Abstract

We report a novel center-sunken and cladding-trenched Yb-doped fiber, which was fabricated by a modified chemical vapor deposition process with a solution-doping technique. The simulation results showed that the fiber with a core diameter of 40 µm and a numerical aperture of 0.043 has a 1217 µm2 effective mode area at 1080 nm. It is also disclosed that the leakage loss can be reduced lower than 0.01 dB/m for the LP01 mode, while over 80 dB/m for the LP11 mode by optimizing the bending radius as 14 cm. A 456 W laser output was observed in a MOPA structure. The laser slope efficiency was measured to be 79% and the M2 was less than 1.1, which confirmed the single mode operation of the large mode area center-sunken cladding-trenched Yb-doped fiber.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. J. Nilsson and D. N. Payne, “High-power fiber lasers,” Science 332(6032), 921–922 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, T. Clausnitzer, K. Zöllner, H. Fuchs, E. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power femtosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 10(14), 628–638 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. Selves, J. K. Sahu, L. B. Fu, J. N. Jang, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinin, K. H. Ylä-Jarkko, S. A. Alam, P. W. Turner, and J. Moore, “High-power, low-noise, Yb-doped, cladding-pumped, three-level fiber sources at 980 nm,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1093–1095 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tunnermann, “High-power fiber lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).
  6. D. Jain, Y. Jung, P. Barua, S. Alam, and J. K. Sahu, “Demonstration of ultra-low NA rare-earth doped step index fiber for applications in high power fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7407–7415 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. C. Richardson, M. B. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided iptical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251101 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Dong, H. A. McKay, L. Fu, M. Ohta, A. Marcinkevicius, S. Suzuki, and M. E. Fermann, “Ytterbium-doped all glass leakage channel fibers with highly fluorine-doped silica pump cladding,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8962–8969 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. Dong, H. A. McKay, and L. Fu, “All-glass endless single-mode photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2440–2442 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. G. Gu, F. Kong, T. W. Hawkins, M. Jones, and L. Dong, “Extending mode areas of single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9147–9156 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. L. Fu, H. A. McKay, and L. Dong, “Extremely large mode area optical fibers formed by thermal stress,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11782–11793 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. D. Jain, C. Baskiotis, and J. K. Sahu, “Mode area scaling with multi-trench rod-type fibers,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1448–1455 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. Jain, Y. Jung, M. Nunez-Velazquez, and J. K. Sahu, “Extending single mode performance of all-solid large-mode-area single trench fiber,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31078–31091 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. Jain, C. Baskiotis, and J. K. Sahu, “Bending performance of large mode area multi-trench fibers,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26663–26670 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. Jain, Y. Jung, J. Kim, and J. K. Sahu, “Robust single-mode all-solid multi-trench fiber with large effective mode area,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5200–5203 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. X. Ma, C. Zhu, I. N. Hu, A. Kaplan, and A. Galvanauskas, “Single-mode chirally-coupled-core fibers with larger than 50 µm diameter cores,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9206–9219 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Wei, K. Chen, Y. Yang, and J. Li, “All-solid very large mode area ytterbium-doped silica microstructured fiber based on accurate control on cladding index,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8978–8987 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. K. Saitoh, T. Murao, L. Rosa, and M. Koshiba, “Effective area limit of large-mode-area solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for fiber laser applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 409–418 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Kashiwagi, K. Saitoh, K. Takenga, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and M. Fujimaki, “Low bending loss and effectively single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fiber with an effective area of effective area of 650 µm2,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1292–1294 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, and A. Langrova, “Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes,” Ceram. Silik. 45(2), 62–69 (2001).
  21. Y. O. Agha, F. Zolla, A. Nicolet, and S. Guenneau, “On the use of PML for the computation of leaky modes: an application to microstructured optical fibers,” Int. J. Computation Math. Elec. Electron. Eng. 27(1), 95–109 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Z. Zhang, Y. Shi, B. Bian, and J. Lu, “Dependence of leaky mode coupling on loss in photonic crystal fiber with hybrid cladding,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1915–1922 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. C. Valentin, P. Calvet, Y. Quiquempois, G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, Q. Coulombier, M. Douay, K. Delplace, A. Mussot, and E. Hugonnot, “Top-hat beam output of a single-mode microstructured optical fiber: Impact of core index depression,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23250–23260 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

K. Saitoh, T. Murao, L. Rosa, and M. Koshiba, “Effective area limit of large-mode-area solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for fiber laser applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 409–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. C. Richardson, M. B. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided iptical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, and A. Langrova, “Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes,” Ceram. Silik. 45(2), 62–69 (2001).

