a variable-separation pinhole pair,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1173–1175 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

E. Frumker, G. G. Paulus, H. Niikura, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Order-dependent structure of high harmonic wavefronts,” Opt. Express 20, 13870–13877 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Vincenti and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses: How to use spatiotemporally coupled light fields to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113904 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Auguste, A. Zaïr, M. Weger, P. Salières, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Spatial fingerprint of quantum path interferences in high order harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 18, 2987–2994 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photon. 4, 822–832 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Frumker, G. G. Paulus, H. Niikura, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Frequency-resolved high-harmonic wavefront characterization,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3026–3028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of shack-hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S573 (2001).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

1900 (1)

J. Hartmann, “Bemerkungen über den bau und die justirung von spektrographen,” Zeitschrift für Instrumentenkunde 20, 47–58 (1900).

Adams, D. E.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Altucci, C.

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photon. 4, 822–832 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arrell, C. A.

Attwood, D.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Auguste, T.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photon. 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Auguste, A. Zaïr, M. Weger, P. Salières, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Spatial fingerprint of quantum path interferences in high order harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 18, 2987–2994 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Austin, D. R.

Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Baksh, P. D.

Bandrauk, A. D.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbrel, B.

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Baykusheva, D.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellini, M.

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bevis, C.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft-X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 185-µ m 1-khz pulses for carbon k-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boden, S. A.

Borta, A.

Bourassin-Bouchet, C.

Boutu, W.

Brizuela, F.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brocklesby, W. S.

Buades, B.

Bucourt, S.

Campi, F.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carré, B.

Chen, M.-C.

Y.-S. Ku, C.-L. Yeh, Y.-C. Chen, C.-W. Lo, W.-T. Wang, and M.-C. Chen, “EUV scatterometer with a high-harmonic-generation EUV source,” Opt. Express 24, 28014–28025 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photon. 4, 822–832 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-C.

Christov, I. P.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

Cousin, S. L.

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft-X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 185-µ m 1-khz pulses for carbon k-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383 (2014).
[Crossref]

Creath, K.

J. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, vol. XI (Academic Press, 1992), pp. 1–53.

Demmler, S.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Douillet, D.

Dovillaire, G.

Ducousso, M.

Eikema, K. S. E.

Fajardo, M.

Frank, F.

Freisem, L.

Frey, J. G.

Frumker, E.

Gaarde, M. B.

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gallmann, L.

Galloway, B. R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Galtier, E.

Gardner, D. F.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gauthier, D.

Gautier, J.

Ge, X.

Georgadiou, E.

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gobert, O.

Goddet, J.-P.

Goldberg, K. A.

Gonzalez, A. I.

Grassi, G.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, H.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Guggenmos, A.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guilbaud, O.

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guillaumet, D.

Hädrich, S.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajdu, J.

Hänsch, T. W.

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.

J. Hartmann, “Bemerkungen über den bau und die justirung von spektrographen,” Zeitschrift für Instrumentenkunde 20, 47–58 (1900).

Hauri, C.

He, X.

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hemmer, M.

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft-X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 185-µ m 1-khz pulses for carbon k-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hergott, J.-F.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photon. 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heyl, C.

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heyl, C. M.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holler, M.

Hooker, S. M.

Horný, L.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Idir, M.

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Jansen, G. S. M.

Jensen, F.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnsson, P.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photon. 4, 822–832 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Karl, R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

Kim, B.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-S.

Kim, K. T.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photon. 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, P. M.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krebs, M.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ku, Y.-S.

Künzel, S.

L’Huillier, a.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lambert, G.

Lee, H. J.

Lee, R. W.

Levecq, X.

Limpert, J.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lloyd, D. T.

Lo, C.-W.

Lyngå, C.

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

Madsen, L. B.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maia, F. R. N. C.

Mancini, G. F.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mang, M. M.

Mansten, E.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marangos, J. P.

Marchenko, T.

Mercère, P.

Merdji, H.

Mignolet, B.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miranda, M.

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photon. 4, 822–832 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Nagler, B.

Naulleau, P. P.

Naumov, A.

Niikura, H.

O’Keeffe, K.

Odstrcil, M.

Papalazarou, E.

Pape, S. L.

Paul, A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

Penka, E. F.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perdrix, M.

Persson, a.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

Platt, B. C.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of shack-hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S573 (2001).
[PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photon. 4, 822–832 (2010).
[Crossref]

Porter, C. L.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Quéré, F.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photon. 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Vincenti and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses: How to use spatiotemporally coupled light fields to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113904 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rading, L.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rakowski, R.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rekawa, S.

Remacle, F.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rey, G.

Rothhardt, J.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruchon, T.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photon. 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rudawski, P.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rudolf, D.

Rupenyan, A.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

Schapper, F.

Schneider, J.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwenke, J.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scrick, O.

Sebban, S.

Shack, R.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of shack-hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S573 (2001).
[PubMed]

Shanblatt, E. R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Silva, F.

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft-X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 185-µ m 1-khz pulses for carbon k-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanksalvala, M.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Teichmann, S.

Teichmann, S. M.

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tisch, J. W. G.

Tolstikhin, O. I.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valentin, C.

Villeneuve, D. M.

Vincenti, H.

H. Vincenti and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses: How to use spatiotemporally coupled light fields to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113904 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahlström, C.-G.

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, F.

Wang, W.-T.

Weger, M.

Williams, G. O.

