Abstract

Laser sources in the mid-infrared are of great interest due to their wide applications in detection, sensing, communication and medicine. Silicon photonics is a promising technology which enables these laser devices to be fabricated in a standard CMOS foundry, with the advantages of reliability, compactness, low cost and large-scale production. In this paper, we demonstrate a holmium-doped distributed feedback laser monolithically integrated on a silicon photonics platform. The Al2O3:Ho3+ glass is used as gain medium, which provides broadband emission around 2 µm. By varying the distributed feedback grating period and Al2O3:Ho3+ gain layer thickness, we show single mode laser emission at wavelengths ranging from 2.02 to 2.10 µm. Using a 1950 nm pump, we measure a maximum output power of 15 mW, a slope efficiency of 2.3% and a side-mode suppression ratio in excess of 50 dB. The introduction of a scalable monolithic light source emitting at > 2 µm is a significant step for silicon photonic microsystems operating in this highly promising wavelength region.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

23 January 2018: Typographical corrections were made to Refs. 14, 45, and 48.


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References

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2017 (9)

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale silicon nitride nanophotonic phased arrays at infrared and visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 21–24 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Wavelength division multiplexed light source monolithically integrated on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1772–1775 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, S. Sprengel, G. Boehm, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “Broad wavelength coverage 2.3 μm III-V-on-silicon DFB laser array,” Optica 4(8), 972–975 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. S. Magden, N. Li, J. D. B. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, G. S. Petrich, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, E. P. Ippen, M. R. Watts, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Monolithically-integrated distributed feedback laser compatible with CMOS processing,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18058–18065 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Meng, Y. Li, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, “Carbon nanotube mode-locked Thulium fiber laser with 200 nm tuning range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, Z. Su, E. S. Purnawirman, E. Salih Magden, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, M. J. Byrd, J. D. B. Bradley, G. Leake, and M. R. Watts, “Athermal synchronization of laser source with WDM filter in a silicon photonics platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(21), 211105 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, P. Purnawirman, Z. Su, E. Salih Magden, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, M. Xin, A. Ruocco, C. Baiocco, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, J. D. Bradley, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1181–1184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, N. Singh, A. Baldycheva, E. S. Hosseini, J. Sun, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-narrow-linewidth Al2O3:Er3+ lasers with a wavelength-insensitive waveguide design on a wafer-scale silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13705–13713 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PurnawirmanN. Li, G. Singh, E. S. Magden, Z. Su, N. Singh, M. Moresco, G. Leake, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Reliable Integrated Photonic Light Sources Using Curved Al2O3:Er3+ Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–9 (2017).

2016 (5)

S. Li, D. Zhang, J. Zhao, Q. Yang, X. Xiao, S. Hu, L. Wang, M. Li, X. Tang, Y. Qiu, M. Luo, and S. Yu, “Silicon micro-ring tunable laser for coherent optical communication,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6341–6349 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. Byrd, E. S. Magden, and Z. Su, PurnawirmanG. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “C-band swept wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a high-Q tunableinterior-ridge silicon microring cavity,” Opt. Express 24, 22741–22748 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. Byrd, E. S. Magden, and Z. Su, PurnawirmanG. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “C-band swept wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a high-Q tunableinterior-ridge silicon microring cavity,” Opt. Express 24, 22741–22748 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Singh, P. Purnawirman, J. D. Bradley, N. Li, E. S. Magden, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Resonant pumped erbium-doped waveguide lasers using distributed Bragg reflector cavities,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1189–1192 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Su, N. Li, E. Salih Magden, and M. Byrd, PurnawirmanT. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-compact and low-threshold thulium microcavity lasermonolithically integrated on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5708–5711 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Su, N. Li, E. Salih Magden, and M. Byrd, PurnawirmanT. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-compact and low-threshold thulium microcavity lasermonolithically integrated on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5708–5711 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Luo, B. Sun, J. Liu, Z. Yan, N. Li, E. L. Tan, Q. Wang, and X. Yu, “Mid-IR supercontinuum pumped by femtosecond pulses from thulium doped all-fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13939–13945 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

T. Komljenovic, S. Srinivasan, E. Norberg, M. Davenport, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable narrow-linewidth monolithically integrated external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 214–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Komljenovic and J. E. Bowers, “Monolithically integrated high-Q rings for narrow linewidth widely tunable lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (4)

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2005 (1)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1167–1169 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

K. Koski, J. Hölsä, and P. Juliet, “Voltage controlled reactive sputtering process for aluminium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 189–193 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1957 (1)

Adam, T. N.

