Abstract

We present one-step method of fabricating hierarchical multiscale grating patterns by using holographic lithography on azobenzene thin films. In this study, we investigate the growth behavior of surface relief gratings in terms of surface morphology change regarding various optical conditions of different fringe visibility, exposure dose and polarization modes of the light interference pattern. The results reveal that different-sized diffractive gratings could be fabricated orthogonally at the same time. We also explain that these orthogonal gratings were developed through the different light-induced deformation mechanism.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. A. Priimagi and A. Shevchenko, “Azopolymer-based micro- and nanopatterning for photonic applications,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 163–182 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Sobolewska, J. Zawada, and S. Bartkiewicz, “Biphotonic photochromic reaction results in an increase in the efficiency of the holographic recording process in an azo polymer,” Langmuir 30(1), 17–21 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. F. Pirani, A. Angelini, S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, and E. Descrovi, “Laser-induced anisotropic wettability on azopolymeric micro-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 101603 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Pirani, A. Angelini, F. Frascella, R. Rizzo, S. Ricciardi, and E. Descrovi, “Light-driven reversible shaping of individual azopolymeric micro-pillars,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31702 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. Zong, Y. Zhao, H. Ji, X. Han, J. Xie, J. Wang, Y. Cao, S. Jiang, and C. Lu, “Tuning and erasing surface wrinkles by reversible visible‐light‐induced photoisomerization,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(12), 3931–3935 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Lee, H. S. Kang, A. Ambrosio, J. K. Park, and L. Marrucci, “Directional superficial photofluidization for deterministic shaping of complex 3d architectures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 8209–8217 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Sekkat and S. Kawata, “Laser nanofabrication in photoresists and azopolymers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 1–26 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. O. M. Tanchak and C. J. Barrett, “Light-induced reversible volume changes in thin ilms of azo polymers: the photomechanical effect,” Macromolecules 38(25), 10566–10570 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. Liu, C. W. Bastiaansen, J. M. den Toonder, and D. J. Broer, “Photo-switchable surface topologies in chiral nematic coatings,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(4), 892–896 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. M. Harrison, D. Goldbaum, T. C. Corkery, C. J. Barrett, and R. R. Chromik, “Nanoindentation studies to separate thermal and optical effects in photo-softening of azo polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(5), 995–1003 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. V. Teboul, R. Barillé, P. Tajalli, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, H. Tajalli, S. Zielinska, and E. Ortyl, “Light mediated emergence of surface patterns in azopolymers at low temperatures,” Soft Matter 11(32), 6444–6449 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, “From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field,” Nat. Mater. 4(9), 699–703 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Sobolewska and S. Bartkiewicz, “Single beam test (SBT) as a criterion for the resolution of holographic recording,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(22), 5616–5620 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Ambrosio, S. Girardo, A. Camposeo, D. Pisignano, and P. Maddalena, “Controlling spontaneous surface structuring of azobenzene-containing polymers for large-scale nano-lithography of functional substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 729 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, “One step inscription of surface relief microgratings,” Opt. Commun. 280(1), 217–220 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  19. L. Mazaheri, O. Lebel, and J. M. Nunzi, “Transfer of chirality from light to a Disperse Red 1 molecular glass surface,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4845–4848 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Z. Sekkat, “Optical tweezing by photomigration,” Appl. Opt. 55(2), 259–268 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Priimagi, “High-modulation-depth surface relief gratings using S–S polarization configuration in supramolecular polymer–azobenzene complexes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(40), 23279–23284 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  23. O. Kulikovska, K. Gharagozloo-Hubmann, J. Stumpe, B. D. Huey, and V. N. Bliznyuk, “Formation of surface relief grating in polymers with pendant azobenzene chromophores as studied by AFM/UFM,” Nanotechnology 23(48), 485309 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. T. B. Lim, K. H. Cho, Y. H. Kim, and Y. C. Jeong, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with quasiperiodic diffraction grating layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17950–17959 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. M. Guo, Z. Xu, and X. Wang, “Photofabrication of two-dimensional quasi-crystal patterns on UV-curable molecular azo glass films,” Langmuir 24(6), 2740–2745 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. R. Wei, Z. Xu, and X. Wang, “Epoxy-based azo polymer for photofabricating surface-relief quasi-crystal structures,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(6), 1348–1355 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. Lee, Y. C. Jeong, and J. K. Park, “Unusual surface reliefs from photoinduced creeping and aggregation behavior of azopolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031912 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Lee, J. Shin, H. S. Kang, Y. H. Lee, and J. K. Park, “Deterministic nanotexturing by directional photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3244–3250 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. K. H. Kim and Y. C. Jeong, “Nanoindentation study of optically patterned surface relief grating of azobenzene polymers,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25242–25249 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. D. Quéré, “Wetting and roughness,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38(1), 71–99 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, and E. Descrovi, “Laser-induced anisotropic wettability on azopolymeric micro-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 101603 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Mazaheri, O. Lebel, and J. M. Nunzi, “Transfer of chirality from light to a Disperse Red 1 molecular glass surface,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4845–4848 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

