Abstract

Polarization-dependent hard X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) was used to study not only the optical properties but also the crystallographic orientations of a non-polar a-plane ZnO wafer. In addition to a positive-edge jump and extra oscillations in the near-band-edge (NBE) XEOL yield, we observed a blue shift of the NBE emission peak that follows the polarization-dependent X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) as the X-ray energy is tuned across the Zn K-edge. This NBE blue shift is caused by the larger X-ray absorption, generating higher free carriers to reduce the exciton-LO phonon coupling, which causes a decrease in the exciton activation energy. The extra oscillations in XANES and XEOL as the polarization is set parallel to the c-axis is attributed to simultaneous excitations of the Zn 4p - O 2p π -bond along the c-axis and the bilayer σ-bond, whereas only the σ-bond is excited when the polarization is perpendicular to the c-axis. The polarization-dependent XEOL spectra can be used to determine the crystallographic orientations.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

Y.-C. Wu, W.-R. Liu, H.-R. Chen, C.-H. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “The dominant effect of non-centrosymmetric displacement on the crystal-field energy splitting in the strained a-plane ZnO epi-films on r-plane sapphires,” CrystEngComm 19(24), 3348–3354 (2017).
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J. Chen, J. Zhang, J. Dai, F. Wu, S. Wang, H. Long, R. Liang, J. Xu, C. Chen, Z. Tang, Y. He, M. Li, and Z. Feng, “Strain dependent anisotropy in photoluminescence of heteroepitaxial nonpolar a-plane ZnO layers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(11), 3944–3951 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

B. H. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Tseng, J.-X. Wu, B.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, G.-C. Yin, S.-H. Chang, M.-T. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Probing the exciton-phonon coupling strengths of O-polar and Zn-polar ZnO wafer using hard X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 192104 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

S. Chen, X. Pan, H. He, W. Chen, J. Huang, B. Lu, and Z. Ye, “Enhanced internal quantum efficiency in non-polar ZnO/Zn0.81Mg0.19O multiple quantum wells by Pt surface plasmons coupling,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3639–3642 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, L. Ma, R. Schaeffer, R. Hoffmeyer, T. Sham, G. Belev, S. Kasap, and R. Sammynaiken, “X-ray excited optical luminescence of CaF2: A candidate for UV water treatment,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 619(1), 012047 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lin, H.-J. Su, C.-H. Lu, C.-P. Chang, W.-R. Liu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Pump polarization dependent ultrafast carrier dynamics and two-photon absorption in an a-plane ZnO epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. C. Kuo, B. H. Lin, S. Yang, W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, and C.-H. Hsu, “Surface-bound-exciton emission associated with domain interfaces in m-plane ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011901 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

L. Beaur, T. Bretagnon, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gil, D. Tainoff, M. Teisseire, and J.-M. Chauveau, “Low temperature reflectivity study of nonpolar ZnO/(Zn, Mg) O quantum wells grown on M-plane ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 101913 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Segura-Ruiz, G. Martínez-Criado, M. H. Chu, S. Geburt, and C. Ronning, “Nano-X-ray absorption spectroscopy of single Co-implanted ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5322–5326 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

L. Armelao, F. Heigl, S. Brunet, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, R. I. Blyth, L. Zuin, R. Sankari, J. Vogt, and T.-K. Sham, “The Origin and Dynamics of Soft X-Ray-Excited Optical Luminescence of ZnO,” ChemPhysChem 11(17), 3625–3631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

D. C. Oh, T. Kato, H. Goto, S. H. Park, T. Hanada, T. Yao, and J. J. Kim, “Comparative study of photoluminescences for Zn-polar and O-polar faces of single-crystalline ZnO bulks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241907 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Ney, K. Ollefs, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, V. Ney, T. C. Kaspar, S. A. Chambers, F. Wilhelm, and A. Rogalev, “Absence of intrinsic ferromagnetic interactions of isolated and paired Co dopant atoms in Zn1-xCoxO with high structural perfection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 157201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, K. Ueno, J. Ohta, H. Fujioka, H. Amanai, S. Nagao, and H. Horie, “Growth of a-plane GaN on lattice-matched ZnO substrates using a room-temperature buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191905 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Martínez-Criado, B. Alén, A. Homs, A. Somogyi, C. Miskys, J. Susini, J. Pereira-Lachataignerais, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Scanning x-ray excited optical luminescence microscopy in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221913 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H. Tampo, P. Fons, A. Yamada, K.-K. Kim, H. Shibata, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Kanie, “Determination of crystallographic polarity of ZnO layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141904 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J.-H. Guo, L. Vayssieres, C. Persson, R. Ahuja, B. Johansson, and J. Nordgren, “Polarization-dependent soft-x-ray absorption of highly oriented ZnO microrod arrays,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(28), 6969–6974 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

H. D. Sun, T. Makino, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinuma, “Stimulated emission induced by exciton–exciton scattering in ZnO/ZnMgO multiquantum wells up to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(26), 4250–4252 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

A. Yamamoto, T. Kido, T. Goto, Y. Chen, T. Yao, and A. Kasuya, “Dynamics of photoexcited carriers in ZnO epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(4), 469–471 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

S. Emura, T. Moriga, J. Takizawa, M. Nomura, K. R. Bauchspiess, T. Murata, K. Harada, and H. Maeda, “Optical-luminescence yield spectra produced by x-ray excitation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(12), 6918–6930 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

K. Shahzad and D. A. Cammack, “Distortion of excitonic emission bands due to self‐absorption in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(2), 180–182 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

E. H. Kisi and M. M. Elcombe, “u parameters for the wurtzite structure of ZnS and ZnO using powder neutron diffraction,” Acta Crystallogr. C 45(12), 1867–1870 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ahuja, R.

