Abstract

A large optofluidic compound eye is developed by using a straightforward, rapid, and low-cost technique. The compound eye’s angle of view can be adjusted by injecting deionized water/calcium chloride solution of different volume into the optofluidic chip. Optofluidic compound eyes containing about 78,000 microlenses of 50 μm diameter are fabricated for analysis. The angle of view can be tuned up to 104°. With the compound eye’s deformation, the microlenses’ focal length increases, due to the variation in profile. Owing to the non-uniform strain over the compound eye, the central lenses experience more variation. Furthermore, optical imaging of the compound eye is demonstrated and sharp images can be obtained from the omnidirectional microlenses.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

T. Chung, Y. S. Lee, S. P. Yang, K. Kim, B. H. Kang, and K. H. Jeong, “Mining the smartness of insect ultrastructures for advanced imaging and illumination,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705912 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, B. Dai, Y. Huang, H. Wang, Z. Yang, K. Wang, S. Zhuang, and D. Zhang, “Fabrication of polymer microlens array with controllable focal length by modifying surface wettability,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4172–4182 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

C. Y. Shi, Y. Y. Wang, C. Y. Liu, T. S. Wang, H. X. Zhang, W. X. Liao, Z. J. Xu, and W. X. Yu, “SCECam: aspherical compound eye camera for fast location and recognition of objects at a large field of view,” Opt. Express 25(26), 32333–32345 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Cogal and Y. Leblebici, “An insect eye inspired miniaturized multi-camera system for endoscopic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 11(1), 212–224 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Fang, K. Wang, X. Wang, S. Zhuang, and B. Dai, “Fabrication of a microlens array with controlled curvature by thermally curving photosensitive gel film beneath microholes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16604–16609 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Shahini, H. Jin, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Chen, J. Hua, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Toward individually tunable compound eyes with transparent graphene electrode,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 12(4), 046002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

Z. F. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, “Dragonfly-eye-inspired artificial compound eyes with sophisticated imaging,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1995–2001 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Shahini, J. Xia, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Versatile miniature tunable liquid lenses using ransparent graphene electrodes,” Langmuir 32(6), 1658–1665 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Bian, Y. Wei, Q. Yang, F. Chen, F. Zhang, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, and X. Hou, “Direct fabrication of compound-eye microlens array on curved surfaces by a facile femtosecond laser enhanced wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221109 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

W. K. Kuo, G. F. Kuo, S. Y. Lin, and H. H. Yu, “Fabrication and characterization of artificial miniaturized insect compound eyes for imaging,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 10(5), 056010 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, F. Li, H. Liu, W. Jiang, D. Niu, R. Li, L. Yin, Y. Shi, and B. Chen, “Graphene-based bioinspired compound eyes for programmable focusing and remote actuation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(38), 21416–21422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jung and K. H. Jeong, “Monolithic polymer microlens arrays with high numerical aperture and high packing density,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(4), 2160–2165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

Y. S. Cherng and G. D. J. Su, “Fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane microlens array on spherical surface using multi-replication process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24(1), 015016 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Zhu, H. J. Chen, L. Zhu, H. C. Wang, and W. Y. Zhang, “Fabrication of curved microlens array using a drop-on-demand droplet generator and polydimethylsiloxane replica mold,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 117109 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, H. Zeng, and Y. Zhao, “Insect-Human Hybrid Eye (IHHE): an adaptive optofluidic lens combining the structural characteristics of insect and human eyes,” Lab Chip 14(18), 3594–3602 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. C. Huang, X. Wu, H. Liu, B. Aldalali, J. A. Rogers, and H. Jiang, “Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes,” Small 10(15), 3050–3057 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, L. G. Niu, T. Jiang, D. X. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, Q. D. Chen, D. P. Kim, and H. B. Sun, “Protein-based soft micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e129 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, X. L. Zhang, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. P. Lee, and H. B. Sun, “Bioinspired fabrication of high-quality 3d artificial compound eyes by voxel-modulation femtosecond laser writing for distortion-free wide-field-of-view imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(8), 751–758 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

F. Wu, G. Shi, H. Xu, L. Liu, Y. Wang, D. Qi, and N. Lu, “Fabrication of antireflective compound eyes by imprinting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(24), 12799–12803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. He, J. Q. Liu, B. Yang, Y. Z. Dong, and C. S. Yang, “Fabrication and characterization of biologically inspired curved-surface artificial compound eyes,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 22(1), 4–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

H. P. Chen, X. J. Shen, X. F. Li, and Y. S. Jin, “Bionic mosaic method of panoramic image based on compound eye of fly,” J. Bionics Eng. 8(4), 440–448 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. K. Kim, J. K. Kim, and O. C. Jeong, “Measurement of nonlinear mechanical properties of PDMS elastomer,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(8), 1982–1985 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Jung, J. Xiao, V. Malyarchuk, C. Lu, M. Li, Z. Liu, J. Yoon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1788–1793 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. F. Zhu, C. H. Li, X. F. Zeng, and H. R. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081111 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

B. Kaehr and J. B. Shear, “Multiphoton fabrication of chemically responsive protein hydrogels for microactuation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(26), 8850–8854 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. Y. Hui, G. Wang, B. Lin, and W. T. Chan, “Microwave plasma treatment of polymer surface for irreversible sealing of microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 5(10), 1173–1177 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. Duparré, P. Dannberg, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Thin compound-eye camera,” Appl. Opt. 44(15), 2949–2956 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography,” Langmuir 18(24), 9312–9318 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aldalali, B.