Aditya, S.

Agazzi, L.

L. Agazzi, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Energy-transfer-upconversion models, their applicability and breakdown in the presence of spectroscopically distinct ion classes: A case study in amorphous Al2O3:Er3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6759–6776 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. H. Bernhardi, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, L. Agazzi, M. R. H. Khan, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, “Ultra-narrow-linewidth, single-frequency distributed feedback waveguide laser in Al2O3:Er3+ on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2394–2396 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alameh, K.

Amann, M.-C.

Aravazhi, S.

Baets, R.

Baiocco, C.

Baldycheva, A.

Barton, J. S.

Bauters, J. F.

Belt, M.

Bennetts, S.

Bernhardi, E. H.

Blumenthal, D. J.

Boehm, G.

Boudec, P. L.

Bowers, J. E.

Bradley, J. D.

Bradley, J. D. B.

N. Li, Z. Su, E. S. Purnawirman, E. Salih Magden, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, M. J. Byrd, J. D. B. Bradley, G. Leake, and M. R. Watts, “Athermal synchronization of laser source with WDM filter in a silicon photonics platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(21), 211105 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PurnawirmanN. Li, G. Singh, E. S. Magden, Z. Su, N. Singh, M. Moresco, G. Leake, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Reliable Integrated Photonic Light Sources Using Curved Al2O3:Er3+ Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–9 (2017).

Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Wavelength division multiplexed light source monolithically integrated on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1772–1775 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, N. Singh, A. Baldycheva, E. S. Hosseini, J. Sun, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-narrow-linewidth Al2O3:Er3+ lasers with a wavelength-insensitive waveguide design on a wafer-scale silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13705–13713 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Magden, N. Li, J. D. B. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, G. S. Petrich, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, E. P. Ippen, M. R. Watts, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Monolithically-integrated distributed feedback laser compatible with CMOS processing,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18058–18065 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Su, N. Li, E. Salih Magden, and M. Byrd, PurnawirmanT. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-compact and low-threshold thulium microcavity lasermonolithically integrated on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5708–5711 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Broeng, J.

Buca, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bugge, F.

Byrd, M.

Byrd, M. J.

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale silicon nitride nanophotonic phased arrays at infrared and visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 21–24 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, Z. Su, E. S. Purnawirman, E. Salih Magden, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, M. J. Byrd, J. D. B. Bradley, G. Leake, and M. R. Watts, “Athermal synchronization of laser source with WDM filter in a silicon photonics platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(21), 211105 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Callahan, P. T.

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Carter, A.

Chamorovskiy, A. Y.

A. Y. Chamorovskiy, A. V. Marakulin, A. S. Kurkov, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tunable Ho-doped soliton fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 602–606 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chiussi, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colin, S.

Contesse, E.

Coolbaugh, D.

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale silicon nitride nanophotonic phased arrays at infrared and visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 21–24 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Wavelength division multiplexed light source monolithically integrated on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1772–1775 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, N. Singh, A. Baldycheva, E. S. Hosseini, J. Sun, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-narrow-linewidth Al2O3:Er3+ lasers with a wavelength-insensitive waveguide design on a wafer-scale silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13705–13713 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Su, N. Li, E. Salih Magden, and M. Byrd, PurnawirmanT. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-compact and low-threshold thulium microcavity lasermonolithically integrated on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5708–5711 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Singh, P. Purnawirman, J. D. Bradley, N. Li, E. S. Magden, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Resonant pumped erbium-doped waveguide lasers using distributed Bragg reflector cavities,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1189–1192 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coolbaugh, D. D.

Dai, D.

Davenport, M.

T. Komljenovic, S. Srinivasan, E. Norberg, M. Davenport, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable narrow-linewidth monolithically integrated external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 214–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

Davenport, M. L.

Davidson, A.

de Ridder, R. M.

Driel, H. M.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Erbert, G.

Faist, J.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

Feinberg, J.

Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1167–1169 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fish, G.

T. Komljenovic, S. Srinivasan, E. Norberg, M. Davenport, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable narrow-linewidth monolithically integrated external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 214–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

García-Blanco, S. M.

Geiger, R.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grivas, C.

Grützmacher, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, J. M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haub, J.

Havstad, S. A.

Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1167–1169 (2001).
[Crossref]

Heck, M. J. R.

Heideman, R. G.

Hemming, A.

Hölsä, J.

