Abstract

This paper presents the first demonstration of InGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) based micro-photodetectors (µPD) used as the optical receiver in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulated visible communication system (VLC). The 80-µm diameter µPD exhibits a wavelength-selective responsivity in the near-UV to violet regime (374 nm - 408 nm) under a low reverse bias of −3 V. The modulation scheme of 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) OFDM enables the use of frequency response beyond −3 dB cutoff bandwidth of µPD. A record high data rate of 3.2 Gigabit per second (Gpbs) was achieved as a result, which provides the proof-of-concept verification of a viable high speed VLC link.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  38. D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride uLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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  39. G. Liu, K.-T. Ho, R. Chen, C. Shen, J. Holguin-Lerma, and A. Abeer, Al-Saggaf, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “1.7 gigabit-per-second blue light optical communication utilizing III-nitrides micro-photodetector,” submitted to2018Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO).

2017 (4)

F. Zafar, M. Bakaul, and R. Parthiban, “Laser-Diode-Based Visible Light Communication: Toward Gigabit Class Communication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(2), 144–151 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480–17487 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Alshehri, K. Dogheche, S. Belahsene, A. Ramdane, G. Patriarche, D. Decoster, and E. Dogheche, “Dynamic Characterization of III-Nitride-Based High-Speed Photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, C. Lee, E. Stegenburgs, J. Holguin-Lerma, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(4), 042201 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-brightness semipolar (2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2608–2611 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (202¯1¯) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

C.-W. Chen, W.-C. Wang, J.-T. Wu, H.-Y. Chen, K. Liang, L.-Y. Wei, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, Y. Liu, H.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-T. Chen, “Visible light communications for the implementation of internet-of-things,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 060501 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Y. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 33(9), 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Towards a 100 Gb/s visible light wireless access network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1627–1637 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, C. Shen, H. M. Oubei, M. Cantore, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, R. M. Farrell, M. M. El-Desouki, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “2 Gbit/s data transmission from an unfiltered laser-based phosphor-converted white lighting communication system,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29779–29787 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. D. Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4 Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. D. Retamal, H. M. Oubei, B. Janjua, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, T. K. Ng, D.-H. Hsieh, H.-C. Kuo, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, G.-R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4-Gbit/s visible light communication link based on 16-QAM OFDM transmission over remote phosphor-film converted white light by using blue laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33656–33666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, D. Zhou, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Demonstration of an AlGaN-based solar-blind high-voltage photoconductive switch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(4), 040601 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

H. H. Hongjuan Huang, D. Y. Dawei Yan, G. W. Guosheng Wang, F. X. Feng Xie, G. Y. Guofeng Yang, S. X. Shaoqing Xiao, and X. G. Xiaofeng Gu, “GaN-based p–i–n ultraviolet photodetectors with a thin p-type GaN layer on patterned sapphire substrates,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(9), 092301 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride uLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, J. Shi, C. Yang, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “Integrated 10 Gb/s multilevel multiband passive optical network and 500 Mb/s indoor visible light communication system based on Nyquist single carrier frequency domain equalization modulation,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2576–2579 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Burchardt, N. Serafimovski, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “VLC: Beyond Point-to-Point Communication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 98–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. M. A. Saron, M. R. Hashim, and M. A. Farrukh, “Growth of GaN films on silicon (111) by thermal vapor deposition method: Optical functions and MSM UV photodetector applications,” Superlattices Microstruct. 64, 88–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

M. Martens, J. Schlegel, P. Vogt, F. Brunner, R. Lossy, J. Würfl, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High gain ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures for optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211114 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. Pereiro, C. Rivera, A. Navarro, E. Munoz, R. Czernecki, S. Grzanka, and M. Leszczynski, “Optimization of InGaN-GaN MQW Photodetector Structures for High-Responsivity Performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 617–622 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. B. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High Data Rate Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Optical Wireless Communications Using White LED Lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

H. Le-Minh, D. O. Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Multiple-Resonant Equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Butun, T. Tut, E. Ulker, T. Yelboga, and E. Ozbay, “High-performance visible-blind GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033507 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. A. Tulchinsky, L. Xiaowei, L. Ning, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, and K. J. Williams, “High-saturation current wide-bandwidth photodetectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 702–708 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. K. Zhang, W. B. Wang, F. Yun, L. He, H. Morkoç, X. Zhou, M. Tamargo, and R. R. Alfano, “Backilluminated ultraviolet photodetector based on GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4628–4630 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “Very high-speed ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 325–333 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762–764 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “GaN and InGaN Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors with Different Schottky Contact Metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1 (1998).