C. C. Huang, X. Wu, H. Liu, B. Aldalali, J. A. Rogers, and H. Jiang, “Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes,” Small 10(15), 3050–3057 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldacchini, T.

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bian, H.

Z. F. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, “Dragonfly-eye-inspired artificial compound eyes with sophisticated imaging,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1995–2001 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bian, Y. Wei, Q. Yang, F. Chen, F. Zhang, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, and X. Hou, “Direct fabrication of compound-eye microlens array on curved surfaces by a facile femtosecond laser enhanced wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bräuer, A.

Brückner, A.

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buss, W.

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, W. T.

A. Y. Hui, G. Wang, B. Lin, and W. T. Chan, “Microwave plasma treatment of polymer surface for irreversible sealing of microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 5(10), 1173–1177 (2005).
[PubMed]

Chen, B.

L. Wang, F. Li, H. Liu, W. Jiang, D. Niu, R. Li, L. Yin, Y. Shi, and B. Chen, “Graphene-based bioinspired compound eyes for programmable focusing and remote actuation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(38), 21416–21422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

H. Bian, Y. Wei, Q. Yang, F. Chen, F. Zhang, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, and X. Hou, “Direct fabrication of compound-eye microlens array on curved surfaces by a facile femtosecond laser enhanced wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. F. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, “Dragonfly-eye-inspired artificial compound eyes with sophisticated imaging,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1995–2001 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. W. Liu, F. Chen, Q. Yang, P. B. Qu, S. G. He, X. H. Wang, J. H. Si, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of bioinspired omnidirectional and gapless microlens array for wide fieldof-view detections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133701 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Qu, F. Chen, H. Liu, Q. Yang, J. Lu, J. Si, Y. Wang, and X. Hou, “A simple route to fabricate artificial compound eye structures,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5775–5782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. J.

X. Y. Zhu, H. J. Chen, L. Zhu, H. C. Wang, and W. Y. Zhang, “Fabrication of curved microlens array using a drop-on-demand droplet generator and polydimethylsiloxane replica mold,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 117109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. P.

H. P. Chen, X. J. Shen, X. F. Li, and Y. S. Jin, “Bionic mosaic method of panoramic image based on compound eye of fly,” J. Bionics Eng. 8(4), 440–448 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. Y.

A. Shahini, H. Jin, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Chen, J. Hua, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Toward individually tunable compound eyes with transparent graphene electrode,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 12(4), 046002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q. D.

Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, L. G. Niu, T. Jiang, D. X. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, Q. D. Chen, D. P. Kim, and H. B. Sun, “Protein-based soft micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e129 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, X. L. Zhang, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. P. Lee, and H. B. Sun, “Bioinspired fabrication of high-quality 3d artificial compound eyes by voxel-modulation femtosecond laser writing for distortion-free wide-field-of-view imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(8), 751–758 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, M. M. C.

A. Shahini, H. Jin, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Chen, J. Hua, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Toward individually tunable compound eyes with transparent graphene electrode,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 12(4), 046002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Shahini, J. Xia, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Versatile miniature tunable liquid lenses using ransparent graphene electrodes,” Langmuir 32(6), 1658–1665 (2016).
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A. Shahini, P. Zeng, Y. Zhao, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Individually tunable liquid lens arrays using transparent graphene for compound eye applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2016), pp. 597–600.
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Cherng, Y. S.

Y. S. Cherng and G. D. J. Su, “Fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane microlens array on spherical surface using multi-replication process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24(1), 015016 (2014).
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Choi, K. J.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, T.

T. Chung, Y. S. Lee, S. P. Yang, K. Kim, B. H. Kang, and K. H. Jeong, “Mining the smartness of insect ultrastructures for advanced imaging and illumination,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705912 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cogal, O.

O. Cogal and Y. Leblebici, “An insect eye inspired miniaturized multi-camera system for endoscopic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 11(1), 212–224 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, B.

Q. Xu, B. Dai, Y. Huang, H. Wang, Z. Yang, K. Wang, S. Zhuang, and D. Zhang, “Fabrication of polymer microlens array with controllable focal length by modifying surface wettability,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4172–4182 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Fang, K. Wang, X. Wang, S. Zhuang, and B. Dai, “Fabrication of a microlens array with controlled curvature by thermally curving photosensitive gel film beneath microholes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16604–16609 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dannberg, P.

Deng, Z. F.

Z. F. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, “Dragonfly-eye-inspired artificial compound eyes with sophisticated imaging,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1995–2001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dobrzynski, M. K.

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, W. F.

Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, L. G. Niu, T. Jiang, D. X. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, Q. D. Chen, D. P. Kim, and H. B. Sun, “Protein-based soft micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e129 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y. Z.

Q. He, J. Q. Liu, B. Yang, Y. Z. Dong, and C. S. Yang, “Fabrication and characterization of biologically inspired curved-surface artificial compound eyes,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 22(1), 4–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Du, G. Q.