J.-H. Guo, L. Vayssieres, C. Persson, R. Ahuja, B. Johansson, and J. Nordgren, “Polarization-dependent soft-x-ray absorption of highly oriented ZnO microrod arrays,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(28), 6969–6974 (2002).
[Crossref]

Alén, B.

G. Martínez-Criado, B. Alén, A. Homs, A. Somogyi, C. Miskys, J. Susini, J. Pereira-Lachataignerais, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Scanning x-ray excited optical luminescence microscopy in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Amanai, H.

A. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, K. Ueno, J. Ohta, H. Fujioka, H. Amanai, S. Nagao, and H. Horie, “Growth of a-plane GaN on lattice-matched ZnO substrates using a room-temperature buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191905 (2007).
[Crossref]

Armelao, L.

L. Armelao, F. Heigl, S. Brunet, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, R. I. Blyth, L. Zuin, R. Sankari, J. Vogt, and T.-K. Sham, “The Origin and Dynamics of Soft X-Ray-Excited Optical Luminescence of ZnO,” ChemPhysChem 11(17), 3625–3631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, C. W.

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bauchspiess, K. R.

S. Emura, T. Moriga, J. Takizawa, M. Nomura, K. R. Bauchspiess, T. Murata, K. Harada, and H. Maeda, “Optical-luminescence yield spectra produced by x-ray excitation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(12), 6918–6930 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaur, L.

L. Beaur, T. Bretagnon, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gil, D. Tainoff, M. Teisseire, and J.-M. Chauveau, “Low temperature reflectivity study of nonpolar ZnO/(Zn, Mg) O quantum wells grown on M-plane ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 101913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Belev, G.

W. Chen, L. Ma, R. Schaeffer, R. Hoffmeyer, T. Sham, G. Belev, S. Kasap, and R. Sammynaiken, “X-ray excited optical luminescence of CaF2: A candidate for UV water treatment,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 619(1), 012047 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blyth, R. I.

L. Armelao, F. Heigl, S. Brunet, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, R. I. Blyth, L. Zuin, R. Sankari, J. Vogt, and T.-K. Sham, “The Origin and Dynamics of Soft X-Ray-Excited Optical Luminescence of ZnO,” ChemPhysChem 11(17), 3625–3631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bretagnon, T.

L. Beaur, T. Bretagnon, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gil, D. Tainoff, M. Teisseire, and J.-M. Chauveau, “Low temperature reflectivity study of nonpolar ZnO/(Zn, Mg) O quantum wells grown on M-plane ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 101913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brimont, C.

L. Beaur, T. Bretagnon, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gil, D. Tainoff, M. Teisseire, and J.-M. Chauveau, “Low temperature reflectivity study of nonpolar ZnO/(Zn, Mg) O quantum wells grown on M-plane ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 101913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brunet, S.

L. Armelao, F. Heigl, S. Brunet, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, R. I. Blyth, L. Zuin, R. Sankari, J. Vogt, and T.-K. Sham, “The Origin and Dynamics of Soft X-Ray-Excited Optical Luminescence of ZnO,” ChemPhysChem 11(17), 3625–3631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cammack, D. A.

K. Shahzad and D. A. Cammack, “Distortion of excitonic emission bands due to self‐absorption in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(2), 180–182 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chambers, S. A.

A. Ney, K. Ollefs, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, V. Ney, T. C. Kaspar, S. A. Chambers, F. Wilhelm, and A. Rogalev, “Absence of intrinsic ferromagnetic interactions of isolated and paired Co dopant atoms in Zn1-xCoxO with high structural perfection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 157201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-P.

J.-H. Lin, H.-J. Su, C.-H. Lu, C.-P. Chang, W.-R. Liu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Pump polarization dependent ultrafast carrier dynamics and two-photon absorption in an a-plane ZnO epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-H.

B. H. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Tseng, J.-X. Wu, B.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, G.-C. Yin, S.-H. Chang, M.-T. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Probing the exciton-phonon coupling strengths of O-polar and Zn-polar ZnO wafer using hard X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 192104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chauveau, J.-M.

L. Beaur, T. Bretagnon, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gil, D. Tainoff, M. Teisseire, and J.-M. Chauveau, “Low temperature reflectivity study of nonpolar ZnO/(Zn, Mg) O quantum wells grown on M-plane ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 101913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.-Y.

B. H. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Tseng, J.-X. Wu, B.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, G.-C. Yin, S.-H. Chang, M.-T. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Probing the exciton-phonon coupling strengths of O-polar and Zn-polar ZnO wafer using hard X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 192104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Chen, H.-R.

Y.-C. Wu, W.-R. Liu, H.-R. Chen, C.-H. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “The dominant effect of non-centrosymmetric displacement on the crystal-field energy splitting in the strained a-plane ZnO epi-films on r-plane sapphires,” CrystEngComm 19(24), 3348–3354 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-Y.

B. H. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Tseng, J.-X. Wu, B.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, G.-C. Yin, S.-H. Chang, M.-T. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Probing the exciton-phonon coupling strengths of O-polar and Zn-polar ZnO wafer using hard X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 192104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, S.

Chen, W.

S. Chen, X. Pan, H. He, W. Chen, J. Huang, B. Lu, and Z. Ye, “Enhanced internal quantum efficiency in non-polar ZnO/Zn0.81Mg0.19O multiple quantum wells by Pt surface plasmons coupling,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3639–3642 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, L. Ma, R. Schaeffer, R. Hoffmeyer, T. Sham, G. Belev, S. Kasap, and R. Sammynaiken, “X-ray excited optical luminescence of CaF2: A candidate for UV water treatment,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 619(1), 012047 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

A. Yamamoto, T. Kido, T. Goto, Y. Chen, T. Yao, and A. Kasuya, “Dynamics of photoexcited carriers in ZnO epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(4), 469–471 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chiou, J. W.

