Abstract

Sub-10-fs pulses tunable in the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) spectral region are particularly important in many research fields: from atomic and molecular spectroscopy to the study of relaxation processes in solids and transition phase processes, from holography to free-electron laser injection. A crucial prerequisite for all applications is the accurate measurement of the temporal characteristics of these pulses. To fulfill this purpose, many phase retrieval algorithms have been successfully applied to reconstruct XUV attosecond pulses. Nevertheless, their extension to XUV femtosecond pulses is not trivial and has never been investigated/reported so far. We demonstrate that ultrashort XUV pulses, produced by high-order harmonic generation, spectrally filtered by a time-delay compensated monochromator, can be fully characterized, in terms of temporal intensity and phase, by employing the ptychographic reconstruction technique while other common reconstruction algorithms fail. This allows us to report on the generation and complete temporal characterization of XUV pulses with duration down to 5 fs, which constitute the shortest XUV pulse ever achieved via a time-delay compensated monochromator.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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2017 (5)

N. Nisoli, P. Decleva, F. Calegari, A. Palacios, and F. Martín, “Attosecond Electron Dynamics in Molecules,” Chem. Rev. 117, 10760–10825 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Erratum: Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015)],” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 219901 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Hyyti, E. Escoto, G. Steinmeyer, and T. Witting, “Interferometric time-domain ptychography for ultrafast pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2185–2188 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.I. Haham, P. Sidorenko, O. Lahav, and O. Cohen, “Multiplexed FROG,” Opt. Express 25, 33007–33017 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

T. Witting, D. Greening, D. Walke, P. Matia-Hernando, T. Barillot, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Time-domain ptychography of over-octave-spanning laser pulses in the single-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 41, 4218–4221 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C2H4+,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 1901–1906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys 49, 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Eckstein, C. Yang, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Direct Imaging of Transient Fano Resonances in N2 Using Time-, Energy-, and Angular-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 163003 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Comparison of attosecond streaking and RABBITT,” Opt. Express 25, 29060–29076 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Sidorenko, O. Lahav, Z. Avnat, and Oren Cohen, “Ptychographic reconstruction algorithm for frequency-resolved optical gating: super-resolution and supreme robustness,” Optica 2, 1320–1330 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ojeda, C.A. Arrell, J. Grilj, F. Frassetto, L. Mewes, H. Zhang, F. van Mourik, L. Poletto, and M. Chergui, “Harmonium: A pulse preserving source of monochromatic extreme ultraviolet (30–110 eV) radiation for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 023602 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

M. Eckstein, C. Yang, M. Kubin, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, H Ritze, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Dynamics of N2 Dissociation upon Inner-Valence Ionization by Wavelength-Selected XUV Pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 419–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Spangenberg, E. Rohwer, M. H. Brügmann, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic ultrafast pulse reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1002–1005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, A. Ludwig, L. Kasmi, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Semi-classical approach to compute RABBITT traces in multi-dimensional complex field distributions,” Opt. Express 23, 8867–8879 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, M. H. Brügmann, A. Ludwig, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic reconstruction of attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 23, 29502–29513 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

B. Erk, R. Boll, S. Trippel, D. Anielski, L. Foucar, B. Rudek, S. W. Epp, R. Coffee, S. Carron, S. Schorb, K. R. Ferguson, M. Swiggers, J. D. Bozek, M. Simon, T. Marchenko, J. Küpper, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, C. Bostedt, D. Rolles, and A. Rudenko, “Imaging charge transfer in iodomethane upon x-ray photoabsorption,” Science 345, 288–291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

B. Frietsch, R. Carley, K. Döbrich, C. Gahl, M. Teichmann, O. Schwarzkopf, Ph. Wernet, and M. Weinelt, “A high-order harmonic generation apparatus for time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 075106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, and P. Villoresi, “Ultrafast Grating Instruments in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 467–478 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Igarashi, A. Makida, M. Ito, and T. Sekikawa, “Pulse compression of phase-matched high harmonic pulses from a time-delay compensated monochromator,” Opt. Express 20, 3725–3732 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, F. Ferrari, M. Lucchini, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 123109 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. K. Freericks, H. R. Krishnamurthy, and Th. Pruschke, “Theoretical Description of Time-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy: Application to Pump-Probe Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 136401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Frassetto, P. Villoresi, and L. Poletto, “Optical concept of a compressor for XUV pulses in the attosecond domain,” Opt. Express 16, 6652–6667 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett. 117, 2897–2899 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s17–s21 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Schnadt, P. A. Brühwiler, L. Patthey, J. N. O’Shea, S. Sodergren, M. Odelius, R. Ahuja, O. Karis, M. Bassler, P. Persson, H. Siegbahn, S. Lunell, and N. Martensson, “Experimental evidence for sub-3-fs charge transfer from an aromatic adsorbate to a semiconductor,” Nature 418, 620–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. J. Kane, “Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 421–431 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