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “Very high-speed metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(17), 2405–2407 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Miyazaki, S. Itami, and T. Araki, “Using a light-emitting diode as a high-speed, wavelength selective photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(11), 3751–3754 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN p-i-n and AlGaN(p)-GaN(i)-GaN(n)structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

F. Devaux, F. Dorgeuille, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carre, A. Carenco, M. Henry, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, and E. Jeanney, “20 Gbit/s operation of a high-efficiency InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW electroabsorption modulator with 1.2-V drive voltage,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1288–1290 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abeer, A.

G. Liu, K.-T. Ho, R. Chen, C. Shen, J. Holguin-Lerma, and A. Abeer, Al-Saggaf, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “1.7 gigabit-per-second blue light optical communication utilizing III-nitrides micro-photodetector,” submitted to2018Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO).

Alfano, R. R.

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Haji, M.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride uLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hamilton, M.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762–764 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “GaN and InGaN Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors with Different Schottky Contact Metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1 (1998).

Hashim, M. R.

K. M. A. Saron, M. R. Hashim, and M. A. Farrukh, “Growth of GaN films on silicon (111) by thermal vapor deposition method: Optical functions and MSM UV photodetector applications,” Superlattices Microstruct. 64, 88–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, J.-H.

He, L.

S. K. Zhang, W. B. Wang, F. Yun, L. He, H. Morkoç, X. Zhou, M. Tamargo, and R. R. Alfano, “Backilluminated ultraviolet photodetector based on GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4628–4630 (2002).
[Crossref]

Henderson, R.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Y. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 33(9), 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Henderson, R. K.

Henry, M.

F. Devaux, F. Dorgeuille, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carre, A. Carenco, M. Henry, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, and E. Jeanney, “20 Gbit/s operation of a high-efficiency InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW electroabsorption modulator with 1.2-V drive voltage,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1288–1290 (1993).
[Crossref]

Herrnsdorf, J.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Y. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 33(9), 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ho, K.-T.

G. Liu, K.-T. Ho, R. Chen, C. Shen, J. Holguin-Lerma, and A. Abeer, Al-Saggaf, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “1.7 gigabit-per-second blue light optical communication utilizing III-nitrides micro-photodetector,” submitted to2018Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO).

Holguin-Lerma, J.

C. Shen, C. Lee, E. Stegenburgs, J. Holguin-Lerma, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(4), 042201 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, K.-T. Ho, R. Chen, C. Shen, J. Holguin-Lerma, and A. Abeer, Al-Saggaf, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “1.7 gigabit-per-second blue light optical communication utilizing III-nitrides micro-photodetector,” submitted to2018Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO).

Hongjuan Huang, H. H.

Hsieh, D.-H.

Hsieh, H.-C.

C.-W. Chen, W.-C. Wang, J.-T. Wu, H.-Y. Chen, K. Liang, L.-Y. Wei, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, Y. Liu, H.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-T. Chen, “Visible light communications for the implementation of internet-of-things,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 060501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C.-W.

C.-W. Chen, W.-C. Wang, J.-T. Wu, H.-Y. Chen, K. Liang, L.-Y. Wei, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, Y. Liu, H.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-T. Chen, “Visible light communications for the implementation of internet-of-things,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 060501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hsu, Y.

C.-W. Chen, W.-C. Wang, J.-T. Wu, H.-Y. Chen, K. Liang, L.-Y. Wei, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, Y. Liu, H.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-T. Chen, “Visible light communications for the implementation of internet-of-things,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 060501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huet, F.