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chu, M. H.

J. Segura-Ruiz, G. Martínez-Criado, M. H. Chu, S. Geburt, and C. Ronning, “Nano-X-ray absorption spectroscopy of single Co-implanted ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5322–5326 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

Elcombe, M. M.

E. H. Kisi and M. M. Elcombe, “u parameters for the wurtzite structure of ZnS and ZnO using powder neutron diffraction,” Acta Crystallogr. C 45(12), 1867–1870 (1989).
[Crossref]

Emura, S.

S. Emura, T. Moriga, J. Takizawa, M. Nomura, K. R. Bauchspiess, T. Murata, K. Harada, and H. Maeda, “Optical-luminescence yield spectra produced by x-ray excitation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(12), 6918–6930 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Z.

Fons, P.

H. Tampo, P. Fons, A. Yamada, K.-K. Kim, H. Shibata, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Kanie, “Determination of crystallographic polarity of ZnO layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujioka, H.

A. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, K. Ueno, J. Ohta, H. Fujioka, H. Amanai, S. Nagao, and H. Horie, “Growth of a-plane GaN on lattice-matched ZnO substrates using a room-temperature buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191905 (2007).
[Crossref]

Geburt, S.

J. Segura-Ruiz, G. Martínez-Criado, M. H. Chu, S. Geburt, and C. Ronning, “Nano-X-ray absorption spectroscopy of single Co-implanted ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5322–5326 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gil, B.

L. Beaur, T. Bretagnon, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gil, D. Tainoff, M. Teisseire, and J.-M. Chauveau, “Low temperature reflectivity study of nonpolar ZnO/(Zn, Mg) O quantum wells grown on M-plane ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 101913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goto, H.

D. C. Oh, T. Kato, H. Goto, S. H. Park, T. Hanada, T. Yao, and J. J. Kim, “Comparative study of photoluminescences for Zn-polar and O-polar faces of single-crystalline ZnO bulks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241907 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goto, T.

A. Yamamoto, T. Kido, T. Goto, Y. Chen, T. Yao, and A. Kasuya, “Dynamics of photoexcited carriers in ZnO epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(4), 469–471 (1999).
[Crossref]

Graupner, W.

Guillet, T.

L. Beaur, T. Bretagnon, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gil, D. Tainoff, M. Teisseire, and J.-M. Chauveau, “Low temperature reflectivity study of nonpolar ZnO/(Zn, Mg) O quantum wells grown on M-plane ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 101913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, J.-H.

J.-H. Guo, L. Vayssieres, C. Persson, R. Ahuja, B. Johansson, and J. Nordgren, “Polarization-dependent soft-x-ray absorption of highly oriented ZnO microrod arrays,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(28), 6969–6974 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hanada, T.

D. C. Oh, T. Kato, H. Goto, S. H. Park, T. Hanada, T. Yao, and J. J. Kim, “Comparative study of photoluminescences for Zn-polar and O-polar faces of single-crystalline ZnO bulks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241907 (2008).
[Crossref]

Harada, K.

S. Emura, T. Moriga, J. Takizawa, M. Nomura, K. R. Bauchspiess, T. Murata, K. Harada, and H. Maeda, “Optical-luminescence yield spectra produced by x-ray excitation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(12), 6918–6930 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, H.

He, Y.

Heigl, F.

L. Armelao, F. Heigl, S. Brunet, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, R. I. Blyth, L. Zuin, R. Sankari, J. Vogt, and T.-K. Sham, “The Origin and Dynamics of Soft X-Ray-Excited Optical Luminescence of ZnO,” ChemPhysChem 11(17), 3625–3631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffmeyer, R.

W. Chen, L. Ma, R. Schaeffer, R. Hoffmeyer, T. Sham, G. Belev, S. Kasap, and R. Sammynaiken, “X-ray excited optical luminescence of CaF2: A candidate for UV water treatment,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 619(1), 012047 (2015).
[Crossref]

Homs, A.

G. Martínez-Criado, B. Alén, A. Homs, A. Somogyi, C. Miskys, J. Susini, J. Pereira-Lachataignerais, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Scanning x-ray excited optical luminescence microscopy in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hong, I.-H.

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

Horie, H.

A. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, K. Ueno, J. Ohta, H. Fujioka, H. Amanai, S. Nagao, and H. Horie, “Growth of a-plane GaN on lattice-matched ZnO substrates using a room-temperature buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191905 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, W. F.

Y.-C. Wu, W.-R. Liu, H.-R. Chen, C.-H. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “The dominant effect of non-centrosymmetric displacement on the crystal-field energy splitting in the strained a-plane ZnO epi-films on r-plane sapphires,” CrystEngComm 19(24), 3348–3354 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. H. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Tseng, J.-X. Wu, B.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, G.-C. Yin, S.-H. Chang, M.-T. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Probing the exciton-phonon coupling strengths of O-polar and Zn-polar ZnO wafer using hard X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 192104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lin, H.-J. Su, C.-H. Lu, C.-P. Chang, W.-R. Liu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Pump polarization dependent ultrafast carrier dynamics and two-photon absorption in an a-plane ZnO epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. C. Kuo, B. H. Lin, S. Yang, W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, and C.-H. Hsu, “Surface-bound-exciton emission associated with domain interfaces in m-plane ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C.-H.