C. Iaconis and I.A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 792–794 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Dufree, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1425 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, “Cross-correlation measurement of femtosecond noncollinear high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950–956 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of Laser Assisted Photoelectric Effect and Femtosecond High Order Harmonic Radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

Agostini, P.

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, “Cross-correlation measurement of femtosecond noncollinear high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950–956 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ahuja, R.

J. Schnadt, P. A. Brühwiler, L. Patthey, J. N. O’Shea, S. Sodergren, M. Odelius, R. Ahuja, O. Karis, M. Bassler, P. Persson, H. Siegbahn, S. Lunell, and N. Martensson, “Experimental evidence for sub-3-fs charge transfer from an aromatic adsorbate to a semiconductor,” Nature 418, 620–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anielski, D.

B. Erk, R. Boll, S. Trippel, D. Anielski, L. Foucar, B. Rudek, S. W. Epp, R. Coffee, S. Carron, S. Schorb, K. R. Ferguson, M. Swiggers, J. D. Bozek, M. Simon, T. Marchenko, J. Küpper, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, C. Bostedt, D. Rolles, and A. Rudenko, “Imaging charge transfer in iodomethane upon x-ray photoabsorption,” Science 345, 288–291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arrell, C.A.

J. Ojeda, C.A. Arrell, J. Grilj, F. Frassetto, L. Mewes, H. Zhang, F. van Mourik, L. Poletto, and M. Chergui, “Harmonium: A pulse preserving source of monochromatic extreme ultraviolet (30–110 eV) radiation for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 023602 (2016).
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L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Comparison of attosecond streaking and RABBITT,” Opt. Express 25, 29060–29076 (2016).
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M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
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Cohen, Oren

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L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett. 117, 2897–2899 (2007).
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M. Eckstein, C. Yang, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Direct Imaging of Transient Fano Resonances in N2 Using Time-, Energy-, and Angular-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 163003 (2016).
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J. Ojeda, C.A. Arrell, J. Grilj, F. Frassetto, L. Mewes, H. Zhang, F. van Mourik, L. Poletto, and M. Chergui, “Harmonium: A pulse preserving source of monochromatic extreme ultraviolet (30–110 eV) radiation for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 023602 (2016).
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M. Eckstein, C. Yang, M. Kubin, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, H Ritze, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Dynamics of N2 Dissociation upon Inner-Valence Ionization by Wavelength-Selected XUV Pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 419–425 (2015).
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L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, and P. Villoresi, “Ultrafast Grating Instruments in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 467–478 (2012).
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F. Frassetto, P. Villoresi, and L. Poletto, “Optical concept of a compressor for XUV pulses in the attosecond domain,” Opt. Express 16, 6652–6667 (2008).
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B. Frietsch, R. Carley, K. Döbrich, C. Gahl, M. Teichmann, O. Schwarzkopf, Ph. Wernet, and M. Weinelt, “A high-order harmonic generation apparatus for time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 075106 (2013).
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M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Erratum: Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015)],” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 219901 (2017).
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L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Comparison of attosecond streaking and RABBITT,” Opt. Express 25, 29060–29076 (2016).
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A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C2H4+,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 1901–1906 (2016).
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Glover, T. E.

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J. Ojeda, C.A. Arrell, J. Grilj, F. Frassetto, L. Mewes, H. Zhang, F. van Mourik, L. Poletto, and M. Chergui, “Harmonium: A pulse preserving source of monochromatic extreme ultraviolet (30–110 eV) radiation for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 023602 (2016).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Dufree, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1425 (1998).
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M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Erratum: Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015)],” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 219901 (2017).
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R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H.C.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Dufree, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1425 (1998).
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Karis, O.