F. Devaux, F. Dorgeuille, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carre, A. Carenco, M. Henry, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, and E. Jeanney, “20 Gbit/s operation of a high-efficiency InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW electroabsorption modulator with 1.2-V drive voltage,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1288–1290 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ijaz, M.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Y. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 33(9), 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Itami, S.

E. Miyazaki, S. Itami, and T. Araki, “Using a light-emitting diode as a high-speed, wavelength selective photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(11), 3751–3754 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jalajakumari, A. V. N.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Y. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 33(9), 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Janjua, B.

Jeanney, E.

F. Devaux, F. Dorgeuille, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carre, A. Carenco, M. Henry, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, and E. Jeanney, “20 Gbit/s operation of a high-efficiency InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW electroabsorption modulator with 1.2-V drive voltage,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1288–1290 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jung, D.

L. B. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High Data Rate Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Optical Wireless Communications Using White LED Lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Le-Minh, D. O. Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Multiple-Resonant Equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride uLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. L. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-Light Communications Using a CMOS-Controlled Micro-Light-Emitting-Diode Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kerdiles, J. F.

F. Devaux, F. Dorgeuille, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carre, A. Carenco, M. Henry, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, and E. Jeanney, “20 Gbit/s operation of a high-efficiency InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW electroabsorption modulator with 1.2-V drive voltage,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1288–1290 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kim, W.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN p-i-n and AlGaN(p)-GaN(i)-GaN(n)structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

M. Martens, J. Schlegel, P. Vogt, F. Brunner, R. Lossy, J. Würfl, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High gain ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures for optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krishnankutty, S.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN p-i-n and AlGaN(p)-GaN(i)-GaN(n)structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kung, P.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762–764 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “GaN and InGaN Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors with Different Schottky Contact Metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1 (1998).

Kuo, H.-C.

Le Minh, H.

L. B. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High Data Rate Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Optical Wireless Communications Using White LED Lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480–17487 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, C. Lee, E. Stegenburgs, J. Holguin-Lerma, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(4), 042201 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (202¯1¯) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, H. M. Oubei, M. Cantore, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, R. M. Farrell, M. M. El-Desouki, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “2 Gbit/s data transmission from an unfiltered laser-based phosphor-converted white lighting communication system,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29779–29787 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

L. B. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High Data Rate Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Optical Wireless Communications Using White LED Lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Le-Minh, D. O. Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Multiple-Resonant Equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (202¯1¯) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Le-Minh, H.

H. Le-Minh, D. O. Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Multiple-Resonant Equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leonard, J. T.

Leszczynski, M.

J. Pereiro, C. Rivera, A. Navarro, E. Munoz, R. Czernecki, S. Grzanka, and M. Leszczynski, “Optimization of InGaN-GaN MQW Photodetector Structures for High-Responsivity Performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 617–622 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “Very high-speed ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 28(3), 325–333 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “Very high-speed metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(17), 2405–2407 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liang, K.

C.-W. Chen, W.-C. Wang, J.-T. Wu, H.-Y. Chen, K. Liang, L.-Y. Wei, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, Y. Liu, H.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-T. Chen, “Visible light communications for the implementation of internet-of-things,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 060501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.-R.

Liu, G.

G. Liu, K.-T. Ho, R. Chen, C. Shen, J. Holguin-Lerma, and A. Abeer, Al-Saggaf, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “1.7 gigabit-per-second blue light optical communication utilizing III-nitrides micro-photodetector,” submitted to2018Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO).

Liu, Y.

C.-W. Chen, W.-C. Wang, J.-T. Wu, H.-Y. Chen, K. Liang, L.-Y. Wei, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, Y. Liu, H.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-T. Chen, “Visible light communications for the implementation of internet-of-things,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 060501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lossy, R.

M. Martens, J. Schlegel, P. Vogt, F. Brunner, R. Lossy, J. Würfl, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High gain ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures for optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN p-i-n and AlGaN(p)-GaN(i)-GaN(n)structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

Y. Chen, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, D. Zhou, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Demonstration of an AlGaN-based solar-blind high-voltage photoconductive switch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(4), 040601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martens, M.

