Abstract

We propose a new low VπL, fully-crystalline, accumulation modulator design based on a thin horizontal gate oxide slot fin waveguide, on bonded double Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI). A combination of anisotropic wet etching and the mirrored crystal alignment of the top and bottom SOI layers allows us for the first time to selectively pattern the bottom layer from above. Simulations presented herein show a VπL = 0.17Vcm. Fin-waveguides and passive Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) devices with fin-waveguide phase shifters have been fabricated, with the fin-waveguides having a transmission loss of 5.8dB/mm and a 13.5nm thick internal gate oxide slot.

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2018 (2)

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. V. N. Rao, V. Swarnalatha, A. K. Pandey, and P. Pal, “Determination of precise crystallographic directions on si {111} wafers using self-aligning pre-etched pattern,” Micro Nano Syst. Lett. 6, 4 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of arbitrarily narrow vertical dielectric slots in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 1269–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

S. Akiyama and T. Usuki, “High-speed and efficient silicon modulator based on forward-biased pin diodes,” Front. Phys. 2, 65 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2010 (1)

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. A. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. M. Briggs, M. Shearn, A. Scherer, and H. A. Atwater, “Wafer-bonded single-crystal silicon slot waveguides and ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021106 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. A. Anderson, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High confinement in silicon slot waveguides with sharp bends,” Opt. Express 14, 9197–9202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

D. A. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, and K. Petermann, “0.1 db/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

K. Ljungberg, A. Söderbärg, and U. Jansson, “Improved direct bonding of Si and SiO2 surfaces by cleaning in H2SO4: H2O2: HF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 650–652 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, “High-density integrated planar lightwave circuits using SiO2-GeO2 waveguides with a high refractive index difference,” J. Light. Technol. 12, 790–796 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81, 1687–1706 (1993).
[Crossref]

Adams, D.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Adibi, A.

M. Sodagar, A. H. Hosseinnia, P. Isautier, H. Moradinejad, S. Ralph, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “Compact, 15 Gb/s electro-optic modulator through carrier accumulation in a hybrid Si/SiO2/Si microdisk,” Opt. Express 23, 28306–28315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Moradinejad, A. H. Atabaki, A. H. Hosseinia, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “High-Q resonators on double-layer SOI platform,” in 2013 Photonics Conference (IPC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 430–431.
[Crossref]

Akagawa, T.

Akiyama, S.

S. Akiyama and T. Usuki, “High-speed and efficient silicon modulator based on forward-biased pin diodes,” Front. Phys. 2, 65 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21, 11869–11876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Urino, Y. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, M. Imai, M. Yamagishi, S. Saitou, N. Hirayama, M. Takahashi, H. Takahashi, E. Saito, M. Okano, T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, H. Yaegashi, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, M. Mori, T. Horikawa, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “Demonstration of 12.5-Gbps optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical splitters, optical modulators and photodetectors on a single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 20, B256–B263 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-Vcm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “25-Gbps operation of silicon pin mach-zehnder optical modulator with 100-μm-long phase shifter,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2012), pp. CF2L–3.

Al-Attili, A.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, K. Debnath, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon rectangular waveguides fabricated by anisotoropic wet etching for roughness reduction,” in 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 90–91.
[Crossref]

Anderson, P. A.

Anderson, S.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Appel, C.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Arakawa, Y.

Arimoto, H.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, K. Debnath, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon rectangular waveguides fabricated by anisotoropic wet etching for roughness reduction,” in 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 90–91.
[Crossref]

Arndt, F.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, and K. Petermann, “0.1 db/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[Crossref]

Atabaki, A. H.

H. Moradinejad, A. H. Atabaki, A. H. Hosseinia, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “High-Q resonators on double-layer SOI platform,” in 2013 Photonics Conference (IPC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 430–431.
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

R. M. Briggs, M. Shearn, A. Scherer, and H. A. Atwater, “Wafer-bonded single-crystal silicon slot waveguides and ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Auberton-Herve, A.

A. Auberton-Herve, “SOI materials to systems,” in Electron Devices Meeting, 1996. IEDM’96., International, (IEEE, 1996), pp. 3–10.