J. Schnadt, P. A. Brühwiler, L. Patthey, J. N. O’Shea, S. Sodergren, M. Odelius, R. Ahuja, O. Karis, M. Bassler, P. Persson, H. Siegbahn, S. Lunell, and N. Martensson, “Experimental evidence for sub-3-fs charge transfer from an aromatic adsorbate to a semiconductor,” Nature 418, 620–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasmi, L.

A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C2H4+,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 1901–1906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, A. Ludwig, L. Kasmi, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Semi-classical approach to compute RABBITT traces in multi-dimensional complex field distributions,” Opt. Express 23, 8867–8879 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kataoka, Y.

Keller, U.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Erratum: Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015)],” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 219901 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C2H4+,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 1901–1906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Comparison of attosecond streaking and RABBITT,” Opt. Express 25, 29060–29076 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lucchini, A. Ludwig, L. Kasmi, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Semi-classical approach to compute RABBITT traces in multi-dimensional complex field distributions,” Opt. Express 23, 8867–8879 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, M. H. Brügmann, A. Ludwig, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic reconstruction of attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 23, 29502–29513 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, S. D.

Kitzler, M.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
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Koppitsch, R.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kornilov, O.

M. Eckstein, C. Yang, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Direct Imaging of Transient Fano Resonances in N2 Using Time-, Energy-, and Angular-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 163003 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Eckstein, C. Yang, M. Kubin, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, H Ritze, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Dynamics of N2 Dissociation upon Inner-Valence Ionization by Wavelength-Selected XUV Pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 419–425 (2015).
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Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Krishnamurthy, H. R.

J. K. Freericks, H. R. Krishnamurthy, and Th. Pruschke, “Theoretical Description of Time-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy: Application to Pump-Probe Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 136401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krumbugel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kubin, M.

M. Eckstein, C. Yang, M. Kubin, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, H Ritze, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Dynamics of N2 Dissociation upon Inner-Valence Ionization by Wavelength-Selected XUV Pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 419–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Küpper, J.

B. Erk, R. Boll, S. Trippel, D. Anielski, L. Foucar, B. Rudek, S. W. Epp, R. Coffee, S. Carron, S. Schorb, K. R. Ferguson, M. Swiggers, J. D. Bozek, M. Simon, T. Marchenko, J. Küpper, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, C. Bostedt, D. Rolles, and A. Rudenko, “Imaging charge transfer in iodomethane upon x-ray photoabsorption,” Science 345, 288–291 (2014).
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Lahav, O.

G.I. Haham, P. Sidorenko, O. Lahav, and O. Cohen, “Multiplexed FROG,” Opt. Express 25, 33007–33017 (2017).
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P. Sidorenko, O. Lahav, Z. Avnat, and Oren Cohen, “Ptychographic reconstruction algorithm for frequency-resolved optical gating: super-resolution and supreme robustness,” Optica 2, 1320–1330 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lenzner, M.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Liberatore, E.

A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C2H4+,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 1901–1906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindroth, E.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Erratum: Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015)],” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 219901 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López-Tarifa, P.

A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C2H4+,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 1901–1906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lucchini, M.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Erratum: Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015)],” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 219901 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C2H4+,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 1901–1906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Comparison of attosecond streaking and RABBITT,” Opt. Express 25, 29060–29076 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lucchini, M. H. Brügmann, A. Ludwig, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic reconstruction of attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 23, 29502–29513 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, A. Ludwig, L. Kasmi, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Semi-classical approach to compute RABBITT traces in multi-dimensional complex field distributions,” Opt. Express 23, 8867–8879 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, F. Ferrari, M. Lucchini, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 123109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ludwig, A.

Lunell, S.

J. Schnadt, P. A. Brühwiler, L. Patthey, J. N. O’Shea, S. Sodergren, M. Odelius, R. Ahuja, O. Karis, M. Bassler, P. Persson, H. Siegbahn, S. Lunell, and N. Martensson, “Experimental evidence for sub-3-fs charge transfer from an aromatic adsorbate to a semiconductor,” Nature 418, 620–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Makida, A.

Marangos, J. P.

Marchenko, T.