Z. F. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, “Dragonfly-eye-inspired artificial compound eyes with sophisticated imaging,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1995–2001 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bian, Y. Wei, Q. Yang, F. Chen, F. Zhang, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, and X. Hou, “Direct fabrication of compound-eye microlens array on curved surfaces by a facile femtosecond laser enhanced wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Duparré, J.

Expert, F.

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, C.

D. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Fang, K. Wang, X. Wang, S. Zhuang, and B. Dai, “Fabrication of a microlens array with controlled curvature by thermally curving photosensitive gel film beneath microholes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16604–16609 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Floreano, D.

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fourkas, J. T.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franceschini, N.

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gattass, R. R.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gershgoren, E.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

Q. He, J. Q. Liu, B. Yang, Y. Z. Dong, and C. S. Yang, “Fabrication and characterization of biologically inspired curved-surface artificial compound eyes,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 22(1), 4–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, S. G.

H. W. Liu, F. Chen, Q. Yang, P. B. Qu, S. G. He, X. H. Wang, J. H. Si, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of bioinspired omnidirectional and gapless microlens array for wide fieldof-view detections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Horisaki, R.

Hou, X.

H. Bian, Y. Wei, Q. Yang, F. Chen, F. Zhang, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, and X. Hou, “Direct fabrication of compound-eye microlens array on curved surfaces by a facile femtosecond laser enhanced wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. F. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, “Dragonfly-eye-inspired artificial compound eyes with sophisticated imaging,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1995–2001 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. W. Liu, F. Chen, Q. Yang, P. B. Qu, S. G. He, X. H. Wang, J. H. Si, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of bioinspired omnidirectional and gapless microlens array for wide fieldof-view detections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133701 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Qu, F. Chen, H. Liu, Q. Yang, J. Lu, J. Si, Y. Wang, and X. Hou, “A simple route to fabricate artificial compound eye structures,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5775–5782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

A. Shahini, H. Jin, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Chen, J. Hua, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Toward individually tunable compound eyes with transparent graphene electrode,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 12(4), 046002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. C.

C. C. Huang, X. Wu, H. Liu, B. Aldalali, J. A. Rogers, and H. Jiang, “Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes,” Small 10(15), 3050–3057 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Q. Xu, B. Dai, Y. Huang, H. Wang, Z. Yang, K. Wang, S. Zhuang, and D. Zhang, “Fabrication of polymer microlens array with controllable focal length by modifying surface wettability,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4172–4182 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Jung, J. Xiao, V. Malyarchuk, C. Lu, M. Li, Z. Liu, J. Yoon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1788–1793 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hui, A. Y.

A. Y. Hui, G. Wang, B. Lin, and W. T. Chan, “Microwave plasma treatment of polymer surface for irreversible sealing of microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 5(10), 1173–1177 (2005).
[PubMed]

Hwang, H.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, K. H.

T. Chung, Y. S. Lee, S. P. Yang, K. Kim, B. H. Kang, and K. H. Jeong, “Mining the smartness of insect ultrastructures for advanced imaging and illumination,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705912 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Jung and K. H. Jeong, “Monolithic polymer microlens arrays with high numerical aperture and high packing density,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(4), 2160–2165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, O. C.

T. K. Kim, J. K. Kim, and O. C. Jeong, “Measurement of nonlinear mechanical properties of PDMS elastomer,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(8), 1982–1985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

C. C. Huang, X. Wu, H. Liu, B. Aldalali, J. A. Rogers, and H. Jiang, “Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes,” Small 10(15), 3050–3057 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H. R.

D. F. Zhu, C. H. Li, X. F. Zeng, and H. R. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, L. G. Niu, T. Jiang, D. X. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, Q. D. Chen, D. P. Kim, and H. B. Sun, “Protein-based soft micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e129 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.

L. Wang, F. Li, H. Liu, W. Jiang, D. Niu, R. Li, L. Yin, Y. Shi, and B. Chen, “Graphene-based bioinspired compound eyes for programmable focusing and remote actuation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(38), 21416–21422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, H.

A. Shahini, H. Jin, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Chen, J. Hua, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Toward individually tunable compound eyes with transparent graphene electrode,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 12(4), 046002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, Y. S.

H. P. Chen, X. J. Shen, X. F. Li, and Y. S. Jin, “Bionic mosaic method of panoramic image based on compound eye of fly,” J. Bionics Eng. 8(4), 440–448 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jung, H.

H. Jung and K. H. Jeong, “Monolithic polymer microlens arrays with high numerical aperture and high packing density,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(4), 2160–2165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, I.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Jung, J. Xiao, V. Malyarchuk, C. Lu, M. Li, Z. Liu, J. Yoon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1788–1793 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juston, R.

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaehr, B.

B. Kaehr and J. B. Shear, “Multiphoton fabrication of chemically responsive protein hydrogels for microactuation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(26), 8850–8854 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, B. H.

T. Chung, Y. S. Lee, S. P. Yang, K. Kim, B. H. Kang, and K. H. Jeong, “Mining the smartness of insect ultrastructures for advanced imaging and illumination,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705912 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. P.

Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, L. G. Niu, T. Jiang, D. X. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, Q. D. Chen, D. P. Kim, and H. B. Sun, “Protein-based soft micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e129 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

T. K. Kim, J. K. Kim, and O. C. Jeong, “Measurement of nonlinear mechanical properties of PDMS elastomer,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(8), 1982–1985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

T. Chung, Y. S. Lee, S. P. Yang, K. Kim, B. H. Kang, and K. H. Jeong, “Mining the smartness of insect ultrastructures for advanced imaging and illumination,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705912 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, R. H.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T. K.

