Abstract

Water condensation and precipitation induced by 22-TW 800-nm laser pulses at 1 Hz in an open cloud chamber were investigated in a time-resolved manner. Two parts of precipitation in two independent periods of time were observed directly following each laser shot. One part started around the filament zone at t < 500 μs and ended at t 1.5 ms after the arrival of the femtosecond laser pulse. The other following the laser-induced energetic air motion (turbulence), started at t 20 ms and ended at t 120 ms. Meanwhile, the phase transitions of large-size condensation droplets with diameters of 400–500 μm from liquid to solid (ice) in a cold area (T < −30 °C) were captured at t 20 ms.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

J. P. Wolf, “Short-pulse lasers for weather control,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81(2), 026001 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

Y. Wei, Y. Liu, T.-J. Wang, N. Chen, J. Ju, Y. Liu, H. Sun, C. Wang, J. Liu, H. Lu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Spectroscopic analysis of high electric field enhanced ionization in laser filaments in air for corona guiding,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e8 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, J. Liu, H. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Sun, Y. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, T. Wang, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament induced condensation and precipitation in a cloud chamber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25417 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Point, E. Thouin, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Energy deposition from focused terawatt laser pulses in air undergoing multifilamentation,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6271–6282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, J. Lu, W. Li, F. Wu, Y. Li, C. Wang, Z. Li, X. Lu, Y. Liu, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Stable 200TW/1Hz Ti:sapphire laser for driving full coherent XFEL,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 141–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Marcolli, B. Nagare, A. Welti, and U. Lohmann, “Ice nucleation efficiency of AgI: review and new insights,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(14), 8915–8937 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Matthews, F. Pomel, C. Wender, A. Kiselev, D. Duft, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and T. Leisner, “Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501912 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, H. Sun, J. Ju, Y. Tian, Y. Bai, C. Wang, T.-J. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Vortices formation induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in a cloud chamber filled with air and helium,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(3), 031401 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

G. Point, C. Milián, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Generation of long-lived underdense channels using femtosecond filamentation in air,” J. Phys. B 48(9), 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: Experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E 88(6), 062803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Durécu, B. Moreau, D. Fleury, O. Vasseur, H. Borchert, K. Diener, R. Schmitt, F. Théberge, M. Chateauneuf, J.-F. Daigle, and J. Dubois, “Kilometer range filamentation,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26836–26845 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Modelling of HNO3-mediated laser-induced condensation: a parametric study,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(13), 134703 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Gelderblom, Á. G. Marín, H. Nair, A. van Houselt, L. Lefferts, J. H. Snoeijer, and D. Lohse, “How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 83(2), 026306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queisser, R. Salam, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 026412 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016602 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

A. Laaksonen, P. Korhonen, M. Kulmala, and R. J. Charlson, “Modification of the Köhler equation to include soluble trace gases and slightly soluble substances,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55(5), 853–862 (1998).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. L. Durham and L. Stockburger, “Nitric acid-air diffusion coefficient: Experimental determination,” Atmos. Environ. 20(3), 559–563 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

J. Strnad and A. Vengar, “Stefan’s measurement of the thermal conductivity of air,” Eur. J. Phys. 5(1), 9–12 (1984).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

A. R. Hanson, E. G. Domich, and H. S. Adams, “Shock tube investigation of the breakup of drops by air blasts,” Phys. Fluids 6(8), 1070–1080 (1963).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

E. K. Bigg, “The formation of atmospheric ice crystals by the freezing of droplets,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 66, 510–519 (1953).

Adams, H. S.

A. R. Hanson, E. G. Domich, and H. S. Adams, “Shock tube investigation of the breakup of drops by air blasts,” Phys. Fluids 6(8), 1070–1080 (1963).
[Crossref]

André, Y. B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, Y.

Baltensperger, U.

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016602 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berti, N.

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigg, E. K.

E. K. Bigg, “The formation of atmospheric ice crystals by the freezing of droplets,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 66, 510–519 (1953).

Borchert, H.

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brisset, J.-G.

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charlson, R. J.

A. Laaksonen, P. Korhonen, M. Kulmala, and R. J. Charlson, “Modification of the Köhler equation to include soluble trace gases and slightly soluble substances,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55(5), 853–862 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chateauneuf, M.

Chen, N.