B. Erk, R. Boll, S. Trippel, D. Anielski, L. Foucar, B. Rudek, S. W. Epp, R. Coffee, S. Carron, S. Schorb, K. R. Ferguson, M. Swiggers, J. D. Bozek, M. Simon, T. Marchenko, J. Küpper, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, C. Bostedt, D. Rolles, and A. Rudenko, “Imaging charge transfer in iodomethane upon x-ray photoabsorption,” Science 345, 288–291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martensson, N.

J. Schnadt, P. A. Brühwiler, L. Patthey, J. N. O’Shea, S. Sodergren, M. Odelius, R. Ahuja, O. Karis, M. Bassler, P. Persson, H. Siegbahn, S. Lunell, and N. Martensson, “Experimental evidence for sub-3-fs charge transfer from an aromatic adsorbate to a semiconductor,” Nature 418, 620–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martín, F.

N. Nisoli, P. Decleva, F. Calegari, A. Palacios, and F. Martín, “Attosecond Electron Dynamics in Molecules,” Chem. Rev. 117, 10760–10825 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matia-Hernando, P.

Matthews, M.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mero, M.

Mewes, L.

J. Ojeda, C.A. Arrell, J. Grilj, F. Frassetto, L. Mewes, H. Zhang, F. van Mourik, L. Poletto, and M. Chergui, “Harmonium: A pulse preserving source of monochromatic extreme ultraviolet (30–110 eV) radiation for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 023602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Milosevic, N.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

Muller, H.G.

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Dufree, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1425 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Nisoli, M.

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys 49, 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, F. Ferrari, M. Lucchini, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 123109 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett. 117, 2897–2899 (2007).
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M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nisoli, N.

N. Nisoli, P. Decleva, F. Calegari, A. Palacios, and F. Martín, “Attosecond Electron Dynamics in Molecules,” Chem. Rev. 117, 10760–10825 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Shea, J. N.

J. Schnadt, P. A. Brühwiler, L. Patthey, J. N. O’Shea, S. Sodergren, M. Odelius, R. Ahuja, O. Karis, M. Bassler, P. Persson, H. Siegbahn, S. Lunell, and N. Martensson, “Experimental evidence for sub-3-fs charge transfer from an aromatic adsorbate to a semiconductor,” Nature 418, 620–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Odelius, M.

J. Schnadt, P. A. Brühwiler, L. Patthey, J. N. O’Shea, S. Sodergren, M. Odelius, R. Ahuja, O. Karis, M. Bassler, P. Persson, H. Siegbahn, S. Lunell, and N. Martensson, “Experimental evidence for sub-3-fs charge transfer from an aromatic adsorbate to a semiconductor,” Nature 418, 620–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ojeda, J.

J. Ojeda, C.A. Arrell, J. Grilj, F. Frassetto, L. Mewes, H. Zhang, F. van Mourik, L. Poletto, and M. Chergui, “Harmonium: A pulse preserving source of monochromatic extreme ultraviolet (30–110 eV) radiation for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 023602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, T.

Palacios, A.

N. Nisoli, P. Decleva, F. Calegari, A. Palacios, and F. Martín, “Attosecond Electron Dynamics in Molecules,” Chem. Rev. 117, 10760–10825 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patthey, L.

J. Schnadt, P. A. Brühwiler, L. Patthey, J. N. O’Shea, S. Sodergren, M. Odelius, R. Ahuja, O. Karis, M. Bassler, P. Persson, H. Siegbahn, S. Lunell, and N. Martensson, “Experimental evidence for sub-3-fs charge transfer from an aromatic adsorbate to a semiconductor,” Nature 418, 620–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paul, P.M.

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Persson, P.

J. Schnadt, P. A. Brühwiler, L. Patthey, J. N. O’Shea, S. Sodergren, M. Odelius, R. Ahuja, O. Karis, M. Bassler, P. Persson, H. Siegbahn, S. Lunell, and N. Martensson, “Experimental evidence for sub-3-fs charge transfer from an aromatic adsorbate to a semiconductor,” Nature 418, 620–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pertot, Y.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