Agha, Y. O.

Y. O. Agha, F. Zolla, A. Nicolet, and S. Guenneau, “On the use of PML for the computation of leaky modes: an application to microstructured optical fibers,” Int. J. Computation Math. Elec. Electron. Eng. 27(1), 95–109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alam, S.

Alam, S. A.

Ballato, J.

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. C. Richardson, M. B. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided iptical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barua, P.

Baskiotis, C.

Baumgartl, M.

Berka, Z.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, and A. Langrova, “Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes,” Ceram. Silik. 45(2), 62–69 (2001).

Berkova, D.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, and A. Langrova, “Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes,” Ceram. Silik. 45(2), 62–69 (2001).

Bian, B.

Bigot, L.

Bouwmans, G.

Calvet, P.

Chen, K.

Chen, Y.

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. C. Richardson, M. B. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided iptical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chomat, M.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, and A. Langrova, “Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes,” Ceram. Silik. 45(2), 62–69 (2001).

Clausnitzer, T.

Coulombier, Q.

Delplace, K.

Dong, L.

Douay, M.

Eidam, T.

Fermann, M. E.

Foy, M. B.

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. C. Richardson, M. B. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided iptical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fu, L.

Fu, L. B.

Fuchs, H.

Fujimaki, M.

Galvanauskas, A.

Grudinin, A. B.

Gu, G.

Guenneau, S.

Y. O. Agha, F. Zolla, A. Nicolet, and S. Guenneau, “On the use of PML for the computation of leaky modes: an application to microstructured optical fibers,” Int. J. Computation Math. Elec. Electron. Eng. 27(1), 95–109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hawkins, T. W.

Hawkins, W.

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. C. Richardson, M. B. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided iptical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hayer, M.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, and A. Langrova, “Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes,” Ceram. Silik. 45(2), 62–69 (2001).

Hu, I. N.

Hugonnot, E.

Jain, D.

Jang, J. N.

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Jones, M.

Jung, Y.

Kaplan, A.

Kashiwagi, M.

Kasik, I.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, and A. Langrova, “Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes,” Ceram. Silik. 45(2), 62–69 (2001).

Kim, J.

Kley, E.

Kong, F.

Koshiba, M.

K. Saitoh, T. Murao, L. Rosa, and M. Koshiba, “Effective area limit of large-mode-area solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for fiber laser applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 409–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Langrova, A.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, and A. Langrova, “Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes,” Ceram. Silik. 45(2), 62–69 (2001).

Li, J.

Limpert, J.

Lu, J.

Ma, X.

Marcinkevicius, A.

Matejec, V.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, and A. Langrova, “Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes,” Ceram. Silik. 45(2), 62–69 (2001).

Matsuo, S.

McKay, H. A.

Moore, J.

Murao, T.

K. Saitoh, T. Murao, L. Rosa, and M. Koshiba, “Effective area limit of large-mode-area solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for fiber laser applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 409–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mussot, A.

Nicolet, A.

Y. O. Agha, F. Zolla, A. Nicolet, and S. Guenneau, “On the use of PML for the computation of leaky modes: an application to microstructured optical fibers,” Int. J. Computation Math. Elec. Electron. Eng. 27(1), 95–109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, J.

Nunez-Velazquez, M.

Ohta, M.

Otto, H. J.

Otto, H.-J.

Payne, D. N.

J. Nilsson and D. N. Payne, “High-power fiber lasers,” Science 332(6032), 921–922 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quiquempois, Y.

Richardson, M. C.

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. C. Richardson, M. B. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided iptical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rosa, L.

K. Saitoh, T. Murao, L. Rosa, and M. Koshiba, “Effective area limit of large-mode-area solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for fiber laser applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 409–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J. K.

Saitoh, K.

M. Kashiwagi, K. Saitoh, K. Takenga, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and M. Fujimaki, “Low bending loss and effectively single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fiber with an effective area of effective area of 650 µm2,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1292–1294 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh, T. Murao, L. Rosa, and M. Koshiba, “Effective area limit of large-mode-area solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for fiber laser applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 409–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Selves, R.

Shi, Y.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. C. Richardson, M. B. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided iptical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stutzki, F.

Sudesh, V.

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. C. Richardson, M. B. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided iptical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, S.

Takenga, K.

Tanigawa, S.

Tunnermann, A.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tunnermann, “High-power fiber lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

Turner, P. W.