Y. Wei, Y. Liu, T.-J. Wang, N. Chen, J. Ju, Y. Liu, H. Sun, C. Wang, J. Liu, H. Lu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Spectroscopic analysis of high electric field enhanced ionization in laser filaments in air for corona guiding,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

J. Ju, J. Liu, H. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Sun, Y. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, T. Wang, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament induced condensation and precipitation in a cloud chamber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25417 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chien, C.-Y.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

J. Ju, J. Liu, H. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Sun, Y. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, T. Wang, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament induced condensation and precipitation in a cloud chamber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25417 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wei, Y. Liu, T.-J. Wang, N. Chen, J. Ju, Y. Liu, H. Sun, C. Wang, J. Liu, H. Lu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Spectroscopic analysis of high electric field enhanced ionization in laser filaments in air for corona guiding,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, H. Sun, J. Ju, Y. Tian, Y. Bai, C. Wang, T.-J. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Vortices formation induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in a cloud chamber filled with air and helium,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(3), 031401 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: Experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E 88(6), 062803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 026412 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comtois, D.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

G. Point, C. Milián, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Generation of long-lived underdense channels using femtosecond filamentation in air,” J. Phys. B 48(9), 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Daigle, J.-F.

Deng, Y.

J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 026412 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desparois, A.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

Diener, K.

Domich, E. G.

A. R. Hanson, E. G. Domich, and H. S. Adams, “Shock tube investigation of the breakup of drops by air blasts,” Phys. Fluids 6(8), 1070–1080 (1963).
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Dubois, J.

Duft, D.

M. Matthews, F. Pomel, C. Wender, A. Kiselev, D. Duft, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and T. Leisner, “Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501912 (2016).
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Durand, M.

Durécu, A.

Durham, J. L.

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Fleury, D.

Frey, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016602 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, X.

Gelderblom, H.

H. Gelderblom, Á. G. Marín, H. Nair, A. van Houselt, L. Lefferts, J. H. Snoeijer, and D. Lohse, “How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 83(2), 026306 (2011).
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Hanson, A. R.

A. R. Hanson, E. G. Domich, and H. S. Adams, “Shock tube investigation of the breakup of drops by air blasts,” Phys. Fluids 6(8), 1070–1080 (1963).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queisser, R. Salam, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z. Q.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
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Henin, S.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queisser, R. Salam, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Houard, A.

Johnston, T. W.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ju, J.

J. Ju, J. Liu, H. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Sun, Y. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, T. Wang, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament induced condensation and precipitation in a cloud chamber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25417 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wei, Y. Liu, T.-J. Wang, N. Chen, J. Ju, Y. Liu, H. Sun, C. Wang, J. Liu, H. Lu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Spectroscopic analysis of high electric field enhanced ionization in laser filaments in air for corona guiding,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, H. Sun, J. Ju, Y. Tian, Y. Bai, C. Wang, T.-J. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Vortices formation induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in a cloud chamber filled with air and helium,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(3), 031401 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: Experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E 88(6), 062803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J.

M. Matthews, F. Pomel, C. Wender, A. Kiselev, D. Duft, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and T. Leisner, “Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501912 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Modelling of HNO3-mediated laser-induced condensation: a parametric study,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(13), 134703 (2011).
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S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queisser, R. Salam, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(1), 466–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016602 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawasaki, Z.

Kieffer, J.-C.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kiselev, A.

M. Matthews, F. Pomel, C. Wender, A. Kiselev, D. Duft, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and T. Leisner, “Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501912 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korhonen, P.

A. Laaksonen, P. Korhonen, M. Kulmala, and R. J. Charlson, “Modification of the Köhler equation to include soluble trace gases and slightly soluble substances,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55(5), 853–862 (1998).
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Kulmala, M.

A. Laaksonen, P. Korhonen, M. Kulmala, and R. J. Charlson, “Modification of the Köhler equation to include soluble trace gases and slightly soluble substances,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55(5), 853–862 (1998).
[Crossref]

La Fontaine, B.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

Laaksonen, A.

A. Laaksonen, P. Korhonen, M. Kulmala, and R. J. Charlson, “Modification of the Köhler equation to include soluble trace gases and slightly soluble substances,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55(5), 853–862 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lascoux, N.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queisser, R. Salam, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lefferts, L.

H. Gelderblom, Á. G. Marín, H. Nair, A. van Houselt, L. Lefferts, J. H. Snoeijer, and D. Lohse, “How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 83(2), 026306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leisner, T.

M. Matthews, F. Pomel, C. Wender, A. Kiselev, D. Duft, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and T. Leisner, “Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501912 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leng, Y.

Y. Xu, J. Lu, W. Li, F. Wu, Y. Li, C. Wang, Z. Li, X. Lu, Y. Liu, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Stable 200TW/1Hz Ti:sapphire laser for driving full coherent XFEL,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 141–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Li, R.

