Abstract

Low noise detection with state-of-the-art mid-infrared (MIR) detectors (e.g., PbS, PbSe, InSb, HgCdTe) is a primary challenge owing to the intrinsic thermal background radiation of the low bandgap detector material itself. However, researchers have employed frequency upconversion based detectors (UCD), operable at room temperature, as a promising alternative to traditional direct detection schemes. UCD allows for the use of a low noise silicon-CCD/camera to improve the SNR. Using UCD, the noise contributions from the nonlinear material itself should be evaluated in order to estimate the limits of the noise-equivalent power of an UCD system. In this article, we rigorously analyze the optical power generated by frequency upconversion of the intrinsic black-body radiation in the nonlinear material itself due to the crystals residual emissivity, i.e. absorption. The thermal radiation is particularly prominent at the optical absorption edge of the nonlinear material even at room temperature. We consider a conventional periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) based MIR-UCD for the investigation. The UCD is designed to cover a broad spectral range, overlapping with the entire absorption edge of the PPLN (3.5 – 5 µm). Finally, an upconverted thermal radiation power of ~30 pW at room temperature (~30°C) and a maximum of ~70 pW at 120°C of the PPLN crystal are measured for a CW mixing beam of power ~60 W, supporting a good quantitative agreement with the theory. The analysis can easily be extended to other popular nonlinear conversion processes including OPO, DFG, and SHG.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (3)

2016 (2)

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, J. S. Dam, H. V. Andersen, L. Høgstedt, and C. Pedersen, “Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(11), D28 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

C. Pedersen, Q. Hu, L. Høgstedt, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, and J. S. Dam, “Non-collinear upconversion of infrared light,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28027–28036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 432–439 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. S. Dam, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, and C. Pedersen, “Room-temperature mid-infrared single-photon spectral imaging,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 788–793 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. W. Neely, L. Nugent-Glandorf, F. Adler, and S. A. Diddams, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency upconversion and spectroscopy with an aperiodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4332–4334 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

1996 (1)

1980 (1)

1974 (1)

1968 (1)

J. E. Midwinter, “Image conversion from 1.6 μ to the visible in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12(3), 68–70 (1968).
[Crossref]

1860 (1)

G. Kirchhoff, “I. On the relation between the radiating and absorbing powers of different bodies for light and heat,” Lond. Edinb. Dublin Philos. Mag. J. Sci. 20, 1–21 (1860).

Aadhi, A.

Abdel-Moneim, N.

R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adler, F.

Aellen, T.

Aggarwal, I. D.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andersen, H. V.

Arie, A.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barh, A.

Bayya, S. S.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Benson, T.

R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bosenberg, W. R.

Buse, K.

Busse, L. E.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

Chin, G. D.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dam, J. S.

Diddams, S. A.

Dupont, S.

R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duval, K.

Eckardt, R. C.

Estes, L. E.

Faist, J.

Falk, J.

Fejer, M. M.

Florea, C.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Furniss, D.

R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Galun, E.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gattass, R. R.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gayer, O.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gerrits, T.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gibson, D. J.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Giovannini, M.

Gisin, N.

Gmachl, C. F.

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 432–439 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guha, S.

Gunter, J.

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harrington, S.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, A. J.

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 432–439 (2012).
[Crossref]

Høgstedt, L.

Hu, Q.

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kehlet, L. M.

Kiessling, J.

Kim, W. H.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kirchhoff, G.

G. Kirchhoff, “I. On the relation between the radiating and absorbing powers of different bodies for light and heat,” Lond. Edinb. Dublin Philos. Mag. J. Sci. 20, 1–21 (1860).

Kubat, I.

R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kühnemann, F.

Kung, F. H.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kunz, M.

Labadie, L.

Lita, A. E.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lucy, R. F.

Marsili, F.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Midwinter, J. E.

J. E. Midwinter, “Image conversion from 1.6 μ to the visible in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12(3), 68–70 (1968).
[Crossref]

Miklos, R. E.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mirin, R. P.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Møller, U.

R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Myers, L. E.

Nam, S. W.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Neely, T. W.

Nguyen, V. Q.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nugent-Glandorf, L.

Pedersen, C.

Petersen, R.

R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Picqué, N.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Popko, G.

Ramsay, J.

R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sacks, Z.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Samanta, G. K.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the UCD module including a home build grating spectrometer. The upconverted spectrum is recorded by the Si-IDS camera at position B. The total power is recorded by a Si-photodetector at position A. The part surrounded by red-dashed box is the infrared input side, which has been removed during the noise measurement.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optical power absorption coefficient (α) of MgO-LiNbO3 for an e-polarized ray (Ref [24].). The shaded region is the working range of the UCD. (b) Measured upconverted spectrum of the hot soldering rod at 400°C (blue solid) and the theoretically calculated spectrum for three different absorption loss, α (red dashed), 1.5 × α (black dashed), and α = 0 (green dashed). The small dip at 4.25 µm is due to the atmospheric CO2 absorption.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the propagating wave vectors (kup, kp, kIR) and the coordinate axes (x, y, z) used in the model. The pump beam and PPLN poling periodicity (wave vector is kΛ) is along the z-axis.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Numerically simulated (a) spectral radiance of perfect black-body (solid curves) and non-transparent PPLN (dashed curves), (b) upconversion efficiency of the UCD module (ideal loss-less case), and (c) upconverted thermal radiation power spectral density for the proposed UCD for different temperatures.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental setup used for measurement of the upconverted thermal radiation spectrum using a concave grating dispersed Si-camera, coupled with the upconversion module. (b) Recorded spectrum before (red dotted) and after (blue solid) camera background subtraction (BGS) at room temperature for zero LD current.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimentally measured upconverted thermal radiation spectrums at integration time of 800 ms. (a) Result with (blue solid) and without (red dashed) the FL850 filter for a LD current of 3A. Both MIR and NIR scale is used as x-axis for easy identification. (b) Spectrum at different temperature of PPLN for a constant intracavity power of 60 W.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Direct power measurement of the upconverted thermal radiation (blue circular spot) for intracavity pump power of 60 W. The red curves are theoretically calculated absolute power for similar experimental conditions. Red dashed and red dotted correspond to the internal contribution (PPLN as the thermal source) and external contribution (MIR coming from input side), respectively. Red solid is the combined plot (internal + external).

Equations (3)

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d I IR ( T )= h c 2 n IR 2 α( λ IR ) λ IR 5 [ exp( hc λ IR k B T )1 ] dzd λ IR dΩ
d P up =( 8 π 2 d eff 2 P p L 2 Z 0 n up n IR n p λ up 2 ) ( Lz L ) 2 [ sin h 2 ( α( λ IR )( Lz ) 4 )+ sin 2 ( Δk( Lz ) 2 ) ( α( λ IR )( Lz ) 4 ) 2 + ( Δk( Lz ) 2 ) 2 ] e ( α( λ IR )( Lz ) 2 ) d I IR
P thermal up ( λ IR ,T)= h c 2 α( λ IR ) λ IR 5 [ exp( hc λ IR k B T )1 ] ( 8 π 2 d eff 2 P p L 2 Z 0 λ up 2 )× z φ IR θ IR [ ( n IR n up n p ) ( Lz L ) 2 e ( α( λ IR )( Lz ) 2 ) { sin h 2 ( α( λ IR )( Lz ) 4 )+ sin 2 ( Δk( Lz ) 2 ) ( α( λ IR )( Lz ) 4 ) 2 + ( Δk( Lz ) 2 ) 2 } ] sin θ IR d θ IR d φ IR dz

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