M. Martens, J. Schlegel, P. Vogt, F. Brunner, R. Lossy, J. Würfl, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High gain ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures for optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Massoubre, D.

McKendry, J. J. D.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Y. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 33(9), 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride uLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. L. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-Light Communications Using a CMOS-Controlled Micro-Light-Emitting-Diode Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, E.

E. Miyazaki, S. Itami, and T. Araki, “Using a light-emitting diode as a high-speed, wavelength selective photodetector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(11), 3751–3754 (1998).
[Crossref]

Monroy, E.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762–764 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “GaN and InGaN Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors with Different Schottky Contact Metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1 (1998).

Morkoç, H.

S. K. Zhang, W. B. Wang, F. Yun, L. He, H. Morkoç, X. Zhou, M. Tamargo, and R. R. Alfano, “Backilluminated ultraviolet photodetector based on GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4628–4630 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN p-i-n and AlGaN(p)-GaN(i)-GaN(n)structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Munoz, E.

J. Pereiro, C. Rivera, A. Navarro, E. Munoz, R. Czernecki, S. Grzanka, and M. Leszczynski, “Optimization of InGaN-GaN MQW Photodetector Structures for High-Responsivity Performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 617–622 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

C. Shen, C. Lee, E. Stegenburgs, J. Holguin-Lerma, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(4), 042201 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480–17487 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-brightness semipolar (2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2608–2611 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (202¯1¯) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, H. M. Oubei, M. Cantore, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, R. M. Farrell, M. M. El-Desouki, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “2 Gbit/s data transmission from an unfiltered laser-based phosphor-converted white lighting communication system,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29779–29787 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Navarro, A.

J. Pereiro, C. Rivera, A. Navarro, E. Munoz, R. Czernecki, S. Grzanka, and M. Leszczynski, “Optimization of InGaN-GaN MQW Photodetector Structures for High-Responsivity Performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 617–622 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ng, T. K.

C. Shen, C. Lee, E. Stegenburgs, J. Holguin-Lerma, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(4), 042201 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-brightness semipolar (2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2608–2611 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, C. Shen, H. M. Oubei, M. Cantore, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, R. M. Farrell, M. M. El-Desouki, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “2 Gbit/s data transmission from an unfiltered laser-based phosphor-converted white lighting communication system,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29779–29787 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. D. Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4 Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. D. Retamal, H. M. Oubei, B. Janjua, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, T. K. Ng, D.-H. Hsieh, H.-C. Kuo, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, G.-R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4-Gbit/s visible light communication link based on 16-QAM OFDM transmission over remote phosphor-film converted white light by using blue laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33656–33666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ning, L.

D. A. Tulchinsky, L. Xiaowei, L. Ning, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, and K. J. Williams, “High-saturation current wide-bandwidth photodetectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 702–708 (2004).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Y. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 33(9), 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride uLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D. C.

L. B. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High Data Rate Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Optical Wireless Communications Using White LED Lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. H.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (202¯1¯) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
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Oh, Y.

L. B. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High Data Rate Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Optical Wireless Communications Using White LED Lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1654–1662 (2009).
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H. Le-Minh, D. O. Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Multiple-Resonant Equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ooi, B. S.

C. Shen, C. Lee, E. Stegenburgs, J. Holguin-Lerma, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(4), 042201 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480–17487 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-brightness semipolar (2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2608–2611 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, C. Shen, H. M. Oubei, M. Cantore, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, R. M. Farrell, M. M. El-Desouki, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “2 Gbit/s data transmission from an unfiltered laser-based phosphor-converted white lighting communication system,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29779–29787 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. D. Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4 Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. D. Retamal, H. M. Oubei, B. Janjua, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, T. K. Ng, D.-H. Hsieh, H.-C. Kuo, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, G.-R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4-Gbit/s visible light communication link based on 16-QAM OFDM transmission over remote phosphor-film converted white light by using blue laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33656–33666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oubei, H. M.