M. Eckstein, C. Yang, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Direct Imaging of Transient Fano Resonances in N2 Using Time-, Energy-, and Angular-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 163003 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ojeda, C.A. Arrell, J. Grilj, F. Frassetto, L. Mewes, H. Zhang, F. van Mourik, L. Poletto, and M. Chergui, “Harmonium: A pulse preserving source of monochromatic extreme ultraviolet (30–110 eV) radiation for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 023602 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Eckstein, C. Yang, M. Kubin, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, H Ritze, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Dynamics of N2 Dissociation upon Inner-Valence Ionization by Wavelength-Selected XUV Pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 419–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, and P. Villoresi, “Ultrafast Grating Instruments in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 467–478 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Frassetto, C. Cacho, C.A. Froud, I.C.E. Turcu, P. Villoresi, W.A. Bryan, E. Springate, and L. Poletto, “Single-grating monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 19169–19181 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mero, F. Frassetto, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, and K. Varjú, “Compression methods for XUV attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 23420–23428 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, F. Ferrari, M. Lucchini, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 123109 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Frassetto, P. Villoresi, and L. Poletto, “Optical concept of a compressor for XUV pulses in the attosecond domain,” Opt. Express 16, 6652–6667 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett. 117, 2897–2899 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pruschke, Th.

J. K. Freericks, H. R. Krishnamurthy, and Th. Pruschke, “Theoretical Description of Time-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy: Application to Pump-Probe Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 136401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quéré, F.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ritze, H

M. Eckstein, C. Yang, M. Kubin, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, H Ritze, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Dynamics of N2 Dissociation upon Inner-Valence Ionization by Wavelength-Selected XUV Pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 419–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rohwer, E.

Rolles, D.

B. Erk, R. Boll, S. Trippel, D. Anielski, L. Foucar, B. Rudek, S. W. Epp, R. Coffee, S. Carron, S. Schorb, K. R. Ferguson, M. Swiggers, J. D. Bozek, M. Simon, T. Marchenko, J. Küpper, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, C. Bostedt, D. Rolles, and A. Rudenko, “Imaging charge transfer in iodomethane upon x-ray photoabsorption,” Science 345, 288–291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothlisberger, U.

A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C2H4+,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 1901–1906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudek, B.

B. Erk, R. Boll, S. Trippel, D. Anielski, L. Foucar, B. Rudek, S. W. Epp, R. Coffee, S. Carron, S. Schorb, K. R. Ferguson, M. Swiggers, J. D. Bozek, M. Simon, T. Marchenko, J. Küpper, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, C. Bostedt, D. Rolles, and A. Rudenko, “Imaging charge transfer in iodomethane upon x-ray photoabsorption,” Science 345, 288–291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudenko, A.

B. Erk, R. Boll, S. Trippel, D. Anielski, L. Foucar, B. Rudek, S. W. Epp, R. Coffee, S. Carron, S. Schorb, K. R. Ferguson, M. Swiggers, J. D. Bozek, M. Simon, T. Marchenko, J. Küpper, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, C. Bostedt, D. Rolles, and A. Rudenko, “Imaging charge transfer in iodomethane upon x-ray photoabsorption,” Science 345, 288–291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Dufree, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1425 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabbar, M.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Erratum: Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015)],” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 219901 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance Effects in Photoemission Time Delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys 49, 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Eckstein, C. Yang, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Direct Imaging of Transient Fano Resonances in N2 Using Time-, Energy-, and Angular-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 163003 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, F. Ferrari, M. Lucchini, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 123109 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett. 117, 2897–2899 (2007).
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Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
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Schlichting, I.

B. Erk, R. Boll, S. Trippel, D. Anielski, L. Foucar, B. Rudek, S. W. Epp, R. Coffee, S. Carron, S. Schorb, K. R. Ferguson, M. Swiggers, J. D. Bozek, M. Simon, T. Marchenko, J. Küpper, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, C. Bostedt, D. Rolles, and A. Rudenko, “Imaging charge transfer in iodomethane upon x-ray photoabsorption,” Science 345, 288–291 (2014).
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Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
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J. Schnadt, P. A. Brühwiler, L. Patthey, J. N. O’Shea, S. Sodergren, M. Odelius, R. Ahuja, O. Karis, M. Bassler, P. Persson, H. Siegbahn, S. Lunell, and N. Martensson, “Experimental evidence for sub-3-fs charge transfer from an aromatic adsorbate to a semiconductor,” Nature 418, 620–623 (2002).
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Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
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T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of Laser Assisted Photoelectric Effect and Femtosecond High Order Harmonic Radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
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B. Erk, R. Boll, S. Trippel, D. Anielski, L. Foucar, B. Rudek, S. W. Epp, R. Coffee, S. Carron, S. Schorb, K. R. Ferguson, M. Swiggers, J. D. Bozek, M. Simon, T. Marchenko, J. Küpper, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, C. Bostedt, D. Rolles, and A. Rudenko, “Imaging charge transfer in iodomethane upon x-ray photoabsorption,” Science 345, 288–291 (2014).
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B. Frietsch, R. Carley, K. Döbrich, C. Gahl, M. Teichmann, O. Schwarzkopf, Ph. Wernet, and M. Weinelt, “A high-order harmonic generation apparatus for time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 075106 (2013).
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M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
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Sekikawa, T.