Y.-C. Wu, W.-R. Liu, H.-R. Chen, C.-H. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “The dominant effect of non-centrosymmetric displacement on the crystal-field energy splitting in the strained a-plane ZnO epi-films on r-plane sapphires,” CrystEngComm 19(24), 3348–3354 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. C. Kuo, B. H. Lin, S. Yang, W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, and C.-H. Hsu, “Surface-bound-exciton emission associated with domain interfaces in m-plane ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Jan, J. C.

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

Johansson, B.

J.-H. Guo, L. Vayssieres, C. Persson, R. Ahuja, B. Johansson, and J. Nordgren, “Polarization-dependent soft-x-ray absorption of highly oriented ZnO microrod arrays,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(28), 6969–6974 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kammermeier, T.

A. Ney, K. Ollefs, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, V. Ney, T. C. Kaspar, S. A. Chambers, F. Wilhelm, and A. Rogalev, “Absence of intrinsic ferromagnetic interactions of isolated and paired Co dopant atoms in Zn1-xCoxO with high structural perfection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 157201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanie, H.

H. Tampo, P. Fons, A. Yamada, K.-K. Kim, H. Shibata, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Kanie, “Determination of crystallographic polarity of ZnO layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kasap, S.

W. Chen, L. Ma, R. Schaeffer, R. Hoffmeyer, T. Sham, G. Belev, S. Kasap, and R. Sammynaiken, “X-ray excited optical luminescence of CaF2: A candidate for UV water treatment,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 619(1), 012047 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kaspar, T. C.

A. Ney, K. Ollefs, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, V. Ney, T. C. Kaspar, S. A. Chambers, F. Wilhelm, and A. Rogalev, “Absence of intrinsic ferromagnetic interactions of isolated and paired Co dopant atoms in Zn1-xCoxO with high structural perfection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 157201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasuya, A.

A. Yamamoto, T. Kido, T. Goto, Y. Chen, T. Yao, and A. Kasuya, “Dynamics of photoexcited carriers in ZnO epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(4), 469–471 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kato, T.

D. C. Oh, T. Kato, H. Goto, S. H. Park, T. Hanada, T. Yao, and J. J. Kim, “Comparative study of photoluminescences for Zn-polar and O-polar faces of single-crystalline ZnO bulks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241907 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kawano, S.

A. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, K. Ueno, J. Ohta, H. Fujioka, H. Amanai, S. Nagao, and H. Horie, “Growth of a-plane GaN on lattice-matched ZnO substrates using a room-temperature buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191905 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, M.

H. D. Sun, T. Makino, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinuma, “Stimulated emission induced by exciton–exciton scattering in ZnO/ZnMgO multiquantum wells up to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(26), 4250–4252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kido, T.

A. Yamamoto, T. Kido, T. Goto, Y. Chen, T. Yao, and A. Kasuya, “Dynamics of photoexcited carriers in ZnO epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(4), 469–471 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. J.

D. C. Oh, T. Kato, H. Goto, S. H. Park, T. Hanada, T. Yao, and J. J. Kim, “Comparative study of photoluminescences for Zn-polar and O-polar faces of single-crystalline ZnO bulks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241907 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-K.

H. Tampo, P. Fons, A. Yamada, K.-K. Kim, H. Shibata, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Kanie, “Determination of crystallographic polarity of ZnO layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kisi, E. H.

E. H. Kisi and M. M. Elcombe, “u parameters for the wurtzite structure of ZnS and ZnO using powder neutron diffraction,” Acta Crystallogr. C 45(12), 1867–1870 (1989).
[Crossref]

Klauser, R.

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, A.

A. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, K. Ueno, J. Ohta, H. Fujioka, H. Amanai, S. Nagao, and H. Horie, “Growth of a-plane GaN on lattice-matched ZnO substrates using a room-temperature buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191905 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koinuma, H.

H. D. Sun, T. Makino, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinuma, “Stimulated emission induced by exciton–exciton scattering in ZnO/ZnMgO multiquantum wells up to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(26), 4250–4252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kolbas, R. M.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. C.

C. C. Kuo, B. H. Lin, S. Yang, W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, and C.-H. Hsu, “Surface-bound-exciton emission associated with domain interfaces in m-plane ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-Y.

B. H. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Tseng, J.-X. Wu, B.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, G.-C. Yin, S.-H. Chang, M.-T. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Probing the exciton-phonon coupling strengths of O-polar and Zn-polar ZnO wafer using hard X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 192104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. F.

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

Liang, R.

Lin, B. H.

B. H. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Tseng, J.-X. Wu, B.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, G.-C. Yin, S.-H. Chang, M.-T. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Probing the exciton-phonon coupling strengths of O-polar and Zn-polar ZnO wafer using hard X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 192104 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. C. Kuo, B. H. Lin, S. Yang, W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, and C.-H. Hsu, “Surface-bound-exciton emission associated with domain interfaces in m-plane ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.-H.

J.-H. Lin, H.-J. Su, C.-H. Lu, C.-P. Chang, W.-R. Liu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Pump polarization dependent ultrafast carrier dynamics and two-photon absorption in an a-plane ZnO epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. C.

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. R.

C. C. Kuo, B. H. Lin, S. Yang, W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, and C.-H. Hsu, “Surface-bound-exciton emission associated with domain interfaces in m-plane ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.-R.

Y.-C. Wu, W.-R. Liu, H.-R. Chen, C.-H. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “The dominant effect of non-centrosymmetric displacement on the crystal-field energy splitting in the strained a-plane ZnO epi-films on r-plane sapphires,” CrystEngComm 19(24), 3348–3354 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lin, H.-J. Su, C.-H. Lu, C.-P. Chang, W.-R. Liu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Pump polarization dependent ultrafast carrier dynamics and two-photon absorption in an a-plane ZnO epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Long, H.

Lu, B.

Lu, C.-H.