K. Koski, J. Hölsä, and P. Juliet, “Voltage controlled reactive sputtering process for aluminium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 189–193 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, E. S.

Hu, S.

Huffman, T.

Ikonic, Z.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

Jackson, S. D.

John, D.

Jones, R.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juliet, P.

K. Koski, J. Hölsä, and P. Juliet, “Voltage controlled reactive sputtering process for aluminium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 189–193 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Khan, M. R. H.

Kimerling, L. C.

Knights, A. P.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Komljenovic, T.

T. Komljenovic, S. Srinivasan, E. Norberg, M. Davenport, G. Fish, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable narrow-linewidth monolithically integrated external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 214–222 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Komljenovic and J. E. Bowers, “Monolithically integrated high-Q rings for narrow linewidth widely tunable lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koski, K.

K. Koski, J. Hölsä, and P. Juliet, “Voltage controlled reactive sputtering process for aluminium oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 189–193 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Kurkov, A. S.

A. Y. Chamorovskiy, A. V. Marakulin, A. S. Kurkov, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tunable Ho-doped soliton fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 602–606 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lam, H. Q.

Lan, L.

Leake, G.

Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, N. Singh, A. Baldycheva, E. S. Hosseini, J. Sun, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-narrow-linewidth Al2O3:Er3+ lasers with a wavelength-insensitive waveguide design on a wafer-scale silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13705–13713 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Wavelength division multiplexed light source monolithically integrated on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1772–1775 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, Z. Su, E. S. Purnawirman, E. Salih Magden, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, M. J. Byrd, J. D. B. Bradley, G. Leake, and M. R. Watts, “Athermal synchronization of laser source with WDM filter in a silicon photonics platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(21), 211105 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PurnawirmanN. Li, G. Singh, E. S. Magden, Z. Su, N. Singh, M. Moresco, G. Leake, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Reliable Integrated Photonic Light Sources Using Curved Al2O3:Er3+ Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–9 (2017).

E. S. Magden, N. Li, J. D. B. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, G. S. Petrich, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, E. P. Ippen, M. R. Watts, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Monolithically-integrated distributed feedback laser compatible with CMOS processing,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18058–18065 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. Byrd, E. S. Magden, and Z. Su, PurnawirmanG. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “C-band swept wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a high-Q tunableinterior-ridge silicon microring cavity,” Opt. Express 24, 22741–22748 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Su, N. Li, E. Salih Magden, and M. Byrd, PurnawirmanT. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-compact and low-threshold thulium microcavity lasermonolithically integrated on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5708–5711 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Singh, P. Purnawirman, J. D. Bradley, N. Li, E. S. Magden, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Resonant pumped erbium-doped waveguide lasers using distributed Bragg reflector cavities,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1189–1192 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. E. K.

Lee, T.

Leinse, A.

Li, M.

Li, N.

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale silicon nitride nanophotonic phased arrays at infrared and visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 21–24 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, N. Singh, A. Baldycheva, E. S. Hosseini, J. Sun, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-narrow-linewidth Al2O3:Er3+ lasers with a wavelength-insensitive waveguide design on a wafer-scale silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13705–13713 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Wavelength division multiplexed light source monolithically integrated on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1772–1775 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, P. Purnawirman, Z. Su, E. Salih Magden, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, M. Xin, A. Ruocco, C. Baiocco, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, J. D. Bradley, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1181–1184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, Z. Su, E. S. Purnawirman, E. Salih Magden, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, M. J. Byrd, J. D. B. Bradley, G. Leake, and M. R. Watts, “Athermal synchronization of laser source with WDM filter in a silicon photonics platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(21), 211105 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PurnawirmanN. Li, G. Singh, E. S. Magden, Z. Su, N. Singh, M. Moresco, G. Leake, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Reliable Integrated Photonic Light Sources Using Curved Al2O3:Er3+ Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–9 (2017).