Ougazzaden, A.

F. Devaux, F. Dorgeuille, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carre, A. Carenco, M. Henry, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, and E. Jeanney, “20 Gbit/s operation of a high-efficiency InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW electroabsorption modulator with 1.2-V drive voltage,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1288–1290 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

B. Butun, T. Tut, E. Ulker, T. Yelboga, and E. Ozbay, “High-performance visible-blind GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Parthiban, R.

F. Zafar, M. Bakaul, and R. Parthiban, “Laser-Diode-Based Visible Light Communication: Toward Gigabit Class Communication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(2), 144–151 (2017).
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Patriarche, G.

B. Alshehri, K. Dogheche, S. Belahsene, A. Ramdane, G. Patriarche, D. Decoster, and E. Dogheche, “Dynamic Characterization of III-Nitride-Based High-Speed Photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–7 (2017).
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Pereiro, J.

J. Pereiro, C. Rivera, A. Navarro, E. Munoz, R. Czernecki, S. Grzanka, and M. Leszczynski, “Optimization of InGaN-GaN MQW Photodetector Structures for High-Responsivity Performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 617–622 (2009).
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Pourhashemi, A.

Rae, B. R.

Rajbhandari, S.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Y. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 33(9), 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride uLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ramdane, A.

B. Alshehri, K. Dogheche, S. Belahsene, A. Ramdane, G. Patriarche, D. Decoster, and E. Dogheche, “Dynamic Characterization of III-Nitride-Based High-Speed Photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762–764 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “GaN and InGaN Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors with Different Schottky Contact Metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1 (1998).

Ren, F.

Y. Chen, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, D. Zhou, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Demonstration of an AlGaN-based solar-blind high-voltage photoconductive switch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(4), 040601 (2015).
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Retamal, J. R. D.

Rivera, C.

J. Pereiro, C. Rivera, A. Navarro, E. Munoz, R. Czernecki, S. Grzanka, and M. Leszczynski, “Optimization of InGaN-GaN MQW Photodetector Structures for High-Responsivity Performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 617–622 (2009).
[Crossref]

Salvador, A.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN p-i-n and AlGaN(p)-GaN(i)-GaN(n)structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, F. J.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762–764 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “GaN and InGaN Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors with Different Schottky Contact Metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1 (1998).

Saron, K. M. A.

K. M. A. Saron, M. R. Hashim, and M. A. Farrukh, “Growth of GaN films on silicon (111) by thermal vapor deposition method: Optical functions and MSM UV photodetector applications,” Superlattices Microstruct. 64, 88–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schlegel, J.

M. Martens, J. Schlegel, P. Vogt, F. Brunner, R. Lossy, J. Würfl, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High gain ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures for optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Serafimovski, N.

H. Burchardt, N. Serafimovski, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “VLC: Beyond Point-to-Point Communication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 98–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shaoqing Xiao, S. X.

Shen, C.

C. Shen, C. Lee, E. Stegenburgs, J. Holguin-Lerma, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(4), 042201 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480–17487 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-brightness semipolar (2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2608–2611 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, C. Shen, H. M. Oubei, M. Cantore, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, R. M. Farrell, M. M. El-Desouki, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “2 Gbit/s data transmission from an unfiltered laser-based phosphor-converted white lighting communication system,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29779–29787 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, K.-T. Ho, R. Chen, C. Shen, J. Holguin-Lerma, and A. Abeer, Al-Saggaf, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “1.7 gigabit-per-second blue light optical communication utilizing III-nitrides micro-photodetector,” submitted to2018Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO).

Shi, J.

Smith, G.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN p-i-n and AlGaN(p)-GaN(i)-GaN(n)structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sorel, Y.