Shank, C. V.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of Laser Assisted Photoelectric Effect and Femtosecond High Order Harmonic Radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
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G.I. Haham, P. Sidorenko, O. Lahav, and O. Cohen, “Multiplexed FROG,” Opt. Express 25, 33007–33017 (2017).
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P. Sidorenko, O. Lahav, Z. Avnat, and Oren Cohen, “Ptychographic reconstruction algorithm for frequency-resolved optical gating: super-resolution and supreme robustness,” Optica 2, 1320–1330 (2016).
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J. Schnadt, P. A. Brühwiler, L. Patthey, J. N. O’Shea, S. Sodergren, M. Odelius, R. Ahuja, O. Karis, M. Bassler, P. Persson, H. Siegbahn, S. Lunell, and N. Martensson, “Experimental evidence for sub-3-fs charge transfer from an aromatic adsorbate to a semiconductor,” Nature 418, 620–623 (2002).
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B. Erk, R. Boll, S. Trippel, D. Anielski, L. Foucar, B. Rudek, S. W. Epp, R. Coffee, S. Carron, S. Schorb, K. R. Ferguson, M. Swiggers, J. D. Bozek, M. Simon, T. Marchenko, J. Küpper, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, C. Bostedt, D. Rolles, and A. Rudenko, “Imaging charge transfer in iodomethane upon x-ray photoabsorption,” Science 345, 288–291 (2014).
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J. Schnadt, P. A. Brühwiler, L. Patthey, J. N. O’Shea, S. Sodergren, M. Odelius, R. Ahuja, O. Karis, M. Bassler, P. Persson, H. Siegbahn, S. Lunell, and N. Martensson, “Experimental evidence for sub-3-fs charge transfer from an aromatic adsorbate to a semiconductor,” Nature 418, 620–623 (2002).
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Spielmann, Ch.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
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Stagira, S.

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys 49, 062001 (2016).
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L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett. 117, 2897–2899 (2007).
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Steinmeyer, G.

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
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Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
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B. Erk, R. Boll, S. Trippel, D. Anielski, L. Foucar, B. Rudek, S. W. Epp, R. Coffee, S. Carron, S. Schorb, K. R. Ferguson, M. Swiggers, J. D. Bozek, M. Simon, T. Marchenko, J. Küpper, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, C. Bostedt, D. Rolles, and A. Rudenko, “Imaging charge transfer in iodomethane upon x-ray photoabsorption,” Science 345, 288–291 (2014).
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Tehlar, A.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
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B. Frietsch, R. Carley, K. Döbrich, C. Gahl, M. Teichmann, O. Schwarzkopf, Ph. Wernet, and M. Weinelt, “A high-order harmonic generation apparatus for time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 075106 (2013).
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Ullrich, J.

B. Erk, R. Boll, S. Trippel, D. Anielski, L. Foucar, B. Rudek, S. W. Epp, R. Coffee, S. Carron, S. Schorb, K. R. Ferguson, M. Swiggers, J. D. Bozek, M. Simon, T. Marchenko, J. Küpper, I. Schlichting, J. Ullrich, C. Bostedt, D. Rolles, and A. Rudenko, “Imaging charge transfer in iodomethane upon x-ray photoabsorption,” Science 345, 288–291 (2014).
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Villoresi, P.

L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, and P. Villoresi, “Ultrafast Grating Instruments in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 467–478 (2012).
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M. Mero, F. Frassetto, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, and K. Varjú, “Compression methods for XUV attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 23420–23428 (2011).
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F. Frassetto, C. Cacho, C.A. Froud, I.C.E. Turcu, P. Villoresi, W.A. Bryan, E. Springate, and L. Poletto, “Single-grating monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 19169–19181 (2011).
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L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, F. Ferrari, M. Lucchini, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 123109 (2009).
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F. Frassetto, P. Villoresi, and L. Poletto, “Optical concept of a compressor for XUV pulses in the attosecond domain,” Opt. Express 16, 6652–6667 (2008).
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L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett. 117, 2897–2899 (2007).
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Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
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von der Linde, D.