Z. Sekkat, “Optical tweezing by photomigration,” Appl. Opt. 55(2), 259–268 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, F. Frascella, R. Rizzo, S. Ricciardi, and E. Descrovi, “Light-driven reversible shaping of individual azopolymeric micro-pillars,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zong, Y. Zhao, H. Ji, X. Han, J. Xie, J. Wang, Y. Cao, S. Jiang, and C. Lu, “Tuning and erasing surface wrinkles by reversible visible‐light‐induced photoisomerization,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(12), 3931–3935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. B. Lim, K. H. Cho, Y. H. Kim, and Y. C. Jeong, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with quasiperiodic diffraction grating layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17950–17959 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim and Y. C. Jeong, “Nanoindentation study of optically patterned surface relief grating of azobenzene polymers,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25242–25249 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

R. Wei, Z. Xu, and X. Wang, “Epoxy-based azo polymer for photofabricating surface-relief quasi-crystal structures,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(6), 1348–1355 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Harrison, D. Goldbaum, T. C. Corkery, C. J. Barrett, and R. R. Chromik, “Nanoindentation studies to separate thermal and optical effects in photo-softening of azo polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(5), 995–1003 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Teboul, R. Barillé, P. Tajalli, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, H. Tajalli, S. Zielinska, and E. Ortyl, “Light mediated emergence of surface patterns in azopolymers at low temperatures,” Soft Matter 11(32), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, A. Ambrosio, J. K. Park, and L. Marrucci, “Directional superficial photofluidization for deterministic shaping of complex 3d architectures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 8209–8217 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Sobolewska and S. Bartkiewicz, “Single beam test (SBT) as a criterion for the resolution of holographic recording,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(22), 5616–5620 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Priimagi, “High-modulation-depth surface relief gratings using S–S polarization configuration in supramolecular polymer–azobenzene complexes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(40), 23279–23284 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Sekkat and S. Kawata, “Laser nanofabrication in photoresists and azopolymers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 1–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Priimagi and A. Shevchenko, “Azopolymer-based micro- and nanopatterning for photonic applications,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 163–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Sobolewska, J. Zawada, and S. Bartkiewicz, “Biphotonic photochromic reaction results in an increase in the efficiency of the holographic recording process in an azo polymer,” Langmuir 30(1), 17–21 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

A. Ambrosio, S. Girardo, A. Camposeo, D. Pisignano, and P. Maddalena, “Controlling spontaneous surface structuring of azobenzene-containing polymers for large-scale nano-lithography of functional substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

D. Liu, C. W. Bastiaansen, J. M. den Toonder, and D. J. Broer, “Photo-switchable surface topologies in chiral nematic coatings,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(4), 892–896 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Kulikovska, K. Gharagozloo-Hubmann, J. Stumpe, B. D. Huey, and V. N. Bliznyuk, “Formation of surface relief grating in polymers with pendant azobenzene chromophores as studied by AFM/UFM,” Nanotechnology 23(48), 485309 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

S. Lee, J. Shin, H. S. Kang, Y. H. Lee, and J. K. Park, “Deterministic nanotexturing by directional photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3244–3250 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

D. Quéré, “Wetting and roughness,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38(1), 71–99 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, Y. C. Jeong, and J. K. Park, “Unusual surface reliefs from photoinduced creeping and aggregation behavior of azopolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031912 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Guo, Z. Xu, and X. Wang, “Photofabrication of two-dimensional quasi-crystal patterns on UV-curable molecular azo glass films,” Langmuir 24(6), 2740–2745 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, “One step inscription of surface relief microgratings,” Opt. Commun. 280(1), 217–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, “From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field,” Nat. Mater. 4(9), 699–703 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. M. Tanchak and C. J. Barrett, “Light-induced reversible volume changes in thin ilms of azo polymers: the photomechanical effect,” Macromolecules 38(25), 10566–10570 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 729 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ahmadi-Kandjani, S.