F. Devaux, F. Dorgeuille, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carre, A. Carenco, M. Henry, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, and E. Jeanney, “20 Gbit/s operation of a high-efficiency InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW electroabsorption modulator with 1.2-V drive voltage,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1288–1290 (1993).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480–17487 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-brightness semipolar (2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2608–2611 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (202¯1¯) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, H. M. Oubei, M. Cantore, B. Janjua, T. K. Ng, R. M. Farrell, M. M. El-Desouki, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “2 Gbit/s data transmission from an unfiltered laser-based phosphor-converted white lighting communication system,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29779–29787 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegenburgs, E.

C. Shen, C. Lee, E. Stegenburgs, J. Holguin-Lerma, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(4), 042201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tamargo, M.

S. K. Zhang, W. B. Wang, F. Yun, L. He, H. Morkoç, X. Zhou, M. Tamargo, and R. R. Alfano, “Backilluminated ultraviolet photodetector based on GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4628–4630 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tang, H.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN p-i-n and AlGaN(p)-GaN(i)-GaN(n)structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C.-T.

Tsonev, D.

D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Towards a 100 Gb/s visible light wireless access network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1627–1637 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Y. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 33(9), 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Burchardt, N. Serafimovski, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “VLC: Beyond Point-to-Point Communication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 98–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride uLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tulchinsky, D. A.

D. A. Tulchinsky, L. Xiaowei, L. Ning, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, and K. J. Williams, “High-saturation current wide-bandwidth photodetectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 702–708 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tut, T.

B. Butun, T. Tut, E. Ulker, T. Yelboga, and E. Ozbay, “High-performance visible-blind GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ulker, E.

B. Butun, T. Tut, E. Ulker, T. Yelboga, and E. Ozbay, “High-performance visible-blind GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Videv, S.

D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Towards a 100 Gb/s visible light wireless access network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1627–1637 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Burchardt, N. Serafimovski, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “VLC: Beyond Point-to-Point Communication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 98–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride uLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vogt, P.

M. Martens, J. Schlegel, P. Vogt, F. Brunner, R. Lossy, J. Würfl, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High gain ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures for optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Walker, D.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762–764 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “GaN and InGaN Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors with Different Schottky Contact Metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1 (1998).

Wang, H.-Y.

Wang, W. B.

S. K. Zhang, W. B. Wang, F. Yun, L. He, H. Morkoç, X. Zhou, M. Tamargo, and R. R. Alfano, “Backilluminated ultraviolet photodetector based on GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4628–4630 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.-C.

C.-W. Chen, W.-C. Wang, J.-T. Wu, H.-Y. Chen, K. Liang, L.-Y. Wei, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, Y. Liu, H.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-T. Chen, “Visible light communications for the implementation of internet-of-things,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 060501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Watson, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride uLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wei, L.-Y.

C.-W. Chen, W.-C. Wang, J.-T. Wu, H.-Y. Chen, K. Liang, L.-Y. Wei, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, Y. Liu, H.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-T. Chen, “Visible light communications for the implementation of internet-of-things,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 060501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

M. Martens, J. Schlegel, P. Vogt, F. Brunner, R. Lossy, J. Würfl, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High gain ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures for optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Williams, K. J.

D. A. Tulchinsky, L. Xiaowei, L. Ning, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, and K. J. Williams, “High-saturation current wide-bandwidth photodetectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 702–708 (2004).
[Crossref]

Won, E. T.

L. B. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High Data Rate Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Optical Wireless Communications Using White LED Lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

C. Chen, W. D. Zhong, and D. Wu, “Indoor OFDM visible light communications employing adaptive digital pre-frequency domain equalization,” in 2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2016), pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762–764 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “GaN and InGaN Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors with Different Schottky Contact Metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1 (1998).

Wu, J.-T.

C.-W. Chen, W.-C. Wang, J.-T. Wu, H.-Y. Chen, K. Liang, L.-Y. Wei, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, Y. Liu, H.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-T. Chen, “Visible light communications for the implementation of internet-of-things,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 060501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Würfl, J.

M. Martens, J. Schlegel, P. Vogt, F. Brunner, R. Lossy, J. Würfl, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High gain ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures for optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiaofeng Gu, X. G.

Xiaowei, L.