Baba, T.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-kronig analysis of electro-optical switching in silicon,” in Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering IV, vol. 704 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1987), pp. 32–38.
[Crossref]

Block, B. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R. M.

R. M. Briggs, M. Shearn, A. Scherer, and H. A. Atwater, “Wafer-bonded single-crystal silicon slot waveguides and ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Byers, J.

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cerrina, F.

Chang, P. L.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chong, H. M.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, K. Debnath, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon rectangular waveguides fabricated by anisotoropic wet etching for roughness reduction,” in 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 90–91.
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dama, B.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Debnath, K.

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of arbitrarily narrow vertical dielectric slots in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 1269–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of silicon slot waveguides with 10nm wide oxide slot,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 37–38.
[Crossref]

H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, K. Debnath, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon rectangular waveguides fabricated by anisotoropic wet etching for roughness reduction,” in 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 90–91.
[Crossref]

Eftekhar, A. A.

M. Sodagar, A. H. Hosseinnia, P. Isautier, H. Moradinejad, S. Ralph, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “Compact, 15 Gb/s electro-optic modulator through carrier accumulation in a hybrid Si/SiO2/Si microdisk,” Opt. Express 23, 28306–28315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Moradinejad, A. H. Atabaki, A. H. Hosseinia, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “High-Q resonators on double-layer SOI platform,” in 2013 Photonics Conference (IPC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 430–431.
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Endo, K.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Fischer, U.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, and K. Petermann, “0.1 db/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
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Freude, W.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
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Fujii, M.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
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Fujikata, J.

Gardes, F. Y.

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
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Ghiron, M.

R. K. Montgomery, M. Ghiron, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, K. Shastri, S. Pathak, and K. A. Yanushefski, “High-speed silicon-based electro-optic modulator,” (2005). US Patent 6,845,198.

Gothoskar, P.

R. K. Montgomery, M. Ghiron, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, K. Shastri, S. Pathak, and K. A. Yanushefski, “High-speed silicon-based electro-optic modulator,” (2005). US Patent 6,845,198.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Hatori, N.

Hayashida, T.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Hibino, Y.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, “High-density integrated planar lightwave circuits using SiO2-GeO2 waveguides with a high refractive index difference,” J. Light. Technol. 12, 790–796 (1994).
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Hirayama, N.

Horikawa, T.

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21, 11869–11876 (2013).
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Y. Urino, Y. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, M. Imai, M. Yamagishi, S. Saitou, N. Hirayama, M. Takahashi, H. Takahashi, E. Saito, M. Okano, T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, H. Yaegashi, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, M. Mori, T. Horikawa, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “Demonstration of 12.5-Gbps optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical splitters, optical modulators and photodetectors on a single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 20, B256–B263 (2012).
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S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-Vcm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
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T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “25-Gbps operation of silicon pin mach-zehnder optical modulator with 100-μm-long phase shifter,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2012), pp. CF2L–3.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, and T. Horikawa, “High speed and highly efficient Si optical modulator with MOS junction for 1.55 μm and 1.3 μm wavelengths,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 65–66.

Hosseinia, A. H.

H. Moradinejad, A. H. Atabaki, A. H. Hosseinia, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “High-Q resonators on double-layer SOI platform,” in 2013 Photonics Conference (IPC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 430–431.
[Crossref]

Hosseinnia, A. H.

Husain, M. K.

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, K. Debnath, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon rectangular waveguides fabricated by anisotoropic wet etching for roughness reduction,” in 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 90–91.
[Crossref]

Ibukuro, K.

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
[Crossref]

Imai, M.

Isautier, P.

Ishii, K.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Ishikawa, Y.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Ishizaka, M.

Jansson, U.

K. Ljungberg, A. Söderbärg, and U. Jansson, “Improved direct bonding of Si and SiO2 surfaces by cleaning in H2SO4: H2O2: HF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 650–652 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kern, A. M.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Khokhar, A. Z.

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of arbitrarily narrow vertical dielectric slots in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 1269–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of silicon slot waveguides with 10nm wide oxide slot,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 37–38.
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

Koos, C.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kropp, J.-R.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, and K. Petermann, “0.1 db/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. K.