Vos, J.

L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Comparison of attosecond streaking and RABBITT,” Opt. Express 25, 29060–29076 (2016).
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F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys 49, 062001 (2016).
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Vrakking, M. J.J.

M. Eckstein, C. Yang, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Direct Imaging of Transient Fano Resonances in N2 Using Time-, Energy-, and Angular-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 163003 (2016).
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M. Eckstein, C. Yang, M. Kubin, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, H Ritze, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Dynamics of N2 Dissociation upon Inner-Valence Ionization by Wavelength-Selected XUV Pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 419–425 (2015).
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Walmsley, I.A.

Weinelt, M.

B. Frietsch, R. Carley, K. Döbrich, C. Gahl, M. Teichmann, O. Schwarzkopf, Ph. Wernet, and M. Weinelt, “A high-order harmonic generation apparatus for time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 075106 (2013).
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Wernet, Ph.

B. Frietsch, R. Carley, K. Döbrich, C. Gahl, M. Teichmann, O. Schwarzkopf, Ph. Wernet, and M. Weinelt, “A high-order harmonic generation apparatus for time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 075106 (2013).
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Witting, T.

Wobrauschek, P.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of Coherent X-rays in the Water Window Using 5-Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
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Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
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Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
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M. Eckstein, C. Yang, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Direct Imaging of Transient Fano Resonances in N2 Using Time-, Energy-, and Angular-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 163003 (2016).
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M. Eckstein, C. Yang, M. Kubin, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, H Ritze, M. J.J. Vrakking, and O. Kornilov, “Dynamics of N2 Dissociation upon Inner-Valence Ionization by Wavelength-Selected XUV Pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 419–425 (2015).
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J. Ojeda, C.A. Arrell, J. Grilj, F. Frassetto, L. Mewes, H. Zhang, F. van Mourik, L. Poletto, and M. Chergui, “Harmonium: A pulse preserving source of monochromatic extreme ultraviolet (30–110 eV) radiation for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 023602 (2016).
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Appl. Phys. B (3)