D. A. Tulchinsky, L. Xiaowei, L. Ning, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, and K. J. Williams, “High-saturation current wide-bandwidth photodetectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 702–708 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xie, E. Y.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Y. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 33(9), 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, G. Y.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN p-i-n and AlGaN(p)-GaN(i)-GaN(n)structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

Yang, W.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN p-i-n and AlGaN(p)-GaN(i)-GaN(n)structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C.-H.

C.-W. Chen, W.-C. Wang, J.-T. Wu, H.-Y. Chen, K. Liang, L.-Y. Wei, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, Y. Liu, H.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-T. Chen, “Visible light communications for the implementation of internet-of-things,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 060501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yelboga, T.

B. Butun, T. Tut, E. Ulker, T. Yelboga, and E. Ozbay, “High-performance visible-blind GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yun, F.

S. K. Zhang, W. B. Wang, F. Yun, L. He, H. Morkoç, X. Zhou, M. Tamargo, and R. R. Alfano, “Backilluminated ultraviolet photodetector based on GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4628–4630 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zafar, F.

F. Zafar, M. Bakaul, and R. Parthiban, “Laser-Diode-Based Visible Light Communication: Toward Gigabit Class Communication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(2), 144–151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeng, L.

H. Le-Minh, D. O. Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Multiple-Resonant Equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zeng, L. B.

L. B. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High Data Rate Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Optical Wireless Communications Using White LED Lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (202¯1¯) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

Y. Chen, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, D. Zhou, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Demonstration of an AlGaN-based solar-blind high-voltage photoconductive switch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(4), 040601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. K.

S. K. Zhang, W. B. Wang, F. Yun, L. He, H. Morkoç, X. Zhou, M. Tamargo, and R. R. Alfano, “Backilluminated ultraviolet photodetector based on GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4628–4630 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. L.

Zheng, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, D. Zhou, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Demonstration of an AlGaN-based solar-blind high-voltage photoconductive switch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(4), 040601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W. D.

C. Chen, W. D. Zhong, and D. Wu, “Indoor OFDM visible light communications employing adaptive digital pre-frequency domain equalization,” in 2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2016), pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.

Y. Chen, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, D. Zhou, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Demonstration of an AlGaN-based solar-blind high-voltage photoconductive switch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(4), 040601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

S. K. Zhang, W. B. Wang, F. Yun, L. He, H. Morkoç, X. Zhou, M. Tamargo, and R. R. Alfano, “Backilluminated ultraviolet photodetector based on GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4628–4630 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

C. Shen, C. Lee, E. Stegenburgs, J. Holguin-Lerma, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(4), 042201 (2017).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

S. K. Zhang, W. B. Wang, F. Yun, L. He, H. Morkoç, X. Zhou, M. Tamargo, and R. R. Alfano, “Backilluminated ultraviolet photodetector based on GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4628–4630 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762–764 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “GaN and InGaN Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors with Different Schottky Contact Metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1 (1998).

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, D. L. Brown, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “Very high-speed metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(17), 2405–2407 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, D. L. Becerra, S. Lee, C. A. Forman, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Dynamic characteristics of 410 nm semipolar (202¯1¯) III-nitride laser diodes with a modulation bandwidth of over 5 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(10), 101104 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Butun, T. Tut, E. Ulker, T. Yelboga, and E. Ozbay, “High-performance visible-blind GaN-based p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 033507 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN p-i-n and AlGaN(p)-GaN(i)-GaN(n)structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Martens, J. Schlegel, P. Vogt, F. Brunner, R. Lossy, J. Würfl, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “High gain ultraviolet photodetectors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures for optical switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

H. Burchardt, N. Serafimovski, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “VLC: Beyond Point-to-Point Communication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 98–105 (2014).
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F. Zafar, M. Bakaul, and R. Parthiban, “Laser-Diode-Based Visible Light Communication: Toward Gigabit Class Communication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(2), 144–151 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Pereiro, C. Rivera, A. Navarro, E. Munoz, R. Czernecki, S. Grzanka, and M. Leszczynski, “Optimization of InGaN-GaN MQW Photodetector Structures for High-Responsivity Performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 617–622 (2009).
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IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. (2)