E. S. Magden, N. Li, J. D. B. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, G. S. Petrich, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, E. P. Ippen, M. R. Watts, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Monolithically-integrated distributed feedback laser compatible with CMOS processing,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18058–18065 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Su, N. Li, E. Salih Magden, and M. Byrd, PurnawirmanT. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-compact and low-threshold thulium microcavity lasermonolithically integrated on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5708–5711 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. Byrd, E. S. Magden, and Z. Su, PurnawirmanG. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “C-band swept wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a high-Q tunableinterior-ridge silicon microring cavity,” Opt. Express 24, 22741–22748 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Luo, B. Sun, J. Liu, Z. Yan, N. Li, E. L. Tan, Q. Wang, and X. Yu, “Mid-IR supercontinuum pumped by femtosecond pulses from thulium doped all-fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13939–13945 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Singh, P. Purnawirman, J. D. Bradley, N. Li, E. S. Magden, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Resonant pumped erbium-doped waveguide lasers using distributed Bragg reflector cavities,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1189–1192 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, K. Wu, N. Li, L. Lan, S. Yoo, X. Wu, P. P. Shum, S. Zeng, and X. Tan, “Regenerative Er-doped fiber amplifier system for high-repetition-rate optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17(5), 357–361 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. Wong, H. Q. Lam, S. Aditya, J. Zhou, N. Li, J. Xue, P. H. Lim, K. E. K. Lee, K. Wu, and P. P. Shum, “Photonic Generation of Frequency-Tunable Microwave Signals Using an Array of Uniformly Spaced Optical Combs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(19), 3164–3172 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Li, J. Xue, C. Ouyang, K. Wu, J. H. Wong, S. Aditya, and P. P. Shum, “Cavity-length optimization for high energy pulse generation in a long cavity passively mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Appl. Opt. 51(17), 3726–3730 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, Purnawirman, J. D. Bradley, G. Singh, E. S. Magden, J. Sun, and M. R. Watts, “Self-pulsing in Erbium-doped fiber laser,” in 2015 Optoelectronics Global Conference (OGC) (2015), pp. 1–2.

Li, S.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Y. Meng, Y. Li, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, “Carbon nanotube mode-locked Thulium fiber laser with 200 nm tuning range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, D.

Lim, P. H.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Lively, E.

Luo, J.

Luo, M.

Luysberg, M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lyngsø, J. K.

Magden, E. S.

PurnawirmanN. Li, G. Singh, E. S. Magden, Z. Su, N. Singh, M. Moresco, G. Leake, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Reliable Integrated Photonic Light Sources Using Curved Al2O3:Er3+ Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–9 (2017).

Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Wavelength division multiplexed light source monolithically integrated on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1772–1775 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, N. Singh, A. Baldycheva, E. S. Hosseini, J. Sun, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-narrow-linewidth Al2O3:Er3+ lasers with a wavelength-insensitive waveguide design on a wafer-scale silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13705–13713 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Magden, N. Li, J. D. B. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, G. S. Petrich, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, E. P. Ippen, M. R. Watts, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Monolithically-integrated distributed feedback laser compatible with CMOS processing,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18058–18065 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. Byrd, E. S. Magden, and Z. Su, PurnawirmanG. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “C-band swept wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with a high-Q tunableinterior-ridge silicon microring cavity,” Opt. Express 24, 22741–22748 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Singh, P. Purnawirman, J. D. Bradley, N. Li, E. S. Magden, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Resonant pumped erbium-doped waveguide lasers using distributed Bragg reflector cavities,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1189–1192 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, Purnawirman, J. D. Bradley, G. Singh, E. S. Magden, J. Sun, and M. R. Watts, “Self-pulsing in Erbium-doped fiber laser,” in 2015 Optoelectronics Global Conference (OGC) (2015), pp. 1–2.

Manipatruni, S.

Mantl, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Marakulin, A. V.

A. Y. Chamorovskiy, A. V. Marakulin, A. S. Kurkov, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tunable Ho-doped soliton fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 602–606 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maruyama, H.

Mascher, P.

Meng, Y.

Y. Meng, Y. Li, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, “Carbon nanotube mode-locked Thulium fiber laser with 200 nm tuning range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michel, J.

Milgram, J. N.

Moresco, M.

Mussler, G.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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A. Y. Chamorovskiy, A. V. Marakulin, A. S. Kurkov, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tunable Ho-doped soliton fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 602–606 (2012).
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Pollnau, M.

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Purnawirman, E. S.

N. Li, Z. Su, E. S. Purnawirman, E. Salih Magden, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, M. J. Byrd, J. D. B. Bradley, G. Leake, and M. R. Watts, “Athermal synchronization of laser source with WDM filter in a silicon photonics platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(21), 211105 (2017).
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Purnawirman, J. D. B.

Purnawirman, P.

Qiu, Y.