Valentin, C.

Wei, H.

Wirth, C.

Yang, Y.

Ylä-Jarkko, K. H.

Zellmer, H.

Zhang, Z.

Zhu, C.

Zolla, F.

Y. O. Agha, F. Zolla, A. Nicolet, and S. Guenneau, “On the use of PML for the computation of leaky modes: an application to microstructured optical fibers,” Int. J. Computation Math. Elec. Electron. Eng. 27(1), 95–109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zöllner, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. E. Siegman, Y. Chen, V. Sudesh, M. C. Richardson, M. B. Foy, W. Hawkins, and J. Ballato, “Confined propagation and near single-mode laser oscillation in a gain-guided, index antiguided iptical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ceram. Silik. (1)

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, and A. Langrova, “Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes,” Ceram. Silik. 45(2), 62–69 (2001).

Int. J. Computation Math. Elec. Electron. Eng. (1)

Y. O. Agha, F. Zolla, A. Nicolet, and S. Guenneau, “On the use of PML for the computation of leaky modes: an application to microstructured optical fibers,” Int. J. Computation Math. Elec. Electron. Eng. 27(1), 95–109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tunnermann, “High-power fiber lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (14)

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, T. Clausnitzer, K. Zöllner, H. Fuchs, E. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power femtosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 10(14), 628–638 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, H. A. McKay, L. Fu, M. Ohta, A. Marcinkevicius, S. Suzuki, and M. E. Fermann, “Ytterbium-doped all glass leakage channel fibers with highly fluorine-doped silica pump cladding,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8962–8969 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jain, Y. Jung, P. Barua, S. Alam, and J. K. Sahu, “Demonstration of ultra-low NA rare-earth doped step index fiber for applications in high power fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7407–7415 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gu, F. Kong, T. W. Hawkins, M. Jones, and L. Dong, “Extending mode areas of single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9147–9156 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fu, H. A. McKay, and L. Dong, “Extremely large mode area optical fibers formed by thermal stress,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11782–11793 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jain, C. Baskiotis, and J. K. Sahu, “Mode area scaling with multi-trench rod-type fibers,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1448–1455 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jain, Y. Jung, M. Nunez-Velazquez, and J. K. Sahu, “Extending single mode performance of all-solid large-mode-area single trench fiber,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31078–31091 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jain, C. Baskiotis, and J. K. Sahu, “Bending performance of large mode area multi-trench fibers,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26663–26670 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, C. Zhu, I. N. Hu, A. Kaplan, and A. Galvanauskas, “Single-mode chirally-coupled-core fibers with larger than 50 µm diameter cores,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9206–9219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wei, K. Chen, Y. Yang, and J. Li, “All-solid very large mode area ytterbium-doped silica microstructured fiber based on accurate control on cladding index,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8978–8987 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Y. Shi, B. Bian, and J. Lu, “Dependence of leaky mode coupling on loss in photonic crystal fiber with hybrid cladding,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1915–1922 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Valentin, P. Calvet, Y. Quiquempois, G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, Q. Coulombier, M. Douay, K. Delplace, A. Mussot, and E. Hugonnot, “Top-hat beam output of a single-mode microstructured optical fiber: Impact of core index depression,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23250–23260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

K. Saitoh, T. Murao, L. Rosa, and M. Koshiba, “Effective area limit of large-mode-area solid-core photonic bandgap fibers for fiber laser applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 409–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

J. Nilsson and D. N. Payne, “High-power fiber lasers,” Science 332(6032), 921–922 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Index profile of (a) Yb doped fiber preform, (b) Yb concentration of fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The loss of LP01 and LP11 mode with the bending diameter at 1080 nm. Purple and orange line representation the bend diameter of 0.1 dB/m and 0.01 dB/m respectively at LP01, inset is the electric field profile of LP01 and LP11 with bending diameter of 24 cm. (b) Influence of the different trench to the LP01 mode and LP11 mode.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Experimental set-up used for amplifier efficiency measurement, (b) output power as a function of pump power and absorbed power, inset shows the output beam at 1 W, 1.5 W and 2 W pump power, (c) output spectrum with different output power.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)Experimental set-up for single mode verification, a 1.5 m long CSCT fiber coiled with 28 cm bending diameter was used in this experiment, (b) M2 measurement of the output mode in 30 µm core fiber, (c) M2 measurement of the output mode in CSCT fiber.

Equations (1)

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n ( r ) = a m r m + a m 1 r m 1 + + a r + b ,   r 2 = x 2 + y 2

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