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Y. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 33(9), 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. B. Zeng, D. C. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, G. E. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “High Data Rate Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Optical Wireless Communications Using White LED Lighting,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1654–1662 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Tulchinsky, L. Xiaowei, L. Ning, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, and K. J. Williams, “High-saturation current wide-bandwidth photodetectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(4), 702–708 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

B. Alshehri, K. Dogheche, S. Belahsene, A. Ramdane, G. Patriarche, D. Decoster, and E. Dogheche, “Dynamic Characterization of III-Nitride-Based High-Speed Photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

H. Le-Minh, D. O. Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-Speed Visible Light Communications Using Multiple-Resonant Equalization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-Based Wireless VLC Link Using a Gallium Nitride uLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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F. Devaux, F. Dorgeuille, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carre, A. Carenco, M. Henry, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, and E. Jeanney, “20 Gbit/s operation of a high-efficiency InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW electroabsorption modulator with 1.2-V drive voltage,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1288–1290 (1993).
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Y. Chen, H. Lu, D. Chen, F. Ren, D. Zhou, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Demonstration of an AlGaN-based solar-blind high-voltage photoconductive switch,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(4), 040601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C.-W. Chen, W.-C. Wang, J.-T. Wu, H.-Y. Chen, K. Liang, L.-Y. Wei, Y. Hsu, C.-W. Hsu, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, Y. Liu, H.-C. Hsieh, and Y.-T. Chen, “Visible light communications for the implementation of internet-of-things,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 060501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

J. R. D. Retamal, H. M. Oubei, B. Janjua, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, T. K. Ng, D.-H. Hsieh, H.-C. Kuo, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, G.-R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4-Gbit/s visible light communication link based on 16-QAM OFDM transmission over remote phosphor-film converted white light by using blue laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33656–33666 (2015).
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C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
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K. M. A. Saron, M. R. Hashim, and M. A. Farrukh, “Growth of GaN films on silicon (111) by thermal vapor deposition method: Optical functions and MSM UV photodetector applications,” Superlattices Microstruct. 64, 88–97 (2013).
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D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Light Fidelity (Li-Fi): Towards All-Optical Networking,” Broadband Access Commun. Technologies Viii 9007(2014).

C. Shen, J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, T. K. Ng, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “GHz modulation bandwidth from single-longitudinal mode violet-blue VCSEL using nonpolar InGaN/GaN QWs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2016) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STh1L.2.
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G. Liu, K.-T. Ho, R. Chen, C. Shen, J. Holguin-Lerma, and A. Abeer, Al-Saggaf, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “1.7 gigabit-per-second blue light optical communication utilizing III-nitrides micro-photodetector,” submitted to2018Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO).

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of InGaN/GaN MQW μPD and TEM image showing 15-pairs of 3-nm InGaN / 13.5-nm GaN (scale bar indicates 20 nm). (b) The optical microscope image of μPD with diameter of 80 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photoelectrical performance of μPD: (a) the current -voltage curve under dark condition and under illumination of 392-nm light at an intensity of 0.66 mW/cm2. (b) The responsivity spectrum of μPD showing a 374 nm - 408 nm bandpass characteristic. The highest responsivity is 70.7 mA/W at 392 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The frequency response of the μPD at a bias voltage of −3 V. Inset: zoom-in view of the frequency response in log scale. (b) The capacitance-voltage measurements of a μPD. (c) −3 dB bandwidth measured at different bias voltage of μPD and mean value is indicated by the straight line in each bias group.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The block diagram of VLC link using µPD as the optical receiver.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 BER vs. data rate of the VLC link with different OFDM QAM order. Insets: the corresponding constellation diagrams at 4-QAM, 8-QAM, and 16-QAM.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Recent III-nitride based PDs with different configurations.

Equations (3)

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f RC = 1 2πRC
B= f s N
Speed= f × s N subcarrier × log 2 M N IFFT +CP

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