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H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
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N. Li, Z. Su, E. S. Purnawirman, E. Salih Magden, C. V. Poulton, A. Ruocco, N. Singh, M. J. Byrd, J. D. B. Bradley, G. Leake, and M. R. Watts, “Athermal synchronization of laser source with WDM filter in a silicon photonics platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(21), 211105 (2017).
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Purnawirman, N. Li, E. S. Magden, G. Singh, N. Singh, A. Baldycheva, E. S. Hosseini, J. Sun, M. Moresco, T. N. Adam, G. Leake, D. Coolbaugh, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Ultra-narrow-linewidth Al2O3:Er3+ lasers with a wavelength-insensitive waveguide design on a wafer-scale silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13705–13713 (2017).
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E. S. Magden, N. Li, J. D. B. Purnawirman, J. D. B. Bradley, N. Singh, A. Ruocco, G. S. Petrich, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, E. P. Ippen, M. R. Watts, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Monolithically-integrated distributed feedback laser compatible with CMOS processing,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18058–18065 (2017).
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PurnawirmanN. Li, G. Singh, E. S. Magden, Z. Su, N. Singh, M. Moresco, G. Leake, J. D. B. Bradley, and M. R. Watts, “Reliable Integrated Photonic Light Sources Using Curved Al2O3:Er3+ Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–9 (2017).

N. Li, P. Purnawirman, Z. Su, E. Salih Magden, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, M. Xin, A. Ruocco, C. Baiocco, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, J. D. Bradley, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1181–1184 (2017).
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C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale silicon nitride nanophotonic phased arrays at infrared and visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 21–24 (2017).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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N. Li, P. Purnawirman, Z. Su, E. Salih Magden, P. T. Callahan, K. Shtyrkova, M. Xin, A. Ruocco, C. Baiocco, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, J. D. Bradley, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1181–1184 (2017).
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Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1167–1169 (2001).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. W. Song, S. A. Havstad, D. Starodubov, Y. Xie, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, “40-nm-wide tunable fiber ring laser with single-mode operation using a highly stretchable FBG,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1167–1169 (2001).
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Opt. Express (14)

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F. Xiao, K. Alameh, and T. Lee, “Opto-VLSI-based tunable single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18676–18680 (2009).
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M. Belt and D. J. Blumenthal, “Erbium-doped waveguide DBR and DFB laser arrays integrated within an ultra-low-loss Si3N4 platform,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10655–10660 (2014).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross-sectional view of the laser waveguide including five strips of Si3N4, an Al2O3:Ho3+ film, SiO2 and air as a lower and upper cladding, respectively on Si substrate. (b) Refractive indices of the waveguide materials. (c) Transverse-electric (TE) field intensity for the fundamental mode at the pump (1950 nm) and laser output (2100 nm) wavelengths in the DFB waveguide. (d) 3D illustration of the DFB laser showing the different material layers and cavity features (not to scale). (e) Calculated transmission of designed DFB cavity at 2100 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic diagram of reactive sputtering deposition system: two guns with RF power supply are mounted at the top of the chamber. Ar3+ ions are accelerated to bombard the Al and Ho targets. O2 is supplied for reaction. The Al2O3:Ho3+ film is formed on substrate, which is heated up by heater from bottom of the chamber. (b) SEM image of the Si3N4 pattern (top view) after removing SiO2 top cladding by hydrogen fluoride (HF) etching.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) 3-level holmium laser energy diagram showing pump and laser transitions. (b) The measurement setup, which contained a high-power 1950 nm thulium fiber laser as pump source, a polarization controller for efficient coupling, and an optical spectrum analyzer to capture the output spectrum. Cleaved fibers are used to butt couple pump and signal onto or from the chip.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Broadband spontaneous emission of (a) Al2O3:Tm3+ film covering from 1680 nm to 2020 nm, pumped by a low power 1614 nm pump source and (b) Al2O3:Ho3+ film covering from 1930 nm to 2130 nm, pumped by a 1120 nm pump source.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The output spectra of the DFB lasers at (a) 2051 nm and (b) 2101 nm obtained with up to 800 mW on-chip pump power, showing side-mode suppression ratios >50 dB.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) DFB laser output power with respect to on-chip pump power: showing 2% slope efficiency, 130 mW lasing threshold and 15 mW maximum output power; (b) DFB laser output power with respect to absorbed pump power near the lasing threshold: showing 50 mW lasing threshold and 2.3% slope efficiency.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Demonstration of lasing wavelength control by changing the gain film thickness. (b) Comparison of calculated lasing wavelength from simulation and real lasing wavelength from experiment.

Equations (2)

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κ = k 2 2 π β ( n S i 3 N 4 2 n S i O 2 2 ) sin ( π D ) τ
Λ = λ 2 n e f f

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