V. Teboul, R. Barillé, P. Tajalli, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, H. Tajalli, S. Zielinska, and E. Ortyl, “Light mediated emergence of surface patterns in azopolymers at low temperatures,” Soft Matter 11(32), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, “One step inscription of surface relief microgratings,” Opt. Commun. 280(1), 217–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ambrosio, A.

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, A. Ambrosio, J. K. Park, and L. Marrucci, “Directional superficial photofluidization for deterministic shaping of complex 3d architectures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 8209–8217 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ambrosio, S. Girardo, A. Camposeo, D. Pisignano, and P. Maddalena, “Controlling spontaneous surface structuring of azobenzene-containing polymers for large-scale nano-lithography of functional substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Angelini, A.

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, and E. Descrovi, “Laser-induced anisotropic wettability on azopolymeric micro-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 101603 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, F. Frascella, R. Rizzo, S. Ricciardi, and E. Descrovi, “Light-driven reversible shaping of individual azopolymeric micro-pillars,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barille, R.

R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, “One step inscription of surface relief microgratings,” Opt. Commun. 280(1), 217–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barillé, R.

V. Teboul, R. Barillé, P. Tajalli, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, H. Tajalli, S. Zielinska, and E. Ortyl, “Light mediated emergence of surface patterns in azopolymers at low temperatures,” Soft Matter 11(32), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrett, C. J.

J. M. Harrison, D. Goldbaum, T. C. Corkery, C. J. Barrett, and R. R. Chromik, “Nanoindentation studies to separate thermal and optical effects in photo-softening of azo polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(5), 995–1003 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. M. Tanchak and C. J. Barrett, “Light-induced reversible volume changes in thin ilms of azo polymers: the photomechanical effect,” Macromolecules 38(25), 10566–10570 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bartkiewicz, S.

A. Sobolewska and S. Bartkiewicz, “Single beam test (SBT) as a criterion for the resolution of holographic recording,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(22), 5616–5620 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Priimagi, “High-modulation-depth surface relief gratings using S–S polarization configuration in supramolecular polymer–azobenzene complexes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(40), 23279–23284 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Sobolewska, J. Zawada, and S. Bartkiewicz, “Biphotonic photochromic reaction results in an increase in the efficiency of the holographic recording process in an azo polymer,” Langmuir 30(1), 17–21 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bastiaansen, C. W.

D. Liu, C. W. Bastiaansen, J. M. den Toonder, and D. J. Broer, “Photo-switchable surface topologies in chiral nematic coatings,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(4), 892–896 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beljonne, D.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bliznyuk, V. N.

O. Kulikovska, K. Gharagozloo-Hubmann, J. Stumpe, B. D. Huey, and V. N. Bliznyuk, “Formation of surface relief grating in polymers with pendant azobenzene chromophores as studied by AFM/UFM,” Nanotechnology 23(48), 485309 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brehmer, L.

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, “From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field,” Nat. Mater. 4(9), 699–703 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broer, D. J.

D. Liu, C. W. Bastiaansen, J. M. den Toonder, and D. J. Broer, “Photo-switchable surface topologies in chiral nematic coatings,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(4), 892–896 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruna, M.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camposeo, A.

A. Ambrosio, S. Girardo, A. Camposeo, D. Pisignano, and P. Maddalena, “Controlling spontaneous surface structuring of azobenzene-containing polymers for large-scale nano-lithography of functional substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

C. Zong, Y. Zhao, H. Ji, X. Han, J. Xie, J. Wang, Y. Cao, S. Jiang, and C. Lu, “Tuning and erasing surface wrinkles by reversible visible‐light‐induced photoisomerization,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(12), 3931–3935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, K. H.

Chromik, R. R.

J. M. Harrison, D. Goldbaum, T. C. Corkery, C. J. Barrett, and R. R. Chromik, “Nanoindentation studies to separate thermal and optical effects in photo-softening of azo polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(5), 995–1003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ciesielski, A.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkery, T. C.