Leuthold, J.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liao, J. T.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, D. R.

Lipson, M.

Littlejohns, C.

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Ljungberg, K.

K. Ljungberg, A. Söderbärg, and U. Jansson, “Improved direct bonding of Si and SiO2 surfaces by cleaning in H2SO4: H2O2: HF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 650–652 (1995).
[Crossref]

Masahara, M.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Mastronardi, L.

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
[Crossref]

Matsukawa, T.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Metz, P.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Miller, D. A.

D. A. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. A. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

Miura, M.

Mohammed, E.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Montgomery, R. K.

R. K. Montgomery, M. Ghiron, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, K. Shastri, S. Pathak, and K. A. Yanushefski, “High-speed silicon-based electro-optic modulator,” (2005). US Patent 6,845,198.

Moradinejad, H.

M. Sodagar, A. H. Hosseinnia, P. Isautier, H. Moradinejad, S. Ralph, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “Compact, 15 Gb/s electro-optic modulator through carrier accumulation in a hybrid Si/SiO2/Si microdisk,” Opt. Express 23, 28306–28315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Moradinejad, A. H. Atabaki, A. H. Hosseinia, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “High-Q resonators on double-layer SOI platform,” in 2013 Photonics Conference (IPC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 430–431.
[Crossref]

Mori, M.

Nakamura, T.

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noguchi, M.

Noguchi, Y.

O’uchi, S.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Oda, K.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, “High-density integrated planar lightwave circuits using SiO2-GeO2 waveguides with a high refractive index difference,” J. Light. Technol. 12, 790–796 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ogura, A.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Okamoto, D.

Okano, M.

Okayama, H.

Pal, P.

A. V. N. Rao, V. Swarnalatha, A. K. Pandey, and P. Pal, “Determination of precise crystallographic directions on si {111} wafers using self-aligning pre-etched pattern,” Micro Nano Syst. Lett. 6, 4 (2018).
[Crossref]

Palermo, S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pandey, A. K.

A. V. N. Rao, V. Swarnalatha, A. K. Pandey, and P. Pal, “Determination of precise crystallographic directions on si {111} wafers using self-aligning pre-etched pattern,” Micro Nano Syst. Lett. 6, 4 (2018).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, V.

R. K. Montgomery, M. Ghiron, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, K. Shastri, S. Pathak, and K. A. Yanushefski, “High-speed silicon-based electro-optic modulator,” (2005). US Patent 6,845,198.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Pathak, S.

R. K. Montgomery, M. Ghiron, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, K. Shastri, S. Pathak, and K. A. Yanushefski, “High-speed silicon-based electro-optic modulator,” (2005). US Patent 6,845,198.

Petermann, K.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, and K. Petermann, “0.1 db/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[Crossref]

Petra, R.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, K. Debnath, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon rectangular waveguides fabricated by anisotoropic wet etching for roughness reduction,” in 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 90–91.
[Crossref]

Pfrang, A.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Piede, D.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Poulton, C. G.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Prasmusinto, A.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, K. Debnath, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon rectangular waveguides fabricated by anisotoropic wet etching for roughness reduction,” in 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 90–91.
[Crossref]

Ralph, S.

Rao, A. V. N.

A. V. N. Rao, V. Swarnalatha, A. K. Pandey, and P. Pal, “Determination of precise crystallographic directions on si {111} wafers using self-aligning pre-etched pattern,” Micro Nano Syst. Lett. 6, 4 (2018).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of arbitrarily narrow vertical dielectric slots in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 1269–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of silicon slot waveguides with 10nm wide oxide slot,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 37–38.
[Crossref]

H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, K. Debnath, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon rectangular waveguides fabricated by anisotoropic wet etching for roughness reduction,” in 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 90–91.
[Crossref]

Reshotko, M. R.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, E.

Saito, S.

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of arbitrarily narrow vertical dielectric slots in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 1269–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of silicon slot waveguides with 10nm wide oxide slot,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 37–38.
[Crossref]

H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, K. Debnath, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon rectangular waveguides fabricated by anisotoropic wet etching for roughness reduction,” in 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 90–91.
[Crossref]

Saitou, S.

