Abstract

We report on the Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of a molecular transition at 3.3 THz based on a quantum-cascade laser and an absorption cell in a collinear pump-probe configuration. A Lamb dip with a sub-Doppler linewidth of 170 kHz is observed for a rotational transition of HDO. We found that a certain level of external optical feedback is tolerable as long as the free spectral range of the external cavity is large compared to the width of the absorption line.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 525–528 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz local oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 539–545 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Rezac, P. Hartogh, R. Güsten, H. Wiesemeyer, H.-W. Hübers, C. Jarchow, H. Richter, B. Klein, and N. Honingh, “First detection of the 63 µ m atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA,” Astron. Astrophys. 580, L10 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Remillard, D. Uy, W. Weber, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Hutchinson, D. Sivco, J. Baillargeon, and A. Cho, “Sub-Doppler resolution limited Lamb-dip spectroscopy of NO with a quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” Opt. Express 7, 243–248 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. N. Mukherjee, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Linewidth measurement of external grating cavity quantum cascade laser using saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111116 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Bartalini, S. Borri, and P. De Natale, “Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser at 4.3 µ m,” Opt. Express 17, 7440–7449 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. J. Walker, J. Kirkbride, J. H. van Helden, D. Weidmann, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy with an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 159–167 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Cazzoli and C. Puzzarini, “Sub-Doppler resolution in the THz frequency domain: 1 kHz accuracy at 1 THz by exploiting the Lamb-dip technique,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13759–13766 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. L. Consolino, A. Campa, M. Ravaro, D. Mazzotti, M. S. Vitiello, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “Saturated absorption in a rotational molecular transition at 2.5 THz using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021108 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45, 1030–1031 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. Demtröder, Laser spectroscopy, vol. 2 (Springer, 2008).
  17. V. S. Letokhov and V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear laser spectroscopy (Springer, 1977).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071112 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. van Marrewijk, B. Mirzaei, D. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking and monitoring based on bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36, 1210–1220 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne spectroscopy of frequency instabilities in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers induced by optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1800306 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347–355 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne spectroscopy of frequency instabilities in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers induced by optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1800306 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

L. Rezac, P. Hartogh, R. Güsten, H. Wiesemeyer, H.-W. Hübers, C. Jarchow, H. Richter, B. Klein, and N. Honingh, “First detection of the 63 µ m atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA,” Astron. Astrophys. 580, L10 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. van Marrewijk, B. Mirzaei, D. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking and monitoring based on bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36, 1210–1220 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz local oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Consolino, A. Campa, M. Ravaro, D. Mazzotti, M. S. Vitiello, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “Saturated absorption in a rotational molecular transition at 2.5 THz using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021108 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

R. J. Walker, J. Kirkbride, J. H. van Helden, D. Weidmann, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy with an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 159–167 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Cazzoli and C. Puzzarini, “Sub-Doppler resolution in the THz frequency domain: 1 kHz accuracy at 1 THz by exploiting the Lamb-dip technique,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13759–13766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45, 1030–1031 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, and P. De Natale, “Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser at 4.3 µ m,” Opt. Express 17, 7440–7449 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. Mukherjee, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Linewidth measurement of external grating cavity quantum cascade laser using saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111116 (2008).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347–355 (1980).
[Crossref]

Anders, W.

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45, 1030–1031 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baillargeon, J.

Bartalini, S.

L. Consolino, A. Campa, M. Ravaro, D. Mazzotti, M. S. Vitiello, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “Saturated absorption in a rotational molecular transition at 2.5 THz using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021108 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, and P. De Natale, “Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser at 4.3 µ m,” Opt. Express 17, 7440–7449 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beere, H. E.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bertling, K.

Biermann, K.

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne spectroscopy of frequency instabilities in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers induced by optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1800306 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz local oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borri, S.

Büchel, D.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Campa, A.

L. Consolino, A. Campa, M. Ravaro, D. Mazzotti, M. S. Vitiello, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “Saturated absorption in a rotational molecular transition at 2.5 THz using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

Cazzoli, G.

G. Cazzoli and C. Puzzarini, “Sub-Doppler resolution in the THz frequency domain: 1 kHz accuracy at 1 THz by exploiting the Lamb-dip technique,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13759–13766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, G.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chebotayev, V. P.

V. S. Letokhov and V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear laser spectroscopy (Springer, 1977).
[Crossref]

Cho, A.