J. M. Harrison, D. Goldbaum, T. C. Corkery, C. J. Barrett, and R. R. Chromik, “Nanoindentation studies to separate thermal and optical effects in photo-softening of azo polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(5), 995–1003 (2015).
[Crossref]

De Cola, L.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

den Toonder, J. M.

D. Liu, C. W. Bastiaansen, J. M. den Toonder, and D. J. Broer, “Photo-switchable surface topologies in chiral nematic coatings,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(4), 892–896 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Descrovi, E.

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, and E. Descrovi, “Laser-induced anisotropic wettability on azopolymeric micro-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 101603 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, F. Frascella, R. Rizzo, S. Ricciardi, and E. Descrovi, “Light-driven reversible shaping of individual azopolymeric micro-pillars,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Döbbelin, M.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabbri, F.

L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fafard, M.

L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
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Ferrari, A. C.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
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Fiorini-Debuisschert, C.

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Frascella, F.

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, and E. Descrovi, “Laser-induced anisotropic wettability on azopolymeric micro-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 101603 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, F. Frascella, R. Rizzo, S. Ricciardi, and E. Descrovi, “Light-driven reversible shaping of individual azopolymeric micro-pillars,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31702 (2016).
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L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
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Gacoin, T.

L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
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O. Kulikovska, K. Gharagozloo-Hubmann, J. Stumpe, B. D. Huey, and V. N. Bliznyuk, “Formation of surface relief grating in polymers with pendant azobenzene chromophores as studied by AFM/UFM,” Nanotechnology 23(48), 485309 (2012).
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Giersig, M.

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, “From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field,” Nat. Mater. 4(9), 699–703 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girardo, S.

A. Ambrosio, S. Girardo, A. Camposeo, D. Pisignano, and P. Maddalena, “Controlling spontaneous surface structuring of azobenzene-containing polymers for large-scale nano-lithography of functional substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093102 (2013).
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M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
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M. Guo, Z. Xu, and X. Wang, “Photofabrication of two-dimensional quasi-crystal patterns on UV-curable molecular azo glass films,” Langmuir 24(6), 2740–2745 (2008).
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M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
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Han, X.

C. Zong, Y. Zhao, H. Ji, X. Han, J. Xie, J. Wang, Y. Cao, S. Jiang, and C. Lu, “Tuning and erasing surface wrinkles by reversible visible‐light‐induced photoisomerization,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(12), 3931–3935 (2016).
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J. M. Harrison, D. Goldbaum, T. C. Corkery, C. J. Barrett, and R. R. Chromik, “Nanoindentation studies to separate thermal and optical effects in photo-softening of azo polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(5), 995–1003 (2015).
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Hubert, C.

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huey, B. D.

O. Kulikovska, K. Gharagozloo-Hubmann, J. Stumpe, B. D. Huey, and V. N. Bliznyuk, “Formation of surface relief grating in polymers with pendant azobenzene chromophores as studied by AFM/UFM,” Nanotechnology 23(48), 485309 (2012).
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Jeong, Y. C.

Ji, H.

C. Zong, Y. Zhao, H. Ji, X. Han, J. Xie, J. Wang, Y. Cao, S. Jiang, and C. Lu, “Tuning and erasing surface wrinkles by reversible visible‐light‐induced photoisomerization,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(12), 3931–3935 (2016).
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Jiang, S.

C. Zong, Y. Zhao, H. Ji, X. Han, J. Xie, J. Wang, Y. Cao, S. Jiang, and C. Lu, “Tuning and erasing surface wrinkles by reversible visible‐light‐induced photoisomerization,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(12), 3931–3935 (2016).
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Kang, H. S.

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, A. Ambrosio, J. K. Park, and L. Marrucci, “Directional superficial photofluidization for deterministic shaping of complex 3d architectures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 8209–8217 (2015).
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S. Lee, J. Shin, H. S. Kang, Y. H. Lee, and J. K. Park, “Deterministic nanotexturing by directional photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3244–3250 (2011).
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Karageorgiev, P.

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, “From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field,” Nat. Mater. 4(9), 699–703 (2005).
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Z. Sekkat and S. Kawata, “Laser nanofabrication in photoresists and azopolymers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 1–26 (2014).
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N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
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Kim, K. H.

Kim, Y. H.

Kucharski, S.

R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, “One step inscription of surface relief microgratings,” Opt. Commun. 280(1), 217–220 (2007).
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Kulikovska, O.