Sakamoto, K.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

R. M. Briggs, M. Shearn, A. Scherer, and H. A. Atwater, “Wafer-bonded single-crystal silicon slot waveguides and ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schimmel, T.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. S.

Shastri, K.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

R. K. Montgomery, M. Ghiron, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, K. Shastri, S. Pathak, and K. A. Yanushefski, “High-speed silicon-based electro-optic modulator,” (2005). US Patent 6,845,198.

Shearn, M.

R. M. Briggs, M. Shearn, A. Scherer, and H. A. Atwater, “Wafer-bonded single-crystal silicon slot waveguides and ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, T.

Shimura, D.

Shin, J.

Sodagar, M.

Söderbärg, A.

K. Ljungberg, A. Söderbärg, and U. Jansson, “Improved direct bonding of Si and SiO2 surfaces by cleaning in H2SO4: H2O2: HF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 650–652 (1995).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81, 1687–1706 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-kronig analysis of electro-optical switching in silicon,” in Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering IV, vol. 704 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1987), pp. 32–38.
[Crossref]

Sunder, S.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Suzuki, E.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, “High-density integrated planar lightwave circuits using SiO2-GeO2 waveguides with a high refractive index difference,” J. Light. Technol. 12, 790–796 (1994).
[Crossref]

Swarnalatha, V.

A. V. N. Rao, V. Swarnalatha, A. K. Pandey, and P. Pal, “Determination of precise crystallographic directions on si {111} wafers using self-aligning pre-etched pattern,” Micro Nano Syst. Lett. 6, 4 (2018).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

Takahashi, M.

Takahashi, S.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, and T. Horikawa, “High speed and highly efficient Si optical modulator with MOS junction for 1.55 μm and 1.3 μm wavelengths,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 65–66.

Thomson, D. J.

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tsuchizawa, T.

Tsukada, J.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Tummidi, R.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Urino, Y.

Usuki, T.

S. Akiyama and T. Usuki, “High-speed and efficient silicon modulator based on forward-biased pin diodes,” Front. Phys. 2, 65 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21, 11869–11876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Urino, Y. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, M. Imai, M. Yamagishi, S. Saitou, N. Hirayama, M. Takahashi, H. Takahashi, E. Saito, M. Okano, T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, H. Yaegashi, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, M. Mori, T. Horikawa, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “Demonstration of 12.5-Gbps optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical splitters, optical modulators and photodetectors on a single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 20, B256–B263 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-Vcm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “25-Gbps operation of silicon pin mach-zehnder optical modulator with 100-μm-long phase shifter,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2012), pp. CF2L–3.

Van der Spiegel, J.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Wang, Y.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Webster, M.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Wilson, W.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Wu, X.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Yaegashi, H.

Yamada, K.

Yamagishi, M.

Yamamoto, T.

Yamauchi, H.

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

Yanagisawa, M.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, “High-density integrated planar lightwave circuits using SiO2-GeO2 waveguides with a high refractive index difference,” J. Light. Technol. 12, 790–796 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yanushefski, K. A.

R. K. Montgomery, M. Ghiron, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, K. Shastri, S. Pathak, and K. A. Yanushefski, “High-speed silicon-based electro-optic modulator,” (2005). US Patent 6,845,198.

Young, I. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zinke, T.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, and K. Petermann, “0.1 db/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Ljungberg, A. Söderbärg, and U. Jansson, “Improved direct bonding of Si and SiO2 surfaces by cleaning in H2SO4: H2O2: HF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 650–652 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. M. Briggs, M. Shearn, A. Scherer, and H. A. Atwater, “Wafer-bonded single-crystal silicon slot waveguides and ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Front. Mater. (1)

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

Front. Phys. (1)

S. Akiyama and T. Usuki, “High-speed and efficient silicon modulator based on forward-biased pin diodes,” Front. Phys. 2, 65 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index-contrast waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306–1321 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, and K. Petermann, “0.1 db/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of arbitrarily narrow vertical dielectric slots in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29, 1269–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Light. Technol. (1)