J.-H. Lin, H.-J. Su, C.-H. Lu, C.-P. Chang, W.-R. Liu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Pump polarization dependent ultrafast carrier dynamics and two-photon absorption in an a-plane ZnO epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.

W. Chen, L. Ma, R. Schaeffer, R. Hoffmeyer, T. Sham, G. Belev, S. Kasap, and R. Sammynaiken, “X-ray excited optical luminescence of CaF2: A candidate for UV water treatment,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 619(1), 012047 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maeda, H.

S. Emura, T. Moriga, J. Takizawa, M. Nomura, K. R. Bauchspiess, T. Murata, K. Harada, and H. Maeda, “Optical-luminescence yield spectra produced by x-ray excitation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(12), 6918–6930 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makino, T.

H. D. Sun, T. Makino, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinuma, “Stimulated emission induced by exciton–exciton scattering in ZnO/ZnMgO multiquantum wells up to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(26), 4250–4252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Martínez-Criado, G.

J. Segura-Ruiz, G. Martínez-Criado, M. H. Chu, S. Geburt, and C. Ronning, “Nano-X-ray absorption spectroscopy of single Co-implanted ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5322–5326 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Martínez-Criado, B. Alén, A. Homs, A. Somogyi, C. Miskys, J. Susini, J. Pereira-Lachataignerais, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Scanning x-ray excited optical luminescence microscopy in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martínez-Pastor, J.

G. Martínez-Criado, B. Alén, A. Homs, A. Somogyi, C. Miskys, J. Susini, J. Pereira-Lachataignerais, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Scanning x-ray excited optical luminescence microscopy in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, K.

H. Tampo, P. Fons, A. Yamada, K.-K. Kim, H. Shibata, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Kanie, “Determination of crystallographic polarity of ZnO layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miskys, C.

G. Martínez-Criado, B. Alén, A. Homs, A. Somogyi, C. Miskys, J. Susini, J. Pereira-Lachataignerais, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Scanning x-ray excited optical luminescence microscopy in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moriga, T.

S. Emura, T. Moriga, J. Takizawa, M. Nomura, K. R. Bauchspiess, T. Murata, K. Harada, and H. Maeda, “Optical-luminescence yield spectra produced by x-ray excitation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(12), 6918–6930 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murata, T.

S. Emura, T. Moriga, J. Takizawa, M. Nomura, K. R. Bauchspiess, T. Murata, K. Harada, and H. Maeda, “Optical-luminescence yield spectra produced by x-ray excitation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(12), 6918–6930 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muth, J. F.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nagao, S.

A. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, K. Ueno, J. Ohta, H. Fujioka, H. Amanai, S. Nagao, and H. Horie, “Growth of a-plane GaN on lattice-matched ZnO substrates using a room-temperature buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191905 (2007).
[Crossref]

Narayan, J.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ney, A.

A. Ney, K. Ollefs, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, V. Ney, T. C. Kaspar, S. A. Chambers, F. Wilhelm, and A. Rogalev, “Absence of intrinsic ferromagnetic interactions of isolated and paired Co dopant atoms in Zn1-xCoxO with high structural perfection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 157201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ney, V.

A. Ney, K. Ollefs, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, V. Ney, T. C. Kaspar, S. A. Chambers, F. Wilhelm, and A. Rogalev, “Absence of intrinsic ferromagnetic interactions of isolated and paired Co dopant atoms in Zn1-xCoxO with high structural perfection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 157201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niki, S.

H. Tampo, P. Fons, A. Yamada, K.-K. Kim, H. Shibata, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Kanie, “Determination of crystallographic polarity of ZnO layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nomura, M.

S. Emura, T. Moriga, J. Takizawa, M. Nomura, K. R. Bauchspiess, T. Murata, K. Harada, and H. Maeda, “Optical-luminescence yield spectra produced by x-ray excitation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(12), 6918–6930 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordgren, J.

J.-H. Guo, L. Vayssieres, C. Persson, R. Ahuja, B. Johansson, and J. Nordgren, “Polarization-dependent soft-x-ray absorption of highly oriented ZnO microrod arrays,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(28), 6969–6974 (2002).
[Crossref]

Oh, D. C.

D. C. Oh, T. Kato, H. Goto, S. H. Park, T. Hanada, T. Yao, and J. J. Kim, “Comparative study of photoluminescences for Zn-polar and O-polar faces of single-crystalline ZnO bulks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241907 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ohta, J.

A. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, K. Ueno, J. Ohta, H. Fujioka, H. Amanai, S. Nagao, and H. Horie, “Growth of a-plane GaN on lattice-matched ZnO substrates using a room-temperature buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191905 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ohtomo, A.

H. D. Sun, T. Makino, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinuma, “Stimulated emission induced by exciton–exciton scattering in ZnO/ZnMgO multiquantum wells up to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(26), 4250–4252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Oktyabrsky, S.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ollefs, K.

A. Ney, K. Ollefs, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, V. Ney, T. C. Kaspar, S. A. Chambers, F. Wilhelm, and A. Rogalev, “Absence of intrinsic ferromagnetic interactions of isolated and paired Co dopant atoms in Zn1-xCoxO with high structural perfection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 157201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, X.

Park, S. H.

D. C. Oh, T. Kato, H. Goto, S. H. Park, T. Hanada, T. Yao, and J. J. Kim, “Comparative study of photoluminescences for Zn-polar and O-polar faces of single-crystalline ZnO bulks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241907 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pereira-Lachataignerais, J.

G. Martínez-Criado, B. Alén, A. Homs, A. Somogyi, C. Miskys, J. Susini, J. Pereira-Lachataignerais, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Scanning x-ray excited optical luminescence microscopy in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Persson, C.