O. Kulikovska, K. Gharagozloo-Hubmann, J. Stumpe, B. D. Huey, and V. N. Bliznyuk, “Formation of surface relief grating in polymers with pendant azobenzene chromophores as studied by AFM/UFM,” Nanotechnology 23(48), 485309 (2012).
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Lahlil, K.

L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
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Lassailly, Y.

L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
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Lazzaroni, R.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
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Lebel, O.

Lee, S.

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, A. Ambrosio, J. K. Park, and L. Marrucci, “Directional superficial photofluidization for deterministic shaping of complex 3d architectures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 8209–8217 (2015).
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S. Lee, J. Shin, H. S. Kang, Y. H. Lee, and J. K. Park, “Deterministic nanotexturing by directional photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3244–3250 (2011).
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S. Lee, Y. C. Jeong, and J. K. Park, “Unusual surface reliefs from photoinduced creeping and aggregation behavior of azopolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031912 (2008).
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Lee, Y. H.

S. Lee, J. Shin, H. S. Kang, Y. H. Lee, and J. K. Park, “Deterministic nanotexturing by directional photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3244–3250 (2011).
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Lim, T. B.

Liu, D.

D. Liu, C. W. Bastiaansen, J. M. den Toonder, and D. J. Broer, “Photo-switchable surface topologies in chiral nematic coatings,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(4), 892–896 (2012).
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Lu, C.

C. Zong, Y. Zhao, H. Ji, X. Han, J. Xie, J. Wang, Y. Cao, S. Jiang, and C. Lu, “Tuning and erasing surface wrinkles by reversible visible‐light‐induced photoisomerization,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(12), 3931–3935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maddalena, P.

A. Ambrosio, S. Girardo, A. Camposeo, D. Pisignano, and P. Maddalena, “Controlling spontaneous surface structuring of azobenzene-containing polymers for large-scale nano-lithography of functional substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093102 (2013).
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Marrucci, L.

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, A. Ambrosio, J. K. Park, and L. Marrucci, “Directional superficial photofluidization for deterministic shaping of complex 3d architectures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 8209–8217 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinelli, L.

L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maurin, I.

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mazaheri, L.

Mazzaro, R.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
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Minoia, A.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
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Morandi, V.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
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Mosciatti, T.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neher, D.

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, “From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field,” Nat. Mater. 4(9), 699–703 (2005).
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Nunzi, J. M.

L. Mazaheri, O. Lebel, and J. M. Nunzi, “Transfer of chirality from light to a Disperse Red 1 molecular glass surface,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4845–4848 (2017).
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R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, “One step inscription of surface relief microgratings,” Opt. Commun. 280(1), 217–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ortyl, E.

V. Teboul, R. Barillé, P. Tajalli, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, H. Tajalli, S. Zielinska, and E. Ortyl, “Light mediated emergence of surface patterns in azopolymers at low temperatures,” Soft Matter 11(32), 6444–6449 (2015).
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R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, “One step inscription of surface relief microgratings,” Opt. Commun. 280(1), 217–220 (2007).
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Osella, S.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palermo, V.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. K.

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, A. Ambrosio, J. K. Park, and L. Marrucci, “Directional superficial photofluidization for deterministic shaping of complex 3d architectures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 8209–8217 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, J. Shin, H. S. Kang, Y. H. Lee, and J. K. Park, “Deterministic nanotexturing by directional photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3244–3250 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, Y. C. Jeong, and J. K. Park, “Unusual surface reliefs from photoinduced creeping and aggregation behavior of azopolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031912 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peretti, J.

L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pietsch, U.

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, “From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field,” Nat. Mater. 4(9), 699–703 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pirani, F.

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, and E. Descrovi, “Laser-induced anisotropic wettability on azopolymeric micro-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 101603 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, F. Frascella, R. Rizzo, S. Ricciardi, and E. Descrovi, “Light-driven reversible shaping of individual azopolymeric micro-pillars,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pisignano, D.

A. Ambrosio, S. Girardo, A. Camposeo, D. Pisignano, and P. Maddalena, “Controlling spontaneous surface structuring of azobenzene-containing polymers for large-scale nano-lithography of functional substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prasetyanto, E. A.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
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Priimagi, A.