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, “High-density integrated planar lightwave circuits using SiO2-GeO2 waveguides with a high refractive index difference,” J. Light. Technol. 12, 790–796 (1994).
[Crossref]

Micro Nano Syst. Lett. (1)

A. V. N. Rao, V. Swarnalatha, A. K. Pandey, and P. Pal, “Determination of precise crystallographic directions on si {111} wafers using self-aligning pre-etched pattern,” Micro Nano Syst. Lett. 6, 4 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

P. A. Anderson, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High confinement in silicon slot waveguides with sharp bends,” Opt. Express 14, 9197–9202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-Vcm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20, 2911–2923 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Urino, Y. Noguchi, M. Noguchi, M. Imai, M. Yamagishi, S. Saitou, N. Hirayama, M. Takahashi, H. Takahashi, E. Saito, M. Okano, T. Shimizu, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, H. Yaegashi, T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, M. Mori, T. Horikawa, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “Demonstration of 12.5-Gbps optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical splitters, optical modulators and photodetectors on a single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 20, B256–B263 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21, 11869–11876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sodagar, A. H. Hosseinnia, P. Isautier, H. Moradinejad, S. Ralph, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “Compact, 15 Gb/s electro-optic modulator through carrier accumulation in a hybrid Si/SiO2/Si microdisk,” Opt. Express 23, 28306–28315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Res. (1)

K. Debnath, D. J. Thomson, W. Zhang, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, J. Byers, L. Mastronardi, M. K. Husain, K. Ibukuro, F. Y. Gardes, and S. Saito, “All-silicon carrier accumulation modulator based on a lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Photonics Res. 6, 373–379 (2018).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (3)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81, 1687–1706 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. A. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. A. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (12)

R. K. Montgomery, M. Ghiron, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, K. Shastri, S. Pathak, and K. A. Yanushefski, “High-speed silicon-based electro-optic modulator,” (2005). US Patent 6,845,198.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-kronig analysis of electro-optical switching in silicon,” in Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering IV, vol. 704 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1987), pp. 32–38.
[Crossref]

A. Auberton-Herve, “SOI materials to systems,” in Electron Devices Meeting, 1996. IEDM’96., International, (IEEE, 1996), pp. 3–10.

J. Fujikata, S. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, and T. Horikawa, “High speed and highly efficient Si optical modulator with MOS junction for 1.55 μm and 1.3 μm wavelengths,” in 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 65–66.

K. Debnath, A. Z. Khokhar, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Fabrication of silicon slot waveguides with 10nm wide oxide slot,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 37–38.
[Crossref]

H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, K. Debnath, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon rectangular waveguides fabricated by anisotoropic wet etching for roughness reduction,” in 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2015), pp. 90–91.
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, T. Hayashida, T. Matsukawa, K. Endo, S. O’uchi, K. Sakamoto, M. Masahara, K. Ishii, J. Tsukada, Y. Ishikawa, H. Yamauchi, A. Ogura, and E. Suzuki, “An experimental study of TiN gate finFET SRAM with (111)-oriented sidewall channels,” in 2008 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–2.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van der Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13 μm CMOS,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

J. Byers, K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. Husain, S. H. S. Moise, Z. Li, F. Liu, K. Ibukuro, A. Khokhar, K. Kiang, S. Boden, D. Thomson, G. Reed, and S. Saito, “Dataset for ‘Silicon Slot Fin Waveguide on Bonded Double-SOI for Low-Power Accumulation Modulator Fabricated by Anisotropic Wet Etching Technique’: University of Southampton Institutional Research Repository,” https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/426122/ (2018).

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “25-Gbps operation of silicon pin mach-zehnder optical modulator with 100-μm-long phase shifter,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2012), pp. CF2L–3.