Cohen, E. A.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
[Crossref]

Consolino, L.

L. Consolino, A. Campa, M. Ravaro, D. Mazzotti, M. S. Vitiello, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “Saturated absorption in a rotational molecular transition at 2.5 THz using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021108 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

De Natale, P.

L. Consolino, A. Campa, M. Ravaro, D. Mazzotti, M. S. Vitiello, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “Saturated absorption in a rotational molecular transition at 2.5 THz using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021108 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, and P. De Natale, “Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser at 4.3 µ m,” Opt. Express 17, 7440–7449 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dean, P.

Delitsky, M. L.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
[Crossref]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser spectroscopy, vol. 2 (Springer, 2008).

Drouin, B. J.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eichholz, R.

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne spectroscopy of frequency instabilities in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers induced by optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1800306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fusco, P.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, J. R.

N. van Marrewijk, B. Mirzaei, D. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking and monitoring based on bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36, 1210–1220 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giehler, M.

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45, 1030–1031 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gill, J. J.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C.

Go, R.

N. Mukherjee, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Linewidth measurement of external grating cavity quantum cascade laser using saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goldsmith, P. F.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Graf, U. U.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grahn, H. T.

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne spectroscopy of frequency instabilities in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers induced by optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1800306 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz local oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45, 1030–1031 (2009).
[Crossref]

Güsten, R.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Rezac, P. Hartogh, R. Güsten, H. Wiesemeyer, H.-W. Hübers, C. Jarchow, H. Richter, B. Klein, and N. Honingh, “First detection of the 63 µ m atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA,” Astron. Astrophys. 580, L10 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hagelschuer, T.

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Harrison, P.

Hartogh, P.

L. Rezac, P. Hartogh, R. Güsten, H. Wiesemeyer, H.-W. Hübers, C. Jarchow, H. Richter, B. Klein, and N. Honingh, “First detection of the 63 µ m atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA,” Astron. Astrophys. 580, L10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hayton, D.

N. van Marrewijk, B. Mirzaei, D. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking and monitoring based on bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36, 1210–1220 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hayton, D. J.

J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hey, R.

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45, 1030–1031 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heyminck, S.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Honingh, C. E.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Honingh, N.

L. Rezac, P. Hartogh, R. Güsten, H. Wiesemeyer, H.-W. Hübers, C. Jarchow, H. Richter, B. Klein, and N. Honingh, “First detection of the 63 µ m atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA,” Astron. Astrophys. 580, L10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hovenier, J. N.

J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

N. van Marrewijk, B. Mirzaei, D. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking and monitoring based on bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36, 1210–1220 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hübers, H. W.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hübers, H.-W.

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne spectroscopy of frequency instabilities in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers induced by optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1800306 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Rezac, P. Hartogh, R. Güsten, H. Wiesemeyer, H.-W. Hübers, C. Jarchow, H. Richter, B. Klein, and N. Honingh, “First detection of the 63 µ m atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA,” Astron. Astrophys. 580, L10 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz local oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hutchinson, A.

Ikonic, Z.

Indjin, D.

Inguscio, M.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 525–528 (2012).
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Jacobs, K.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jarchow, C.

L. Rezac, P. Hartogh, R. Güsten, H. Wiesemeyer, H.-W. Hübers, C. Jarchow, H. Richter, B. Klein, and N. Honingh, “First detection of the 63 µ m atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA,” Astron. Astrophys. 580, L10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kao, T. Y.

N. van Marrewijk, B. Mirzaei, D. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking and monitoring based on bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36, 1210–1220 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
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Kirkbride, J.

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J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Klein, B.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Rezac, P. Hartogh, R. Güsten, H. Wiesemeyer, H.-W. Hübers, C. Jarchow, H. Richter, B. Klein, and N. Honingh, “First detection of the 63 µ m atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA,” Astron. Astrophys. 580, L10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Klein, T.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kloosterman, J. L.

J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
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Lang, R.

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C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
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V. S. Letokhov and V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear laser spectroscopy (Springer, 1977).
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Lin, R. H.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
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Linfield, E. H.

Maestrini, A.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
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Mahler, L.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071112 (2010).
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Maiwald, F. W.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
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Mazzotti, D.