A. Priimagi and A. Shevchenko, “Azopolymer-based micro- and nanopatterning for photonic applications,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 163–182 (2014).
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A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Priimagi, “High-modulation-depth surface relief gratings using S–S polarization configuration in supramolecular polymer–azobenzene complexes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(40), 23279–23284 (2014).
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D. Quéré, “Wetting and roughness,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38(1), 71–99 (2008).
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Raimond, P.

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ricciardi, S.

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, and E. Descrovi, “Laser-induced anisotropic wettability on azopolymeric micro-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 101603 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, F. Frascella, R. Rizzo, S. Ricciardi, and E. Descrovi, “Light-driven reversible shaping of individual azopolymeric micro-pillars,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richard, F.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rizzo, R.

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, F. Frascella, R. Rizzo, S. Ricciardi, and E. Descrovi, “Light-driven reversible shaping of individual azopolymeric micro-pillars,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samorì, P.

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulz, B.

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, “From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field,” Nat. Mater. 4(9), 699–703 (2005).
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Sekkat, Z.

Z. Sekkat, “Optical tweezing by photomigration,” Appl. Opt. 55(2), 259–268 (2016).
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Z. Sekkat and S. Kawata, “Laser nanofabrication in photoresists and azopolymers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 1–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shevchenko, A.

A. Priimagi and A. Shevchenko, “Azopolymer-based micro- and nanopatterning for photonic applications,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 163–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.

S. Lee, J. Shin, H. S. Kang, Y. H. Lee, and J. K. Park, “Deterministic nanotexturing by directional photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3244–3250 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sobolewska, A.

A. Sobolewska and S. Bartkiewicz, “Single beam test (SBT) as a criterion for the resolution of holographic recording,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(22), 5616–5620 (2015).
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A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Priimagi, “High-modulation-depth surface relief gratings using S–S polarization configuration in supramolecular polymer–azobenzene complexes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(40), 23279–23284 (2014).
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A. Sobolewska, J. Zawada, and S. Bartkiewicz, “Biphotonic photochromic reaction results in an increase in the efficiency of the holographic recording process in an azo polymer,” Langmuir 30(1), 17–21 (2014).
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Sorelli, L.

L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stiller, B.

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, “From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field,” Nat. Mater. 4(9), 699–703 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stumpe, J.

O. Kulikovska, K. Gharagozloo-Hubmann, J. Stumpe, B. D. Huey, and V. N. Bliznyuk, “Formation of surface relief grating in polymers with pendant azobenzene chromophores as studied by AFM/UFM,” Nanotechnology 23(48), 485309 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tajalli, H.

V. Teboul, R. Barillé, P. Tajalli, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, H. Tajalli, S. Zielinska, and E. Ortyl, “Light mediated emergence of surface patterns in azopolymers at low temperatures,” Soft Matter 11(32), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tajalli, P.

V. Teboul, R. Barillé, P. Tajalli, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, H. Tajalli, S. Zielinska, and E. Ortyl, “Light mediated emergence of surface patterns in azopolymers at low temperatures,” Soft Matter 11(32), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanchak, O. M.

O. M. Tanchak and C. J. Barrett, “Light-induced reversible volume changes in thin ilms of azo polymers: the photomechanical effect,” Macromolecules 38(25), 10566–10570 (2005).
[Crossref]

Teboul, V.

V. Teboul, R. Barillé, P. Tajalli, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, H. Tajalli, S. Zielinska, and E. Ortyl, “Light mediated emergence of surface patterns in azopolymers at low temperatures,” Soft Matter 11(32), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tripathy, S.

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Viswanathan, N.

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vu, A. D.

L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

C. Zong, Y. Zhao, H. Ji, X. Han, J. Xie, J. Wang, Y. Cao, S. Jiang, and C. Lu, “Tuning and erasing surface wrinkles by reversible visible‐light‐induced photoisomerization,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(12), 3931–3935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

R. Wei, Z. Xu, and X. Wang, “Epoxy-based azo polymer for photofabricating surface-relief quasi-crystal structures,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(6), 1348–1355 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Guo, Z. Xu, and X. Wang, “Photofabrication of two-dimensional quasi-crystal patterns on UV-curable molecular azo glass films,” Langmuir 24(6), 2740–2745 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, R.

Xie, J.