T. K. Kim, J. K. Kim, and O. C. Jeong, “Measurement of nonlinear mechanical properties of PDMS elastomer,” Microelectron. Eng. 88(8), 1982–1985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuo, G. F.

W. K. Kuo, G. F. Kuo, S. Y. Lin, and H. H. Yu, “Fabrication and characterization of artificial miniaturized insect compound eyes for imaging,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 10(5), 056010 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, W. K.

W. K. Kuo, G. F. Kuo, S. Y. Lin, and H. H. Yu, “Fabrication and characterization of artificial miniaturized insect compound eyes for imaging,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 10(5), 056010 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L’Eplattenier, G.

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leblebici, Y.

O. Cogal and Y. Leblebici, “An insect eye inspired miniaturized multi-camera system for endoscopic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 11(1), 212–224 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, L. P.

D. Wu, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, X. L. Zhang, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. P. Lee, and H. B. Sun, “Bioinspired fabrication of high-quality 3d artificial compound eyes by voxel-modulation femtosecond laser writing for distortion-free wide-field-of-view imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(8), 751–758 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. S.

T. Chung, Y. S. Lee, S. P. Yang, K. Kim, B. H. Kang, and K. H. Jeong, “Mining the smartness of insect ultrastructures for advanced imaging and illumination,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705912 (2018).
[Crossref]

Leitel, R.

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C. H.

D. F. Zhu, C. H. Li, X. F. Zeng, and H. R. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

L. Wang, F. Li, H. Liu, W. Jiang, D. Niu, R. Li, L. Yin, Y. Shi, and B. Chen, “Graphene-based bioinspired compound eyes for programmable focusing and remote actuation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(38), 21416–21422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

I. Jung, J. Xiao, V. Malyarchuk, C. Lu, M. Li, Z. Liu, J. Yoon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1788–1793 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, R.

L. Wang, F. Li, H. Liu, W. Jiang, D. Niu, R. Li, L. Yin, Y. Shi, and B. Chen, “Graphene-based bioinspired compound eyes for programmable focusing and remote actuation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(38), 21416–21422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. F.

H. P. Chen, X. J. Shen, X. F. Li, and Y. S. Jin, “Bionic mosaic method of panoramic image based on compound eye of fly,” J. Bionics Eng. 8(4), 440–448 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liao, W. X.

Lin, B.

A. Y. Hui, G. Wang, B. Lin, and W. T. Chan, “Microwave plasma treatment of polymer surface for irreversible sealing of microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 5(10), 1173–1177 (2005).
[PubMed]

Lin, S. Y.

W. K. Kuo, G. F. Kuo, S. Y. Lin, and H. H. Yu, “Fabrication and characterization of artificial miniaturized insect compound eyes for imaging,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 10(5), 056010 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C. Y.

Liu, D. X.

Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, L. G. Niu, T. Jiang, D. X. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, Q. D. Chen, D. P. Kim, and H. B. Sun, “Protein-based soft micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e129 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

L. Wang, F. Li, H. Liu, W. Jiang, D. Niu, R. Li, L. Yin, Y. Shi, and B. Chen, “Graphene-based bioinspired compound eyes for programmable focusing and remote actuation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(38), 21416–21422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Huang, X. Wu, H. Liu, B. Aldalali, J. A. Rogers, and H. Jiang, “Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes,” Small 10(15), 3050–3057 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Qu, F. Chen, H. Liu, Q. Yang, J. Lu, J. Si, Y. Wang, and X. Hou, “A simple route to fabricate artificial compound eye structures,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5775–5782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H. W.

H. W. Liu, F. Chen, Q. Yang, P. B. Qu, S. G. He, X. H. Wang, J. H. Si, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of bioinspired omnidirectional and gapless microlens array for wide fieldof-view detections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. Q.

Q. He, J. Q. Liu, B. Yang, Y. Z. Dong, and C. S. Yang, “Fabrication and characterization of biologically inspired curved-surface artificial compound eyes,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 22(1), 4–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

F. Wu, G. Shi, H. Xu, L. Liu, Y. Wang, D. Qi, and N. Lu, “Fabrication of antireflective compound eyes by imprinting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(24), 12799–12803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Jung, J. Xiao, V. Malyarchuk, C. Lu, M. Li, Z. Liu, J. Yoon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1788–1793 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Jung, J. Xiao, V. Malyarchuk, C. Lu, M. Li, Z. Liu, J. Yoon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1788–1793 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, J.

Lu, N.

F. Wu, G. Shi, H. Xu, L. Liu, Y. Wang, D. Qi, and N. Lu, “Fabrication of antireflective compound eyes by imprinting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(24), 12799–12803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mallot, H. A.

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
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I. Jung, J. Xiao, V. Malyarchuk, C. Lu, M. Li, Z. Liu, J. Yoon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1788–1793 (2011).
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P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
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P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
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D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
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P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
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Niu, D.