L. Consolino, A. Campa, M. Ravaro, D. Mazzotti, M. S. Vitiello, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “Saturated absorption in a rotational molecular transition at 2.5 THz using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021108 (2015).
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Mehdi, I.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
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Mirzaei, B.

N. van Marrewijk, B. Mirzaei, D. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking and monitoring based on bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36, 1210–1220 (2015).
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H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
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Patel, C. K. N.

N. Mukherjee, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Linewidth measurement of external grating cavity quantum cascade laser using saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111116 (2008).
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Pavlov, S. G.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071112 (2010).
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Pearson, J. C.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
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H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
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Pickett, H. M.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
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Poynter, R. L.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
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Pütz, P.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
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Puzzarini, C.

G. Cazzoli and C. Puzzarini, “Sub-Doppler resolution in the THz frequency domain: 1 kHz accuracy at 1 THz by exploiting the Lamb-dip technique,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13759–13766 (2013).
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Rakic, A. D.

Ravaro, M.

L. Consolino, A. Campa, M. Ravaro, D. Mazzotti, M. S. Vitiello, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “Saturated absorption in a rotational molecular transition at 2.5 THz using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Remillard, J.

Ren, Y.

J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reno, J. L.

N. van Marrewijk, B. Mirzaei, D. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking and monitoring based on bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36, 1210–1220 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reyes, N.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rezac, L.

L. Rezac, P. Hartogh, R. Güsten, H. Wiesemeyer, H.-W. Hübers, C. Jarchow, H. Richter, B. Klein, and N. Honingh, “First detection of the 63 µ m atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA,” Astron. Astrophys. 580, L10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Richter, H.

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne spectroscopy of frequency instabilities in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers induced by optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1800306 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Rezac, P. Hartogh, R. Güsten, H. Wiesemeyer, H.-W. Hübers, C. Jarchow, H. Richter, B. Klein, and N. Honingh, “First detection of the 63 µ m atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA,” Astron. Astrophys. 580, L10 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz local oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ricken, O.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Risacher, C.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, G. A. D.

R. J. Walker, J. Kirkbride, J. H. van Helden, D. Weidmann, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy with an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 159–167 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rosner, S.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rothbart, N.

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schlecht, E.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schrottke, L.

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne spectroscopy of frequency instabilities in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers induced by optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1800306 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz local oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45, 1030–1031 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schultz, M.

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Semenov, A. D.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Siegel, P.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sivco, D.

Stutzki, J.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Taimre, T.

Taschin, A.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thomas, B.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Uy, D.

Valavanis, A.

van Helden, J. H.

R. J. Walker, J. Kirkbride, J. H. van Helden, D. Weidmann, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy with an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 159–167 (2013).
[Crossref]

van Marrewijk, N.

N. van Marrewijk, B. Mirzaei, D. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking and monitoring based on bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36, 1210–1220 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vitiello, M. S.

L. Consolino, A. Campa, M. Ravaro, D. Mazzotti, M. S. Vitiello, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “Saturated absorption in a rotational molecular transition at 2.5 THz using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021108 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

Walker, C. K.

J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
[Crossref]

Walker, R. J.

R. J. Walker, J. Kirkbride, J. H. van Helden, D. Weidmann, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy with an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 159–167 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ward, J.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weber, W.

Weidmann, D.

R. J. Walker, J. Kirkbride, J. H. van Helden, D. Weidmann, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy with an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 159–167 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wienold, M.

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne spectroscopy of frequency instabilities in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers induced by optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1800306 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz local oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45, 1030–1031 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wiesemeyer, H.

L. Rezac, P. Hartogh, R. Güsten, H. Wiesemeyer, H.-W. Hübers, C. Jarchow, H. Richter, B. Klein, and N. Honingh, “First detection of the 63 µ m atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA,” Astron. Astrophys. 580, L10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wilson, S. J.