C. Zong, Y. Zhao, H. Ji, X. Han, J. Xie, J. Wang, Y. Cao, S. Jiang, and C. Lu, “Tuning and erasing surface wrinkles by reversible visible‐light‐induced photoisomerization,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(12), 3931–3935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

R. Wei, Z. Xu, and X. Wang, “Epoxy-based azo polymer for photofabricating surface-relief quasi-crystal structures,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(6), 1348–1355 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Guo, Z. Xu, and X. Wang, “Photofabrication of two-dimensional quasi-crystal patterns on UV-curable molecular azo glass films,” Langmuir 24(6), 2740–2745 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zawada, J.

A. Sobolewska, J. Zawada, and S. Bartkiewicz, “Biphotonic photochromic reaction results in an increase in the efficiency of the holographic recording process in an azo polymer,” Langmuir 30(1), 17–21 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

C. Zong, Y. Zhao, H. Ji, X. Han, J. Xie, J. Wang, Y. Cao, S. Jiang, and C. Lu, “Tuning and erasing surface wrinkles by reversible visible‐light‐induced photoisomerization,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(12), 3931–3935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zielinska, S.

V. Teboul, R. Barillé, P. Tajalli, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, H. Tajalli, S. Zielinska, and E. Ortyl, “Light mediated emergence of surface patterns in azopolymers at low temperatures,” Soft Matter 11(32), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zong, C.

C. Zong, Y. Zhao, H. Ji, X. Han, J. Xie, J. Wang, Y. Cao, S. Jiang, and C. Lu, “Tuning and erasing surface wrinkles by reversible visible‐light‐induced photoisomerization,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(12), 3931–3935 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

S. Lee, H. S. Kang, A. Ambrosio, J. K. Park, and L. Marrucci, “Directional superficial photofluidization for deterministic shaping of complex 3d architectures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 8209–8217 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 729 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, J. Shin, H. S. Kang, Y. H. Lee, and J. K. Park, “Deterministic nanotexturing by directional photofluidization lithography,” Adv. Mater. 23(29), 3244–3250 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (2)

D. Liu, C. W. Bastiaansen, J. M. den Toonder, and D. J. Broer, “Photo-switchable surface topologies in chiral nematic coatings,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(4), 892–896 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zong, Y. Zhao, H. Ji, X. Han, J. Xie, J. Wang, Y. Cao, S. Jiang, and C. Lu, “Tuning and erasing surface wrinkles by reversible visible‐light‐induced photoisomerization,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(12), 3931–3935 (2016).
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Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

D. Quéré, “Wetting and roughness,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38(1), 71–99 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Ambrosio, S. Girardo, A. Camposeo, D. Pisignano, and P. Maddalena, “Controlling spontaneous surface structuring of azobenzene-containing polymers for large-scale nano-lithography of functional substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093102 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, Y. C. Jeong, and J. K. Park, “Unusual surface reliefs from photoinduced creeping and aggregation behavior of azopolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 031912 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, S. Ricciardi, F. Frascella, and E. Descrovi, “Laser-induced anisotropic wettability on azopolymeric micro-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 101603 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (3)

J. M. Harrison, D. Goldbaum, T. C. Corkery, C. J. Barrett, and R. R. Chromik, “Nanoindentation studies to separate thermal and optical effects in photo-softening of azo polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(5), 995–1003 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Sorelli, F. Fabbri, J. Frech-Baronet, A. D. Vu, M. Fafard, T. Gacoin, K. Lahlil, L. Martinelli, Y. Lassailly, and J. Peretti, “A closer look at the light-induced changes in the mechanical properties of azobenzene-containing polymers by statistical nanoindentation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11055–11065 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Sobolewska and S. Bartkiewicz, “Single beam test (SBT) as a criterion for the resolution of holographic recording,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(22), 5616–5620 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

A. Sobolewska, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Priimagi, “High-modulation-depth surface relief gratings using S–S polarization configuration in supramolecular polymer–azobenzene complexes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(40), 23279–23284 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. (1)

A. Priimagi and A. Shevchenko, “Azopolymer-based micro- and nanopatterning for photonic applications,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 163–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (2)

A. Sobolewska, J. Zawada, and S. Bartkiewicz, “Biphotonic photochromic reaction results in an increase in the efficiency of the holographic recording process in an azo polymer,” Langmuir 30(1), 17–21 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guo, Z. Xu, and X. Wang, “Photofabrication of two-dimensional quasi-crystal patterns on UV-curable molecular azo glass films,” Langmuir 24(6), 2740–2745 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

Z. Sekkat and S. Kawata, “Laser nanofabrication in photoresists and azopolymers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 1–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (1)