Y. Wei, Y. Liu, T.-J. Wang, N. Chen, J. Ju, Y. Liu, H. Sun, C. Wang, J. Liu, H. Lu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Spectroscopic analysis of high electric field enhanced ionization in laser filaments in air for corona guiding,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, H. Sun, J. Ju, Y. Tian, Y. Bai, C. Wang, T.-J. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Vortices formation induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in a cloud chamber filled with air and helium,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(3), 031401 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, J. Lu, W. Li, F. Wu, Y. Li, C. Wang, Z. Li, X. Lu, Y. Liu, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Stable 200TW/1Hz Ti:sapphire laser for driving full coherent XFEL,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 141–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, J. Liu, H. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Sun, Y. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, T. Wang, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament induced condensation and precipitation in a cloud chamber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25417 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: Experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E 88(6), 062803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 026412 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

Y. Xu, J. Lu, W. Li, F. Wu, Y. Li, C. Wang, Z. Li, X. Lu, Y. Liu, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Stable 200TW/1Hz Ti:sapphire laser for driving full coherent XFEL,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 141–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Xu, J. Lu, W. Li, F. Wu, Y. Li, C. Wang, Z. Li, X. Lu, Y. Liu, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Stable 200TW/1Hz Ti:sapphire laser for driving full coherent XFEL,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 141–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Y. Xu, J. Lu, W. Li, F. Wu, Y. Li, C. Wang, Z. Li, X. Lu, Y. Liu, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Stable 200TW/1Hz Ti:sapphire laser for driving full coherent XFEL,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 141–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

J. Ju, J. Liu, H. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Sun, Y. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, T. Wang, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament induced condensation and precipitation in a cloud chamber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25417 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Ju, J. Liu, H. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Sun, Y. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, T. Wang, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament induced condensation and precipitation in a cloud chamber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25417 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wei, Y. Liu, T.-J. Wang, N. Chen, J. Ju, Y. Liu, H. Sun, C. Wang, J. Liu, H. Lu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Spectroscopic analysis of high electric field enhanced ionization in laser filaments in air for corona guiding,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, H. Sun, J. Ju, Y. Tian, Y. Bai, C. Wang, T.-J. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Vortices formation induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in a cloud chamber filled with air and helium,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(3), 031401 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: Experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E 88(6), 062803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 026412 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

J. Ju, J. Liu, H. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Sun, Y. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, T. Wang, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament induced condensation and precipitation in a cloud chamber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25417 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, J. Lu, W. Li, F. Wu, Y. Li, C. Wang, Z. Li, X. Lu, Y. Liu, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Stable 200TW/1Hz Ti:sapphire laser for driving full coherent XFEL,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 141–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wei, Y. Liu, T.-J. Wang, N. Chen, J. Ju, Y. Liu, H. Sun, C. Wang, J. Liu, H. Lu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Spectroscopic analysis of high electric field enhanced ionization in laser filaments in air for corona guiding,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, H. Sun, J. Ju, Y. Tian, Y. Bai, C. Wang, T.-J. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Vortices formation induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in a cloud chamber filled with air and helium,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(3), 031401 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wei, Y. Liu, T.-J. Wang, N. Chen, J. Ju, Y. Liu, H. Sun, C. Wang, J. Liu, H. Lu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Spectroscopic analysis of high electric field enhanced ionization in laser filaments in air for corona guiding,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lohmann, U.

B. Marcolli, B. Nagare, A. Welti, and U. Lohmann, “Ice nucleation efficiency of AgI: review and new insights,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(14), 8915–8937 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lohse, D.

H. Gelderblom, Á. G. Marín, H. Nair, A. van Houselt, L. Lefferts, J. H. Snoeijer, and D. Lohse, “How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 83(2), 026306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

Y. Wei, Y. Liu, T.-J. Wang, N. Chen, J. Ju, Y. Liu, H. Sun, C. Wang, J. Liu, H. Lu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Spectroscopic analysis of high electric field enhanced ionization in laser filaments in air for corona guiding,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.

Y. Xu, J. Lu, W. Li, F. Wu, Y. Li, C. Wang, Z. Li, X. Lu, Y. Liu, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Stable 200TW/1Hz Ti:sapphire laser for driving full coherent XFEL,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 141–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

Y. Xu, J. Lu, W. Li, F. Wu, Y. Li, C. Wang, Z. Li, X. Lu, Y. Liu, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Stable 200TW/1Hz Ti:sapphire laser for driving full coherent XFEL,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 141–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marcolli, B.

B. Marcolli, B. Nagare, A. Welti, and U. Lohmann, “Ice nucleation efficiency of AgI: review and new insights,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(14), 8915–8937 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marín, Á. G.