Wunsch, H. J.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. J. Walker, J. Kirkbride, J. H. van Helden, D. Weidmann, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy with an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 112, 159–167 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

L. Consolino, A. Campa, M. Ravaro, D. Mazzotti, M. S. Vitiello, S. Bartalini, and P. De Natale, “Saturated absorption in a rotational molecular transition at 2.5 THz using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 021108 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Kloosterman, D. J. Hayton, Y. Ren, T. Y. Kao, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, Q. Hu, C. K. Walker, and J. L. Reno, “Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011123 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Mukherjee, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Linewidth measurement of external grating cavity quantum cascade laser using saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111116 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071112 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

L. Rezac, P. Hartogh, R. Güsten, H. Wiesemeyer, H.-W. Hübers, C. Jarchow, H. Richter, B. Klein, and N. Honingh, “First detection of the 63 µ m atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA,” Astron. Astrophys. 580, L10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45, 1030–1031 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347–355 (1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H.-W. Hübers, H. Richter, R. Eichholz, M. Wienold, K. Biermann, L. Schrottke, and H. T. Grahn, “Heterodyne spectroscopy of frequency instabilities in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers induced by optical feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1800306 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (3)

H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “4.7-THz local oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer on SOFIA,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 539–545 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Büchel, P. Pütz, K. Jacobs, M. Schultz, U. U. Graf, C. Risacher, H. Richter, O. Ricken, H.-W. Hübers, R. Güsten, C. E. Honingh, and J. Stutzki, “4.7-THz superconducting hot electron bolometer waveguide mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 207–214 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (1)

N. van Marrewijk, B. Mirzaei, D. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking and monitoring based on bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 36, 1210–1220 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

G. Cazzoli and C. Puzzarini, “Sub-Doppler resolution in the THz frequency domain: 1 kHz accuracy at 1 THz by exploiting the Lamb-dip technique,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13759–13766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, and H. S. P. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6, 525–528 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. C. Pearson, B. J. Drouin, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, J. Ward, R. H. Lin, S. Yu, J. J. Gill, B. Thomas, C. Lee, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, F. W. Maiwald, P. F. Goldsmith, and P. Siegel, “Demonstration of a room temperature 2.48–2.75 THz coherent spectroscopy source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 093105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

W. Demtröder, Laser spectroscopy, vol. 2 (Springer, 2008).

V. S. Letokhov and V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear laser spectroscopy (Springer, 1977).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematics of the setup for linear absorption spectroscopy and saturation measurements. M1: off-axis parabolic mirror; p: pressure gauge; A1, A2: attenuators. (b) Normalized absorption coefficient α/α0 as a function of the normalized pump intensity Ipump/I0 for different values of the total pressure. The solid lines refer to a fit to Eq. (1) with the following parameters: α0 = 7.4 × 10−4 cm−1 and Is/I0 = 0.23 for 2.5 µbar; α0 = 3.9×10−3 cm−1 and Is/I0 = 0.53 for 10 µbar; α0 = 2.2 × 10−2 cm−1 and Is/I0 = 2.1 for 60 µbar. (c) Intensity profile of the QCL at the beam waist position. The solid lines refer to a central cut in the horizontal direction (black) and the corresponding fit to a Gaussian distribution (white).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Setup for Doppler-free spectroscopy. WGP: wire grid polarizer, λ/4: quarter-wave plate. (b)–(d) Lower panels: normalized absorption signal for different intensities of the pump beam as a function of the driving current for a total pressure of 2.5 µbar. Dots refer to the experimental data (averaged over 19 scans with a current scan rate of 1 A/s at 30 K), while the solid lines show results of simulations according to Eqs. (2)(5). The simulation parameters are: S = 4.3, Γ = 170 kHz, γQCL = 700 kHz [γQCL = 800 kHz in (d)]. Upper panels: residuals, i.e. differences between measured and simulated spectra. The relative frequency scale has been assigned according to the Doppler width (FWHM of 9.42 MHz) of the unsaturated transition.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Lamb dip spectroscopy in the presence of optical feedback. The QCL was operated in a Stirling cooler at 35 K. (a) First derivative of the measured QCL voltage (single scan, 2A/s) and (b) measured detector signal after baseline subtraction as a function of the driving current. (c) Simulated derivative of the self-mixing voltage component and (d) simulated frequency shift in the presence of optical feedback as a function of the driving current. The simulation parameters are C = 0.95 for the feedback parameter and αLEF = −0.2 for the linewidth enhancement factor.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α = α 0 ( 1 + I pump / I s ) ,
α = α 0 ( 1 S 2 ( Γ / 2 ) 2 ( ν ν 0 ) 2 + ( Γ / 2 ) 2 ) .
S S ˜ = 2 S 1 + S + 1 + S ,
Γ Γ ˜ = Γ 2 ( 1 + 1 + S ) .
α eff ( ν ) = ( α * I ) ( ν ) .

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