J.-H. Guo, L. Vayssieres, C. Persson, R. Ahuja, B. Johansson, and J. Nordgren, “Polarization-dependent soft-x-ray absorption of highly oriented ZnO microrod arrays,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(28), 6969–6974 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pong, W. F.

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

Regier, T.

L. Armelao, F. Heigl, S. Brunet, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, R. I. Blyth, L. Zuin, R. Sankari, J. Vogt, and T.-K. Sham, “The Origin and Dynamics of Soft X-Ray-Excited Optical Luminescence of ZnO,” ChemPhysChem 11(17), 3625–3631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogalev, A.

A. Ney, K. Ollefs, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, V. Ney, T. C. Kaspar, S. A. Chambers, F. Wilhelm, and A. Rogalev, “Absence of intrinsic ferromagnetic interactions of isolated and paired Co dopant atoms in Zn1-xCoxO with high structural perfection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 157201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronning, C.

J. Segura-Ruiz, G. Martínez-Criado, M. H. Chu, S. Geburt, and C. Ronning, “Nano-X-ray absorption spectroscopy of single Co-implanted ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5322–5326 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, S.

Sammynaiken, R.

W. Chen, L. Ma, R. Schaeffer, R. Hoffmeyer, T. Sham, G. Belev, S. Kasap, and R. Sammynaiken, “X-ray excited optical luminescence of CaF2: A candidate for UV water treatment,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 619(1), 012047 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Armelao, F. Heigl, S. Brunet, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, R. I. Blyth, L. Zuin, R. Sankari, J. Vogt, and T.-K. Sham, “The Origin and Dynamics of Soft X-Ray-Excited Optical Luminescence of ZnO,” ChemPhysChem 11(17), 3625–3631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sankari, R.

L. Armelao, F. Heigl, S. Brunet, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, R. I. Blyth, L. Zuin, R. Sankari, J. Vogt, and T.-K. Sham, “The Origin and Dynamics of Soft X-Ray-Excited Optical Luminescence of ZnO,” ChemPhysChem 11(17), 3625–3631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaeffer, R.

W. Chen, L. Ma, R. Schaeffer, R. Hoffmeyer, T. Sham, G. Belev, S. Kasap, and R. Sammynaiken, “X-ray excited optical luminescence of CaF2: A candidate for UV water treatment,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 619(1), 012047 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, R.

Segawa, Y.

H. D. Sun, T. Makino, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinuma, “Stimulated emission induced by exciton–exciton scattering in ZnO/ZnMgO multiquantum wells up to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(26), 4250–4252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Segura-Ruiz, J.

J. Segura-Ruiz, G. Martínez-Criado, M. H. Chu, S. Geburt, and C. Ronning, “Nano-X-ray absorption spectroscopy of single Co-implanted ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5322–5326 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shahzad, K.

K. Shahzad and D. A. Cammack, “Distortion of excitonic emission bands due to self‐absorption in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(2), 180–182 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sham, T.

W. Chen, L. Ma, R. Schaeffer, R. Hoffmeyer, T. Sham, G. Belev, S. Kasap, and R. Sammynaiken, “X-ray excited optical luminescence of CaF2: A candidate for UV water treatment,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 619(1), 012047 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sham, T.-K.

L. Armelao, F. Heigl, S. Brunet, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, R. I. Blyth, L. Zuin, R. Sankari, J. Vogt, and T.-K. Sham, “The Origin and Dynamics of Soft X-Ray-Excited Optical Luminescence of ZnO,” ChemPhysChem 11(17), 3625–3631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, A. K.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shibata, H.

H. Tampo, P. Fons, A. Yamada, K.-K. Kim, H. Shibata, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Kanie, “Determination of crystallographic polarity of ZnO layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Somogyi, A.

G. Martínez-Criado, B. Alén, A. Homs, A. Somogyi, C. Miskys, J. Susini, J. Pereira-Lachataignerais, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Scanning x-ray excited optical luminescence microscopy in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Su, H.-J.

J.-H. Lin, H.-J. Su, C.-H. Lu, C.-P. Chang, W.-R. Liu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Pump polarization dependent ultrafast carrier dynamics and two-photon absorption in an a-plane ZnO epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. D.

H. D. Sun, T. Makino, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinuma, “Stimulated emission induced by exciton–exciton scattering in ZnO/ZnMgO multiquantum wells up to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(26), 4250–4252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Susini, J.

G. Martínez-Criado, B. Alén, A. Homs, A. Somogyi, C. Miskys, J. Susini, J. Pereira-Lachataignerais, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Scanning x-ray excited optical luminescence microscopy in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tainoff, D.

L. Beaur, T. Bretagnon, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gil, D. Tainoff, M. Teisseire, and J.-M. Chauveau, “Low temperature reflectivity study of nonpolar ZnO/(Zn, Mg) O quantum wells grown on M-plane ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 101913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Takizawa, J.

S. Emura, T. Moriga, J. Takizawa, M. Nomura, K. R. Bauchspiess, T. Murata, K. Harada, and H. Maeda, “Optical-luminescence yield spectra produced by x-ray excitation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(12), 6918–6930 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tampo, H.

H. Tampo, P. Fons, A. Yamada, K.-K. Kim, H. Shibata, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Kanie, “Determination of crystallographic polarity of ZnO layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tamura, K.

H. D. Sun, T. Makino, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinuma, “Stimulated emission induced by exciton–exciton scattering in ZnO/ZnMgO multiquantum wells up to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(26), 4250–4252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tang, M.-T.

B. H. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Tseng, J.-X. Wu, B.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, G.-C. Yin, S.-H. Chang, M.-T. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Probing the exciton-phonon coupling strengths of O-polar and Zn-polar ZnO wafer using hard X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 192104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z.