L. Wang, F. Li, H. Liu, W. Jiang, D. Niu, R. Li, L. Yin, Y. Shi, and B. Chen, “Graphene-based bioinspired compound eyes for programmable focusing and remote actuation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(38), 21416–21422 (2015).
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D. Wu, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, X. L. Zhang, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. P. Lee, and H. B. Sun, “Bioinspired fabrication of high-quality 3d artificial compound eyes by voxel-modulation femtosecond laser writing for distortion-free wide-field-of-view imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(8), 751–758 (2014).
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Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, L. G. Niu, T. Jiang, D. X. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, Q. D. Chen, D. P. Kim, and H. B. Sun, “Protein-based soft micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e129 (2014).
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M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography,” Langmuir 18(24), 9312–9318 (2002).
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Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
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D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
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F. Wu, G. Shi, H. Xu, L. Liu, Y. Wang, D. Qi, and N. Lu, “Fabrication of antireflective compound eyes by imprinting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(24), 12799–12803 (2013).
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Qu, P. B.

H. W. Liu, F. Chen, Q. Yang, P. B. Qu, S. G. He, X. H. Wang, J. H. Si, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of bioinspired omnidirectional and gapless microlens array for wide fieldof-view detections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133701 (2012).
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Recktenwald, F.

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
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C. C. Huang, X. Wu, H. Liu, B. Aldalali, J. A. Rogers, and H. Jiang, “Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes,” Small 10(15), 3050–3057 (2014).
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I. Jung, J. Xiao, V. Malyarchuk, C. Lu, M. Li, Z. Liu, J. Yoon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1788–1793 (2011).
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D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
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Shahini, A.

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A. Shahini, P. Zeng, Y. Zhao, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Individually tunable liquid lens arrays using transparent graphene for compound eye applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2016), pp. 597–600.
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Z. F. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, “Dragonfly-eye-inspired artificial compound eyes with sophisticated imaging,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1995–2001 (2016).
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B. Kaehr and J. B. Shear, “Multiphoton fabrication of chemically responsive protein hydrogels for microactuation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(26), 8850–8854 (2008).
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H. P. Chen, X. J. Shen, X. F. Li, and Y. S. Jin, “Bionic mosaic method of panoramic image based on compound eye of fly,” J. Bionics Eng. 8(4), 440–448 (2011).
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Shi, G.

F. Wu, G. Shi, H. Xu, L. Liu, Y. Wang, D. Qi, and N. Lu, “Fabrication of antireflective compound eyes by imprinting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(24), 12799–12803 (2013).
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Shi, Y.

L. Wang, F. Li, H. Liu, W. Jiang, D. Niu, R. Li, L. Yin, Y. Shi, and B. Chen, “Graphene-based bioinspired compound eyes for programmable focusing and remote actuation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(38), 21416–21422 (2015).
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Si, J. H.

H. W. Liu, F. Chen, Q. Yang, P. B. Qu, S. G. He, X. H. Wang, J. H. Si, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of bioinspired omnidirectional and gapless microlens array for wide fieldof-view detections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133701 (2012).
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Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
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Y. S. Cherng and G. D. J. Su, “Fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane microlens array on spherical surface using multi-replication process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24(1), 015016 (2014).
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Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, L. G. Niu, T. Jiang, D. X. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, Q. D. Chen, D. P. Kim, and H. B. Sun, “Protein-based soft micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e129 (2014).
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Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, L. G. Niu, T. Jiang, D. X. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, Q. D. Chen, D. P. Kim, and H. B. Sun, “Protein-based soft micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e129 (2014).
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Tayalia, P.

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
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Viollet, S.

D. Floreano, R. Pericet-Camara, S. Viollet, F. Ruffier, A. Brückner, R. Leitel, W. Buss, M. Menouni, F. Expert, R. Juston, M. K. Dobrzynski, G. L’Eplattenier, F. Recktenwald, H. A. Mallot, and N. Franceschini, “Miniature curved artificial compound eyes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9267–9272 (2013).
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D. Wu, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, X. L. Zhang, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. P. Lee, and H. B. Sun, “Bioinspired fabrication of high-quality 3d artificial compound eyes by voxel-modulation femtosecond laser writing for distortion-free wide-field-of-view imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(8), 751–758 (2014).
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Q. Xu, B. Dai, Y. Huang, H. Wang, Z. Yang, K. Wang, S. Zhuang, and D. Zhang, “Fabrication of polymer microlens array with controllable focal length by modifying surface wettability,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4172–4182 (2018).
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D. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Fang, K. Wang, X. Wang, S. Zhuang, and B. Dai, “Fabrication of a microlens array with controlled curvature by thermally curving photosensitive gel film beneath microholes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16604–16609 (2017).
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L. Wang, F. Li, H. Liu, W. Jiang, D. Niu, R. Li, L. Yin, Y. Shi, and B. Chen, “Graphene-based bioinspired compound eyes for programmable focusing and remote actuation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(38), 21416–21422 (2015).
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Wang, X.

D. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Fang, K. Wang, X. Wang, S. Zhuang, and B. Dai, “Fabrication of a microlens array with controlled curvature by thermally curving photosensitive gel film beneath microholes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16604–16609 (2017).
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H. W. Liu, F. Chen, Q. Yang, P. B. Qu, S. G. He, X. H. Wang, J. H. Si, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of bioinspired omnidirectional and gapless microlens array for wide fieldof-view detections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133701 (2012).
[Crossref]

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F. Wu, G. Shi, H. Xu, L. Liu, Y. Wang, D. Qi, and N. Lu, “Fabrication of antireflective compound eyes by imprinting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(24), 12799–12803 (2013).
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P. Qu, F. Chen, H. Liu, Q. Yang, J. Lu, J. Si, Y. Wang, and X. Hou, “A simple route to fabricate artificial compound eye structures,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5775–5782 (2012).
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Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, L. G. Niu, T. Jiang, D. X. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, Q. D. Chen, D. P. Kim, and H. B. Sun, “Protein-based soft micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e129 (2014).
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Wang, Y. Y.

Wei, K.

K. Wei, H. Zeng, and Y. Zhao, “Insect-Human Hybrid Eye (IHHE): an adaptive optofluidic lens combining the structural characteristics of insect and human eyes,” Lab Chip 14(18), 3594–3602 (2014).
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K. Wei and Y. Zhao, “A three-dimensional deformable liquid lens array for directional and wide angle laparoscopic imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2013), pp. 133–136.
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H. Bian, Y. Wei, Q. Yang, F. Chen, F. Zhang, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, and X. Hou, “Direct fabrication of compound-eye microlens array on curved surfaces by a facile femtosecond laser enhanced wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221109 (2016).
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M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography,” Langmuir 18(24), 9312–9318 (2002).
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D. Wu, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, X. L. Zhang, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. P. Lee, and H. B. Sun, “Bioinspired fabrication of high-quality 3d artificial compound eyes by voxel-modulation femtosecond laser writing for distortion-free wide-field-of-view imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(8), 751–758 (2014).
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F. Wu, G. Shi, H. Xu, L. Liu, Y. Wang, D. Qi, and N. Lu, “Fabrication of antireflective compound eyes by imprinting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(24), 12799–12803 (2013).
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M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography,” Langmuir 18(24), 9312–9318 (2002).
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D. Wu, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, X. L. Zhang, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. P. Lee, and H. B. Sun, “Bioinspired fabrication of high-quality 3d artificial compound eyes by voxel-modulation femtosecond laser writing for distortion-free wide-field-of-view imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(8), 751–758 (2014).
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C. C. Huang, X. Wu, H. Liu, B. Aldalali, J. A. Rogers, and H. Jiang, “Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes,” Small 10(15), 3050–3057 (2014).
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Xia, J.

A. Shahini, J. Xia, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Versatile miniature tunable liquid lenses using ransparent graphene electrodes,” Langmuir 32(6), 1658–1665 (2016).
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Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Jung, J. Xiao, V. Malyarchuk, C. Lu, M. Li, Z. Liu, J. Yoon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1788–1793 (2011).
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Xie, Y.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
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Xu, H.

F. Wu, G. Shi, H. Xu, L. Liu, Y. Wang, D. Qi, and N. Lu, “Fabrication of antireflective compound eyes by imprinting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(24), 12799–12803 (2013).
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Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Dai, Y. Huang, H. Wang, Z. Yang, K. Wang, S. Zhuang, and D. Zhang, “Fabrication of polymer microlens array with controllable focal length by modifying surface wettability,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4172–4182 (2018).
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D. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Fang, K. Wang, X. Wang, S. Zhuang, and B. Dai, “Fabrication of a microlens array with controlled curvature by thermally curving photosensitive gel film beneath microholes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16604–16609 (2017).
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Yang, B.

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Q. He, J. Q. Liu, B. Yang, Y. Z. Dong, and C. S. Yang, “Fabrication and characterization of biologically inspired curved-surface artificial compound eyes,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 22(1), 4–6 (2013).
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Z. F. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, “Dragonfly-eye-inspired artificial compound eyes with sophisticated imaging,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1995–2001 (2016).
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H. Bian, Y. Wei, Q. Yang, F. Chen, F. Zhang, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, and X. Hou, “Direct fabrication of compound-eye microlens array on curved surfaces by a facile femtosecond laser enhanced wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221109 (2016).
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P. Qu, F. Chen, H. Liu, Q. Yang, J. Lu, J. Si, Y. Wang, and X. Hou, “A simple route to fabricate artificial compound eye structures,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5775–5782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Liu, F. Chen, Q. Yang, P. B. Qu, S. G. He, X. H. Wang, J. H. Si, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of bioinspired omnidirectional and gapless microlens array for wide fieldof-view detections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133701 (2012).
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T. Chung, Y. S. Lee, S. P. Yang, K. Kim, B. H. Kang, and K. H. Jeong, “Mining the smartness of insect ultrastructures for advanced imaging and illumination,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705912 (2018).
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Yin, L.

L. Wang, F. Li, H. Liu, W. Jiang, D. Niu, R. Li, L. Yin, Y. Shi, and B. Chen, “Graphene-based bioinspired compound eyes for programmable focusing and remote actuation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(38), 21416–21422 (2015).
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Yong, J. L.

H. Bian, Y. Wei, Q. Yang, F. Chen, F. Zhang, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, and X. Hou, “Direct fabrication of compound-eye microlens array on curved surfaces by a facile femtosecond laser enhanced wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221109 (2016).
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Z. F. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, “Dragonfly-eye-inspired artificial compound eyes with sophisticated imaging,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1995–2001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J.