H. Gelderblom, Á. G. Marín, H. Nair, A. van Houselt, L. Lefferts, J. H. Snoeijer, and D. Lohse, “How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 83(2), 026306 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matthews, M.

M. Matthews, F. Pomel, C. Wender, A. Kiselev, D. Duft, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and T. Leisner, “Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501912 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Méjean, G.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016602 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mercure, H. P.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[Crossref]

Milián, C.

G. Point, C. Milián, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Generation of long-lived underdense channels using femtosecond filamentation in air,” J. Phys. B 48(9), 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mongin, D.

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreau, B.

Moret, M.

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
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Motokoshi, S.

Mysyrowicz, A.

G. Point, E. Thouin, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Energy deposition from focused terawatt laser pulses in air undergoing multifilamentation,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6271–6282 (2016).
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G. Point, C. Milián, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Generation of long-lived underdense channels using femtosecond filamentation in air,” J. Phys. B 48(9), 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Durécu, B. Moreau, D. Fleury, O. Vasseur, H. Borchert, K. Diener, R. Schmitt, F. Théberge, M. Chateauneuf, J.-F. Daigle, and J. Dubois, “Kilometer range filamentation,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26836–26845 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagare, B.

B. Marcolli, B. Nagare, A. Welti, and U. Lohmann, “Ice nucleation efficiency of AgI: review and new insights,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(14), 8915–8937 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nair, H.

H. Gelderblom, Á. G. Marín, H. Nair, A. van Houselt, L. Lefferts, J. H. Snoeijer, and D. Lohse, “How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 83(2), 026306 (2011).
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Nakaema, W. M.

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Prévôt, A. S. H.

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queisser, R. Salam, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Modelling of HNO3-mediated laser-induced condensation: a parametric study,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(13), 134703 (2011).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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Schneider, F.

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Skupin, S.

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J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: Experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E 88(6), 062803 (2013).
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S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
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Y. Liu, H. Sun, J. Ju, Y. Tian, Y. Bai, C. Wang, T.-J. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Vortices formation induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in a cloud chamber filled with air and helium,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(3), 031401 (2016).
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J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
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J. Ju, J. Liu, H. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Sun, Y. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, T. Wang, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament induced condensation and precipitation in a cloud chamber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25417 (2016).
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J. Ju, J. Liu, H. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Sun, Y. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, T. Wang, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament induced condensation and precipitation in a cloud chamber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25417 (2016).
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Y. Wei, Y. Liu, T.-J. Wang, N. Chen, J. Ju, Y. Liu, H. Sun, C. Wang, J. Liu, H. Lu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Spectroscopic analysis of high electric field enhanced ionization in laser filaments in air for corona guiding,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4, e8 (2016).
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Y. Liu, H. Sun, J. Ju, Y. Tian, Y. Bai, C. Wang, T.-J. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Li, “Vortices formation induced by femtosecond laser filamentation in a cloud chamber filled with air and helium,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(3), 031401 (2016).
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J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
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J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T.-J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: Experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E 88(6), 062803 (2013).
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S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2, 456 (2011).
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L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, “Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016602 (2005).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queisser, R. Salam, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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Y. Xu, J. Lu, W. Li, F. Wu, Y. Li, C. Wang, Z. Li, X. Lu, Y. Liu, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Stable 200TW/1Hz Ti:sapphire laser for driving full coherent XFEL,” Opt. Laser Technol. 79, 141–145 (2016).
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J. Ju, J. Liu, H. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Sun, Y. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, T. Wang, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament induced condensation and precipitation in a cloud chamber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25417 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       This video shows the time evolution of 22TW/1Hz laser-induced condensation and precipitation after each laser shot following the evolution of thermodynamics after strong multiple filamentation.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup. (b) Particle density of aerosols created by the 22-TW femtosecond filaments. The top right inset was a typical particle size spectrum of aerosols generated by firing the 1-Hz laser for 5 min.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Background. (b–c) Water condensation/precipitation (some being indicated by green circles and arrows) around the filament zone (blue dashed lines) at t 500 μs and t 1.0 ms after the arrival of the laser pulse, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a–j) Time evolution of water condensation/precipitation around the filament zone from t = 1.0 ms to 5.0 ms after the arrival of the laser. Here, in all subsequent figures, the previous location of the multiple filaments is illustrated between two blue dashed lines. The motion of the “cloud” flow around the filament zone is indicated by the yellow dotted arrows.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a–l) Time evolution of laser-induced water condensation/precipitation (some being emphasized by green circles) at t = 0.5 ms–1.0 s after the arrival of the laser pulse (see Visualization 1). Typical large-size particles following the “cloud” flow are indicated by green circles or pink arrows.

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