Witte, S.

Witting, T.

Wörner, H. J.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyant, J.

J. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, vol. XI (Academic Press, 1992), pp. 1–53.

Wyatt, A. S.

Yeh, C.-L.

Zaïr, A.

Zastrau, U.

Zeitoun, P.

Zerne, R.

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photon. 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zürch, M.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of shack-hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S573 (2001).
[PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (3)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photon. 4, 822–832 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photon. 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photon. 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (7)

P. D. Baksh, M. Odstrčil, H.-S. Kim, S. A. Boden, J. G. Frey, and W. S. Brocklesby, “Wide-field broadband extreme ultraviolet transmission ptychography using a high-harmonic source,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1317–1320 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft-X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 185-µ m 1-khz pulses for carbon k-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Mercère, P. Zeitoun, M. Idir, S. L. Pape, D. Douillet, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “Hartmann wave-front measurement at 13.4 nm with λeuv/120 accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1534–1536 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Frumker, G. G. Paulus, H. Niikura, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Frequency-resolved high-harmonic wavefront characterization,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3026–3028 (2009).
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D. T. Lloyd, K. O’Keeffe, and S. M. Hooker, “Complete spatial characterization of an optical wavefront using a variable-separation pinhole pair,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1173–1175 (2013).
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D. R. Austin, T. Witting, C. A. Arrell, F. Frank, A. S. Wyatt, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Lateral shearing interferometry of high-harmonic wavefronts,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1746–1748 (2011).
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M. M. Mang, C. Bourassin-Bouchet, and I. A. Walmsley, “Simultaneous spatial characterization of two independent sources of high harmonic radiation,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6142–6145 (2014).
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Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

X. He, M. Miranda, J. Schwenke, O. Guilbaud, T. Ruchon, C. Heyl, E. Georgadiou, R. Rakowski, A. Persson, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatial and spectral properties of the high-order harmonic emission in argon for seeding applications,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063829 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Vincenti and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses: How to use spatiotemporally coupled light fields to generate isolated attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113904 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Phase-locked high-order harmonic sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006–1009 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, a. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and a. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 84, 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeitschrift für Instrumentenkunde (1)

J. Hartmann, “Bemerkungen über den bau und die justirung von spektrographen,” Zeitschrift für Instrumentenkunde 20, 47–58 (1900).

Other (1)

J. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, vol. XI (Academic Press, 1992), pp. 1–53.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Diffraction scheme of the multi-wavelength Hartmann sensor. The direct transmission spots of all spectral components overlap and cannot be distinguished. In contrast, in the first diffraction order the different spectral components are spatially separated, while still containing the wavefront information through the displacement of the spots with respect to a set of reference positions. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of the sample, with two insets showing magnified examples of the two main grating alignment groups. The gratings of one subset are rotated by an angle α = 72.5°, ensuring that the diffraction does not overlap with the diffraction of the other grating group. To improve the structural stability of the d = 0.5 µm pitch gratings, additional 1 µm-wide support bars are used, forming a cross through their center.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Diffraction pattern of the spectroscopic Hartmann mask, obtained using high harmonics generated in argon. This image was taken using a one second exposure. In addition to the central group of spots from direct transmission, there are four groups of diffraction spots, which correspond to the ±1st diffraction orders of the different gratings. All these spots are distributed along the two main diffraction directions, corresponding to the grating orientations as pointed out in Fig. 1(b). As a guide to the eye, the diffraction spots corresponding to one horizontal and one vertical grating are highlighted by orange and green boxes. For all apertures, the individual harmonics are spatially separated in the first diffraction orders, enabling wavefront reconstruction.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic overview of the transmission of a single spectroscopic Hartmann aperture. The center of mass of the +1st and −1st diffraction orders approximates the position of the direct transmission. The quality of this approximation depends on the incident wavefront tilt as well as the angle between camera and wavefront sensor.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reconstructed wavefronts for nine harmonics produced in argon, visualized by calculating their interference pattern with a plane wave. The center wavelength of the harmonic is indicated below each image.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Wavelength-dependence of several beam parameters retrieved from a SHM measurement on high-harmonics produced in Ar and Kr. All error bars constitute one standard deviation. (a) Linewidth of individual harmonics. (b) RMS deviation of the wavefronts from a spherical wave. The Marechal-criterion of λ/14 is indicated by a dashed line. (c) Radius of curvature (RoC) of the respective HHG wavelengths. (d) Astigmatism magnitude as calculated from the Zernike terms. (e) Reconstructed HHG spectra, normalized to the brightest argon line. The krypton spectrum is scaled by a factor of 2 in intensity for visibility purposes.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured relative wavefront tilt in the horizontal (tilt, (a)) and vertical (tip, (b)) directions as a function of wavelength, retrieved from the SHM analysis, for HHG produced in argon and krypton with 810 nm fundamental wavelength. A significant wavelength-dependent wavefront tilt in the horizontal plane (tilt) is observed, indicating the presence of a spatial chirp of the HHG beam as schematically drawn in the inset to (a).

Equations (2)

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h m = L ( m λ d sin ( θ i ) ) d sin ( β + arccos ( m λ d sin ( θ i ) ) )
( h 1 + h 1 ) / 2 h 0 + L λ 2 λ 2 d 2 β + ( L L d 3 d 2 λ 2 ( d 2 λ 2 ) 2 ) θ i + O ( β 2 θ i + β θ i 2 ) .

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