Tang, Z. K.

H. D. Sun, T. Makino, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinuma, “Stimulated emission induced by exciton–exciton scattering in ZnO/ZnMgO multiquantum wells up to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(26), 4250–4252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Teisseire, M.

L. Beaur, T. Bretagnon, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gil, D. Tainoff, M. Teisseire, and J.-M. Chauveau, “Low temperature reflectivity study of nonpolar ZnO/(Zn, Mg) O quantum wells grown on M-plane ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 101913 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H. M.

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M.-H.

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tseng, S.-C.

B. H. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Tseng, J.-X. Wu, B.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, G.-C. Yin, S.-H. Chang, M.-T. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Probing the exciton-phonon coupling strengths of O-polar and Zn-polar ZnO wafer using hard X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 192104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tuan, N. T.

H. D. Sun, T. Makino, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinuma, “Stimulated emission induced by exciton–exciton scattering in ZnO/ZnMgO multiquantum wells up to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(26), 4250–4252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ueno, K.

A. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, K. Ueno, J. Ohta, H. Fujioka, H. Amanai, S. Nagao, and H. Horie, “Growth of a-plane GaN on lattice-matched ZnO substrates using a room-temperature buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191905 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ullrich, B.

Vayssieres, L.

J.-H. Guo, L. Vayssieres, C. Persson, R. Ahuja, B. Johansson, and J. Nordgren, “Polarization-dependent soft-x-ray absorption of highly oriented ZnO microrod arrays,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(28), 6969–6974 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vogt, J.

L. Armelao, F. Heigl, S. Brunet, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, R. I. Blyth, L. Zuin, R. Sankari, J. Vogt, and T.-K. Sham, “The Origin and Dynamics of Soft X-Ray-Excited Optical Luminescence of ZnO,” ChemPhysChem 11(17), 3625–3631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Wilhelm, F.

A. Ney, K. Ollefs, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, V. Ney, T. C. Kaspar, S. A. Chambers, F. Wilhelm, and A. Rogalev, “Absence of intrinsic ferromagnetic interactions of isolated and paired Co dopant atoms in Zn1-xCoxO with high structural perfection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 157201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, G. K. L.

H. D. Sun, T. Makino, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinuma, “Stimulated emission induced by exciton–exciton scattering in ZnO/ZnMgO multiquantum wells up to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(26), 4250–4252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

Wu, J. J.

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.-X.

B. H. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Tseng, J.-X. Wu, B.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, G.-C. Yin, S.-H. Chang, M.-T. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Probing the exciton-phonon coupling strengths of O-polar and Zn-polar ZnO wafer using hard X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 192104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Wu, W.-R. Liu, H.-R. Chen, C.-H. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “The dominant effect of non-centrosymmetric displacement on the crystal-field energy splitting in the strained a-plane ZnO epi-films on r-plane sapphires,” CrystEngComm 19(24), 3348–3354 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Yamada, A.

H. Tampo, P. Fons, A. Yamada, K.-K. Kim, H. Shibata, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Kanie, “Determination of crystallographic polarity of ZnO layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, A.

A. Yamamoto, T. Kido, T. Goto, Y. Chen, T. Yao, and A. Kasuya, “Dynamics of photoexcited carriers in ZnO epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(4), 469–471 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

C. C. Kuo, B. H. Lin, S. Yang, W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, and C.-H. Hsu, “Surface-bound-exciton emission associated with domain interfaces in m-plane ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, T.

D. C. Oh, T. Kato, H. Goto, S. H. Park, T. Hanada, T. Yao, and J. J. Kim, “Comparative study of photoluminescences for Zn-polar and O-polar faces of single-crystalline ZnO bulks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241907 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Yamamoto, T. Kido, T. Goto, Y. Chen, T. Yao, and A. Kasuya, “Dynamics of photoexcited carriers in ZnO epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(4), 469–471 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ye, S.

A. Ney, K. Ollefs, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, V. Ney, T. C. Kaspar, S. A. Chambers, F. Wilhelm, and A. Rogalev, “Absence of intrinsic ferromagnetic interactions of isolated and paired Co dopant atoms in Zn1-xCoxO with high structural perfection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 157201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, Z.

Yin, G.-C.

B. H. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Tseng, J.-X. Wu, B.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, G.-C. Yin, S.-H. Chang, M.-T. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Probing the exciton-phonon coupling strengths of O-polar and Zn-polar ZnO wafer using hard X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 192104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, H.

H. Tampo, P. Fons, A. Yamada, K.-K. Kim, H. Shibata, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Kanie, “Determination of crystallographic polarity of ZnO layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zuin, L.

L. Armelao, F. Heigl, S. Brunet, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, R. I. Blyth, L. Zuin, R. Sankari, J. Vogt, and T.-K. Sham, “The Origin and Dynamics of Soft X-Ray-Excited Optical Luminescence of ZnO,” ChemPhysChem 11(17), 3625–3631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Crystallogr. C (1)

E. H. Kisi and M. M. Elcombe, “u parameters for the wurtzite structure of ZnS and ZnO using powder neutron diffraction,” Acta Crystallogr. C 45(12), 1867–1870 (1989).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