I. Jung, J. Xiao, V. Malyarchuk, C. Lu, M. Li, Z. Liu, J. Yoon, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Dynamically tunable hemispherical electronic eye camera system with adjustable zoom capability,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1788–1793 (2011).
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Yu, H. H.

W. K. Kuo, G. F. Kuo, S. Y. Lin, and H. H. Yu, “Fabrication and characterization of artificial miniaturized insect compound eyes for imaging,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 10(5), 056010 (2015).
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Yu, W. X.

Zeitner, U. D.

Zeng, H.

K. Wei, H. Zeng, and Y. Zhao, “Insect-Human Hybrid Eye (IHHE): an adaptive optofluidic lens combining the structural characteristics of insect and human eyes,” Lab Chip 14(18), 3594–3602 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zeng, P.

A. Shahini, P. Zeng, Y. Zhao, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Individually tunable liquid lens arrays using transparent graphene for compound eye applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2016), pp. 597–600.
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D. F. Zhu, C. H. Li, X. F. Zeng, and H. R. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081111 (2010).
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Zhang, D.

Q. Xu, B. Dai, Y. Huang, H. Wang, Z. Yang, K. Wang, S. Zhuang, and D. Zhang, “Fabrication of polymer microlens array with controllable focal length by modifying surface wettability,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4172–4182 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Fang, K. Wang, X. Wang, S. Zhuang, and B. Dai, “Fabrication of a microlens array with controlled curvature by thermally curving photosensitive gel film beneath microholes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16604–16609 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

H. Bian, Y. Wei, Q. Yang, F. Chen, F. Zhang, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, and X. Hou, “Direct fabrication of compound-eye microlens array on curved surfaces by a facile femtosecond laser enhanced wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. X.

Zhang, L.

Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, L. G. Niu, T. Jiang, D. X. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, Q. D. Chen, D. P. Kim, and H. B. Sun, “Protein-based soft micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e129 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. Y.

X. Y. Zhu, H. J. Chen, L. Zhu, H. C. Wang, and W. Y. Zhang, “Fabrication of curved microlens array using a drop-on-demand droplet generator and polydimethylsiloxane replica mold,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 117109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. L.

D. Wu, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, X. L. Zhang, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. P. Lee, and H. B. Sun, “Bioinspired fabrication of high-quality 3d artificial compound eyes by voxel-modulation femtosecond laser writing for distortion-free wide-field-of-view imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(8), 751–758 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

A. Shahini, H. Jin, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Chen, J. Hua, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Toward individually tunable compound eyes with transparent graphene electrode,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 12(4), 046002 (2017).
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A. Shahini, J. Xia, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Versatile miniature tunable liquid lenses using ransparent graphene electrodes,” Langmuir 32(6), 1658–1665 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wei, H. Zeng, and Y. Zhao, “Insect-Human Hybrid Eye (IHHE): an adaptive optofluidic lens combining the structural characteristics of insect and human eyes,” Lab Chip 14(18), 3594–3602 (2014).
[PubMed]

K. Wei and Y. Zhao, “A three-dimensional deformable liquid lens array for directional and wide angle laparoscopic imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2013), pp. 133–136.
[Crossref]

A. Shahini, P. Zeng, Y. Zhao, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Individually tunable liquid lens arrays using transparent graphene for compound eye applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2016), pp. 597–600.
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Zhou, Z.

A. Shahini, H. Jin, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Chen, J. Hua, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Toward individually tunable compound eyes with transparent graphene electrode,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 12(4), 046002 (2017).
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A. Shahini, J. Xia, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Versatile miniature tunable liquid lenses using ransparent graphene electrodes,” Langmuir 32(6), 1658–1665 (2016).
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D. F. Zhu, C. H. Li, X. F. Zeng, and H. R. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081111 (2010).
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X. Y. Zhu, H. J. Chen, L. Zhu, H. C. Wang, and W. Y. Zhang, “Fabrication of curved microlens array using a drop-on-demand droplet generator and polydimethylsiloxane replica mold,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 117109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X. Y.

X. Y. Zhu, H. J. Chen, L. Zhu, H. C. Wang, and W. Y. Zhang, “Fabrication of curved microlens array using a drop-on-demand droplet generator and polydimethylsiloxane replica mold,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 117109 (2014).
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Q. Xu, B. Dai, Y. Huang, H. Wang, Z. Yang, K. Wang, S. Zhuang, and D. Zhang, “Fabrication of polymer microlens array with controllable focal length by modifying surface wettability,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4172–4182 (2018).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (4)

F. Wu, G. Shi, H. Xu, L. Liu, Y. Wang, D. Qi, and N. Lu, “Fabrication of antireflective compound eyes by imprinting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(24), 12799–12803 (2013).
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H. Jung and K. H. Jeong, “Monolithic polymer microlens arrays with high numerical aperture and high packing density,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(4), 2160–2165 (2015).
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D. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Fang, K. Wang, X. Wang, S. Zhuang, and B. Dai, “Fabrication of a microlens array with controlled curvature by thermally curving photosensitive gel film beneath microholes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(19), 16604–16609 (2017).
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L. Wang, F. Li, H. Liu, W. Jiang, D. Niu, R. Li, L. Yin, Y. Shi, and B. Chen, “Graphene-based bioinspired compound eyes for programmable focusing and remote actuation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(38), 21416–21422 (2015).
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Z. F. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, “Dragonfly-eye-inspired artificial compound eyes with sophisticated imaging,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1995–2001 (2016).
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T. Chung, Y. S. Lee, S. P. Yang, K. Kim, B. H. Kang, and K. H. Jeong, “Mining the smartness of insect ultrastructures for advanced imaging and illumination,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(24), 1705912 (2018).
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P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