M. Webster, P. Gothoskar, V. Patel, D. Piede, S. Anderson, R. Tummidi, D. Adams, C. Appel, P. Metz, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “An efficient MOS-capacitor based silicon modulator and cmos drivers for optical transmitters,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

H. Moradinejad, A. H. Atabaki, A. H. Hosseinia, A. A. Eftekhar, and A. Adibi, “High-Q resonators on double-layer SOI platform,” in 2013 Photonics Conference (IPC), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 430–431.
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (A) Top view schematic of the active phase shifter fin-waveguide region. Relevant stable (111) planes of the upper SOI and lower SOI layers are overlaid over the left (green) and right (yellow) fins respectively. (B) cross-section b–b’ depicting alternating 3D section of the structure; (C) cross-section c–c’ depicting conventional strip waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fin simulation results.(A) Normalized fundamental TE mode profile (energy density) for (i) double-SOI strip waveguide and (ii) double-SOI fin-waveguide. Waveguide thickness (Twg) is 210nm, gate oxide layer is 10nm, waveguide width (wwg) is 450nm. Fin thickness (Tfin) is 100nm, fin length is (1μm). Mode profile in fins is negligible above 200nm away from the central WG. (B) LUMERICAL simulations for fin waveguide design #4 showing (i) the normalized frequency (a/λ) bandgap diagram and (ii) the group index (ng) (which tends to infinity at the bandgap) as a function of wavelength.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulation results for MZI accumulation modulator (described in text) with an without fin structure. (A) VπL as a function of waveguide width. Fin structure showing 17.4% improvement over the non-fin structure at 250nm waveguide width and a 11.4% improvement at 500nm waveguide width. (B) Optical loss as a function of waveguide width, showing lower fin loss at narrower waveguide widths. (C) f3dB as a function of waveguide width showing lower f3dB for the fin waveguide design. (D) f3dB as a function of optical loss.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fin waveguide simplified fabrication process flow: (A) Bonded double-SOI substrate (with thin 10nm gate oxide intermediate layer), with thermally grown oxide (22nm) on top. Top and bottom (110) SOI layers have mirrored crystal orientation; (B) Fin and strip waveguides patterned using electron beam lithography and dry etched; (C) Thermal oxide (7.5nm on (111) sidewalls) grown to reduce sidewall roughness; (D) Sidewall oxide removed using HF and TMAH applied for 105minutes to etch non-(111) plane Si. Left bottom fins etched whilst left top fins protected by the (111) sidewall, vice versa with the right fins; (E) Exposed oxide removed using HF. Dielectric protective layer (PMMA) applied.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM images of TMAH anisotropically wet etched bonded double-SOI fin waveguides, taken after SiO2 removal, at 54° tilt to show the three dimensional nature of the over and under etched fins. (A) Overview of entire ≈ 2μm width of the waveguide; (B) Increased magnification SEM image of left (under-etched) fins, taken using “line average image stabilization”, which gives the misleading impression that the waveguide is “wobbling”. This is clearly not the case from the other images, however, this technique does give higher resolution and is locally accurate. This clearly shows how the left upper fins defined by the (111) crystal plane have remained un-etched, whilst the SOI beneath these fins (not protected by the (111) crystal plane barrier) has been completely etched. (C) Increased magnification SEM image of right (over-etched) fins showing that the top SOI has been completely etched.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 C–V curve of bonded MOS capacitor device demonstrating ideal MOS capacitor behavior and capacitance relating to tox= 13.5nm. This demonstrates the high quality of the bonding oxide layer.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 A–D: Total transmission loss as a function of wavelength (nm) for each fin design #1, #2, #3, #4 respectively, and for each Lwg. Each presented result is an average of three identical devices, after the transmission loss of each device has individually been corrected to remove Fabry-Perot resonance caused by the grating couplers. The “Ref” result is the expected transmission loss for a 0μm long waveguide (input grating coupler input and output taper, and output grating coupler), extrapolated from 12 strip waveguides of Lwg=250μm–2000μm. This represents grating coupler and intrinsic set-up loss.(E) Summary of normalized transmission loss at wavelength 1565nm (peak grating coupler transmission) for all four fin waveguide design and reference strip waveguide at Lwg=250μm, 500μm, 1000μm, 2000μm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Transmission loss of single fin waveguide device (fin design # 4), Lwg = 250μm. Wavelength spectrum spans photonic bandgap (1578nm–1620nm). Insert shows transmission at upper stopband, magnified.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Absolute transmission loss of single MZI devices (passive) with different ΔLarm. The phase shifter sections of the MZI are fin-waveguide design # 3.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Fin Design Parameters