J. Gagnon and Y. S. Yakovlev, “The direct evaluation of attosecond chirp from a streaking measurement,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 303–309 (2011).
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M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) RABBITT-like spectrogram obtained with the full harmonic comb. (b), (c) Single harmonic spectrograms corresponding to HH25, calculated assuming IIR = 1011 and 1012 W/cm2, respectively. Calculation parameters: temporal duration of each attosecond pulse in the train: 350 as; temporal duration of the APT: 5 fs; temporal duration of the IR pulse: τIR = 10 fs. Both IR and XUV pulses are assumed to be transform limited. Ionization from Ar.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Effect of the IR and XUV spectral chirp on the HH spectrogram. (a) Spectrogram of HH25 for transform limited (TL) radiation. Same spectrogram for TL XUV pulse and an IR chirp of 40 fs2 (b), XUV chirp of −20 fs2 and TL IR pulse (c), both XUV and IR chirped pulses with chirp of −20 fs2 (d). The dashed blue and orange lines show the evolution of the SB center as a function of pump-probe delay. The thin grey lines in (d) show the tilt extracted from (c). Other calculation parameters: τHH = 5 fs, τIR = 10 fs, IIR = 1011 W/cm2, ionization from Ar.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Example of FROG-CRAB reconstruction with the PCGPA and LSGPA algorithms. The first column presents the simulation results using the same parameters as in the third row of Fig. 4: τHH = 7.5 fs, τIR = 15 fs, D 2 H H = 20 fs 2, D 2 IR = 60 fs 2, IIR = 1011 W/cm2. From top to bottom the panels display: spectrogram, IR temporal behaviour (red curve), HH25 temporal profile (violet curve) and HH25 spectral amplitude (solid black curve) and phase (dashed grey curve). The second and third columns report the same quantities as retrieved by a PCGPA, LSGPA based FROG CRAB, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Examples of ePIE reconstruction. The first two columns show the simulated and reconstructed spectrograms. The third column displays the simulated (solid lines) and reconstructed (circles) XUV spectral amplitude and phase. The last column on the right shows the simulated (solid red) and reconstructed (dashed light blue) IR electric field. The spectrogram in the first row is obtained with TL pulses. In the second row D 2 H H = 20 fs 2and D 2 IR = 0 fs 2. In the third and fourth rows D 2 H H = 20 fs 2 and D 2 IR = 60 fs 2. For the first three rows the IR intensity is 1011 W/cm2 while for the last row it is 1012 W/cm2. The IR time duration is τIR = 15 fs while the τHH = 7.5 fs in all the simulations. The input traces are sampled with a delay step size of 2 fs and the reconstruction runs over 2000 iterations.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Application of ePIE to experimental HH spectrograms. (a) Spectrogram of HH19 measured in Ar and scanning the pump-probe delay with a step of 1 fs. (b) ePIE reconstruction (2000 iterations with 2-fs delay step size as in Fig. 4). (c) Reconstructed spectral intensity (black squares) and phase (blue circles). The green solid line shows the harmonic photon spectrum as measured by the XUV spectrometer. The red solid curve represents the polynomial (5th order) fit used to extract D 2 H H. (d) Corresponding harmonic intensity showing a duration below 10 fs. (e)–(h) Equivalent figures for HH27 ionizing Ne. Due to the smaller residual chirp, shorter XUV pulses can be obtained at higher frequencies.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison between SFA and simple model. (a) HH spectrogram simulated with the SFA model of Eq. (1) for HH 25 in Ar. We have assumed: τIR = 10 fs, τHH = 5 fs, D 2 H H = 10 fs 2 and D 2 IR = 20 fs 2, IIR = 1011 W/cm2. (b) SB signal, S(ω, τ), obtained with the simple model of Eq. (5) for the same parameters as in (a). (c)–(f) Upper (SB+) and lower (SB) sideband tilt, m, extracted from the calculated spectrograms as a function of XUV chirp for D 2 IR equal to: (c) 0 fs2, (d) −4 fs2, (e) −10 fs2, (f) −20 fs2. In (e) the thicker lines show the tilt for an opposite IR chirp of 10 fs2. (g)–(l), SB width corresponding to (c)–(f).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Evolution of the SB tilt m and width τSB as a function of the pulse parameters as extracted from the simple model of Eq. (5). (a) m as a function of D 2 H H for different values of τIR (τHH = 5 fs and D 2 IR = 0). (b) m as a function of D 2 H H for different values of τHH (τIR = 10 fs and D 2 IR = 0). (c),(d) τSB as a function of D 2 H H for the same calculation parameters as in (a) and (b), respectively. (e) τSB as a function of D 2 H H for fix values of τHH = 5 fs and τIR = 10 fs, but different values of D 2 IR. In (c)–(e) the solid black and red curves with no markers show the SB width obtained with the cross-correlation formula of Eq. (8). IIR = 1011 W/cm2 has been used in all the calculations. The red squares in (d) mark τSB reconstructed with ePIE for two showcases with short and long XUV TL time duration. As it is possible to observe ePIE correctly reconstructs τSB also when the cross-correlation formula fails (τHH = 3 fs).

Equations (8)

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S ( p , τ ) = | d t E XUV ( t ) d ( p + A IR ( t τ ) ) e i ϕ ( t τ ) e i ( p 2 2 + I p ) t | 2 ,
ϕ ( t ) = t d t ( p A IR ( t ) A IR 2 ( t ) 2 ) .
E ^ H H ( ω ) = 1 2 2 π σ H H e σ H H 2 2 ( ω ω H H ) 2 e i φ H H ( ω )
E ^ IR ( ω ) = 1 2 2 π σ IR e σ IR 2 2 ( ω ω IR ) 2 e i φ IR ( ω )
SB ( ω , τ ) = | E H H ( t ) E IR ( t τ ) e i ω t d t | 2 ,
SB ( ω , τ ) = | E H H ( t ) E IR ( t τ ) e i ( ω ω + ) t d t | 2 ,
SB ( ω = ω + , τ ) = SB + ( τ ) = | E H H ( t ) E IR ( t τ ) d t | 2 .
τ j = τ j 1 + ( 8 log ( 2 ) D 2 j τ j 2 ) 2 .

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