D. Wu, J. N. Wang, L. G. Niu, X. L. Zhang, S. Z. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. P. Lee, and H. B. Sun, “Bioinspired fabrication of high-quality 3d artificial compound eyes by voxel-modulation femtosecond laser writing for distortion-free wide-field-of-view imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(8), 751–758 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. F. Zhu, C. H. Li, X. F. Zeng, and H. R. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081111 (2010).
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H. Bian, Y. Wei, Q. Yang, F. Chen, F. Zhang, G. Q. Du, J. L. Yong, and X. Hou, “Direct fabrication of compound-eye microlens array on curved surfaces by a facile femtosecond laser enhanced wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221109 (2016).
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H. W. Liu, F. Chen, Q. Yang, P. B. Qu, S. G. He, X. H. Wang, J. H. Si, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of bioinspired omnidirectional and gapless microlens array for wide fieldof-view detections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133701 (2012).
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Bioinspir. Biomim. (2)

W. K. Kuo, G. F. Kuo, S. Y. Lin, and H. H. Yu, “Fabrication and characterization of artificial miniaturized insect compound eyes for imaging,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 10(5), 056010 (2015).
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A. Shahini, H. Jin, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Chen, J. Hua, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Toward individually tunable compound eyes with transparent graphene electrode,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 12(4), 046002 (2017).
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IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. (1)

O. Cogal and Y. Leblebici, “An insect eye inspired miniaturized multi-camera system for endoscopic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 11(1), 212–224 (2017).
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H. P. Chen, X. J. Shen, X. F. Li, and Y. S. Jin, “Bionic mosaic method of panoramic image based on compound eye of fly,” J. Bionics Eng. 8(4), 440–448 (2011).
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Q. He, J. Q. Liu, B. Yang, Y. Z. Dong, and C. S. Yang, “Fabrication and characterization of biologically inspired curved-surface artificial compound eyes,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 22(1), 4–6 (2013).
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Y. S. Cherng and G. D. J. Su, “Fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane microlens array on spherical surface using multi-replication process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 24(1), 015016 (2014).
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Lab Chip (2)

K. Wei, H. Zeng, and Y. Zhao, “Insect-Human Hybrid Eye (IHHE): an adaptive optofluidic lens combining the structural characteristics of insect and human eyes,” Lab Chip 14(18), 3594–3602 (2014).
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A. Shahini, J. Xia, Z. Zhou, Y. Zhao, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Versatile miniature tunable liquid lenses using ransparent graphene electrodes,” Langmuir 32(6), 1658–1665 (2016).
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M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography,” Langmuir 18(24), 9312–9318 (2002).
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Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, L. G. Niu, T. Jiang, D. X. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. S. Wang, Q. D. Chen, D. P. Kim, and H. B. Sun, “Protein-based soft micro-optics fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e129 (2014).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

X. Y. Zhu, H. J. Chen, L. Zhu, H. C. Wang, and W. Y. Zhang, “Fabrication of curved microlens array using a drop-on-demand droplet generator and polydimethylsiloxane replica mold,” Opt. Eng. 53(11), 117109 (2014).
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Opt. Express (5)

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C. C. Huang, X. Wu, H. Liu, B. Aldalali, J. A. Rogers, and H. Jiang, “Large-field-of-view wide-spectrum artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes,” Small 10(15), 3050–3057 (2014).
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M. F. Land and D. E. Nilsson, Animal eyes (Oxford University, 2012).

E. Warrant and D. E. Nillson, Invertebrate vision (Cambridge University, 2006).

K. Wei and Y. Zhao, “A three-dimensional deformable liquid lens array for directional and wide angle laparoscopic imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2013), pp. 133–136.
[Crossref]

H. S. Zeng, H. Borteh, and Y. Zhao, “A bioinspired 3d artificial compound eye with Focus-tunable single lenses,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS, 2011), pp. 1980–1982.

A. Shahini, P. Zeng, Y. Zhao, and M. M. C. Cheng, “Individually tunable liquid lens arrays using transparent graphene for compound eye applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, 2016), pp. 597–600.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Fabrication process of the optofluidic compound eyes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Photo of a fabricated optofluidic compound eye. (b) and (c) Top-view and magnified SEM images of the compound eye after injecting and curing 880 μL photoresist.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(c) Side-view images of the optofluidic compound eye after injecting 442 μL, 620 μL and 1008 μL blue ink, respectively. (b) The deformation of the membrane and the angle of view with the injection volume.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The influence of the injection volume over the deformation of the microlenses. (b) The variation of the focal length of the central lenses and peripheral lenses. Solid line: the microlenses in the central area. Dashed line: the microlenses in the peripherical area.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental setup for optical imaging. The schematic diagrams of the optical imaging when the optofluidic compound eye has (b) a planar surface and (c) a curved surface
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The imaging performance of the compound eye when the angles of view are (a) 74° and (b) 92°, respectively.

Equations (1)

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A O V = 2 arc sin 4 D H D 2 + 4 H 2 .

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