J. W. Chiou, J. C. Jan, H. M. Tsai, C. W. Bao, W. F. Pong, M.-H. Tsai, I.-H. Hong, R. Klauser, J. F. Lee, J. J. Wu, and S. C. Liu, “Electronic structure of ZnO nanorods studied by angle-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3462–3464 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Tampo, P. Fons, A. Yamada, K.-K. Kim, H. Shibata, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Kanie, “Determination of crystallographic polarity of ZnO layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141904 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Beaur, T. Bretagnon, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gil, D. Tainoff, M. Teisseire, and J.-M. Chauveau, “Low temperature reflectivity study of nonpolar ZnO/(Zn, Mg) O quantum wells grown on M-plane ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 101913 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, K. Ueno, J. Ohta, H. Fujioka, H. Amanai, S. Nagao, and H. Horie, “Growth of a-plane GaN on lattice-matched ZnO substrates using a room-temperature buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191905 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. H. Lin, H.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Tseng, J.-X. Wu, B.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, G.-C. Yin, S.-H. Chang, M.-T. Tang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Probing the exciton-phonon coupling strengths of O-polar and Zn-polar ZnO wafer using hard X-ray excited optical luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 192104 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Martínez-Criado, B. Alén, A. Homs, A. Somogyi, C. Miskys, J. Susini, J. Pereira-Lachataignerais, and J. Martínez-Pastor, “Scanning x-ray excited optical luminescence microscopy in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221913 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. C. Kuo, B. H. Lin, S. Yang, W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, and C.-H. Hsu, “Surface-bound-exciton emission associated with domain interfaces in m-plane ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011901 (2012).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lin, H.-J. Su, C.-H. Lu, C.-P. Chang, W.-R. Liu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Pump polarization dependent ultrafast carrier dynamics and two-photon absorption in an a-plane ZnO epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. D. Sun, T. Makino, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinuma, “Stimulated emission induced by exciton–exciton scattering in ZnO/ZnMgO multiquantum wells up to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(26), 4250–4252 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. C. Oh, T. Kato, H. Goto, S. H. Park, T. Hanada, T. Yao, and J. J. Kim, “Comparative study of photoluminescences for Zn-polar and O-polar faces of single-crystalline ZnO bulks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241907 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Yamamoto, T. Kido, T. Goto, Y. Chen, T. Yao, and A. Kasuya, “Dynamics of photoexcited carriers in ZnO epitaxial thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(4), 469–471 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Shahzad and D. A. Cammack, “Distortion of excitonic emission bands due to self‐absorption in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(2), 180–182 (1990).
[Crossref]

ChemPhysChem (1)

L. Armelao, F. Heigl, S. Brunet, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, R. I. Blyth, L. Zuin, R. Sankari, J. Vogt, and T.-K. Sham, “The Origin and Dynamics of Soft X-Ray-Excited Optical Luminescence of ZnO,” ChemPhysChem 11(17), 3625–3631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

CrystEngComm (1)

Y.-C. Wu, W.-R. Liu, H.-R. Chen, C.-H. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “The dominant effect of non-centrosymmetric displacement on the crystal-field energy splitting in the strained a-plane ZnO epi-films on r-plane sapphires,” CrystEngComm 19(24), 3348–3354 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and absorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

J.-H. Guo, L. Vayssieres, C. Persson, R. Ahuja, B. Johansson, and J. Nordgren, “Polarization-dependent soft-x-ray absorption of highly oriented ZnO microrod arrays,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(28), 6969–6974 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

W. Chen, L. Ma, R. Schaeffer, R. Hoffmeyer, T. Sham, G. Belev, S. Kasap, and R. Sammynaiken, “X-ray excited optical luminescence of CaF2: A candidate for UV water treatment,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 619(1), 012047 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Segura-Ruiz, G. Martínez-Criado, M. H. Chu, S. Geburt, and C. Ronning, “Nano-X-ray absorption spectroscopy of single Co-implanted ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5322–5326 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

S. Emura, T. Moriga, J. Takizawa, M. Nomura, K. R. Bauchspiess, T. Murata, K. Harada, and H. Maeda, “Optical-luminescence yield spectra produced by x-ray excitation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(12), 6918–6930 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Ney, K. Ollefs, S. Ye, T. Kammermeier, V. Ney, T. C. Kaspar, S. A. Chambers, F. Wilhelm, and A. Rogalev, “Absence of intrinsic ferromagnetic interactions of isolated and paired Co dopant atoms in Zn1-xCoxO with high structural perfection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 157201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

P. Willmott, An Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation: Techniques and Applications (John Wiley and Sons, 2011).

J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer, 1992).

A. Rogalev and J. Goulon, “X-ray excited optical luminescence spectroscopies,” in Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation, Part II: X-ray Applications, T. K. Sham, ed. (World Scientific, 2002).

A. Ogereau, J. Brault, M. Leroux, J.-M. Chauveau, B. Damilano, M. Teisseire, Y. Xia, and P. Vennéguès, “Non Polar GaN and (Ga, In) N/GaN Heterostructures Grown On A-Plane (1 1-2 0) ZnO Subtrates,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper ATh3A.1.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The crystal structure of wurtzite ZnO and the definition of the incident X-ray with EX-rayc and EX-rayc. Comparison of the emission behavior of a-plane ZnO using (b) un-polarized PL and (c) XEOL measurements.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Fluorescence yield, (b) XEOL yield and (c) variation of the NBE peak energy across the Zn K-edge with the X-ray electrical field perpendicular to the c-axis of the ZnO. The inset shows a schematic sketch of the sample orientation and EX-rayc.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Fluorescence yield, (b) XEOL yield and (c) variation of the NBE peak energy across the Zn K-edge with the X-ray electrical field parallel to the c-axis of the ZnO. The inset shows a schematic sketch of the sample orientation and EX-rayc.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Polarized-PL (a), and polarized-XEOL with X-ray energy (b) 9.638, (c) 9.666 and (d) 9.700 keV with the X-ray electrical field parallel to the c-axis of ZnO. The polarized-PL and XEOL spectra are taken at RT in steps of Δθ = 10°. The insets are the integrated intensities as a function of polarization angle, and a schematic sketch of the sample orientation and the measured geometry.

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