O. M. Tanchak and C. J. Barrett, “Light-induced reversible volume changes in thin ilms of azo polymers: the photomechanical effect,” Macromolecules 38(25), 10566–10570 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

O. Kulikovska, K. Gharagozloo-Hubmann, J. Stumpe, B. D. Huey, and V. N. Bliznyuk, “Formation of surface relief grating in polymers with pendant azobenzene chromophores as studied by AFM/UFM,” Nanotechnology 23(48), 485309 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

M. Döbbelin, A. Ciesielski, S. Haar, S. Osella, M. Bruna, A. Minoia, L. Grisanti, T. Mosciatti, F. Richard, E. A. Prasetyanto, L. De Cola, V. Palermo, R. Mazzaro, V. Morandi, R. Lazzaroni, A. C. Ferrari, D. Beljonne, and P. Samorì, “Light-enhanced liquid-phase exfoliation and current photoswitching in graphene-azobenzene composites,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11090 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, “From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field,” Nat. Mater. 4(9), 699–703 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, “One step inscription of surface relief microgratings,” Opt. Commun. 280(1), 217–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Sci. Rep. (1)

F. Pirani, A. Angelini, F. Frascella, R. Rizzo, S. Ricciardi, and E. Descrovi, “Light-driven reversible shaping of individual azopolymeric micro-pillars,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soft Matter (1)

V. Teboul, R. Barillé, P. Tajalli, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, H. Tajalli, S. Zielinska, and E. Ortyl, “Light mediated emergence of surface patterns in azopolymers at low temperatures,” Soft Matter 11(32), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Optical apparatus of holographic lithography for the construction of surface relief grating. (b) 2D and 3D AFM images of the resultant surface patterns are shown. Both light polarization and intensity profiles of LIP were presented as arrows below 2D AFM image. Red- and blue-coloured arrows of 2D AFM image indicate the direction of light polarization and k-vector of LIP, respectively. The period of LIP was calculated from Bragg’s equation as shown in the figure. (HW: half wave plate, POL: polarizer, PBS: polarization beam splitter, θ: incident angle to normal direction of azopolymer surface)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The resultant surface topologies of azobenzene thin films are shown as (a)-(e) 2D AFM images and (f)-(j) 3D AFM images with respect to fringe visibility (white scale bar = 1 μm). Note that light intensity profiles of each LIP are illustrated below 2D AFM images. (k) Schematic presentation of light intensities in LIP with respect to surface topology. (l) Schematic illustration of measuring various grating profiles of (1) Surface relief grating, (2) Nanograting at super-trough of LIP, (3) Nanograting super-crest of LIP. (m) Graph of modulation depth results as a function of fringe visibility of sample.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The resultant surface topologies of azobenzene thin films as a function of irradiation time are shown in (a)-(e) 2D AFM images and (f)-(j) 3D AFM images with (k)-(o) corresponding FFT results. Graphs of (p) modulation depth regarding grating types, (q) distribution profiles of grating depth and (r) PSD as a function of irradiation time.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Large scale 2D AFM image of 45 minutes irradiated sample (b-d) Magnified view of AFM image (The red and blue arrow mean the direction of mass transfer of azopolymers along the y- and x-axis, respectively.) (e) Large scale 2D AFM image of 60 minutes irradiated sample
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic illustration of measuring the anisotropic wetting property of hierarchical surface patterns (b, c) Schematic illustration of different water contact properties of Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter state, respectively (d) Graphs of anisotropic water contact angles as a function of irradiation time (e) Pictures of water contact angle of 60 minutes sample
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Schematic illustration of measuring viewing angle of light extraction and (b) the corresponding results (c) Schematic illustration of measuring viewing angle of light acceptance and (d) the corresponding results

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Light intensity and fringe visibility values of corresponding experimental set

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Table 2 Surface properties of photo-inscribed azopolymer surface with respect to exposure doses

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v = I m a x I m i n I m a x + I m i n ( i f v i s 1 , t h e n   t h e   i n t e n s i t y   o f   t w o   b e a m   i s   e q u a l i f v i s 0 , t h e n   o n l y   o n e   b e a m   i s   i r r a d i a t e d )
  I = I 1 + I 2 ± 2 I 1 I 2 ( + s i g n   m e a n s   I m a x s i g n   m e a n s   I m i n , )

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