Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate an intra-cavity transverse mode-switchable fiber laser based on a mode-selective photonic lantern and a few-mode Er-doped fiber amplifier. The six lowest-order LP modes can lase independently and are switchable by changing the input port of the photonic lantern. We measured the slope efficiency, mode intensity profile, and optical spectrum of each lasing mode. In addition, we demonstrate donut-shaped LP11 and LP21 modes using incoherent superposition and simultaneous lasing of the two degenerate modes.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, F. Shi, Y. Huang, J. Wen, Z. Luo, F. Pang, T. Wang, and X. Zeng, “High-order mode direct oscillation of few-mode fiber laser for high-quality cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11850–11858 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

2016 (3)

2015 (5)

2014 (4)

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

E. Ip, “Gain equalization for few-mode fiber amplifiers beyond two propagating mode groups,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1933–1936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

D. Wildanger, J. Bückers, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, and L. Kastrup, “A STED microscope aligned by design,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16100–16110 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chelkowski, S. Hild, and A. Freise, “Prospects of higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes in future gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 79(12), 122002 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective area higher order mode fibers: a new strategy for high power laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Harke, J. Keller, C. K. Ullal, V. Westphal, A. Schönle, and S. W. Hell, “Resolution scaling in STED microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4154–4162 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. M. Fini and S. Ramachandran, “Natural bend-distortion immunity of higher-order-mode large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 748–750 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Ait-Ameur, K.

Albert, J.

Alvarado, J. C.

Alvarado Zacarias, J.

Alvarado-Zacarías, J. C.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amezcua Correa, R.

Amezcua-Correa, A.

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “3×10 Gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber using photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M2D.5.
[Crossref]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Photonic lantern as mode multiplexer for multimode optical communications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 46–55 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. C. Alvarado, G. Lopez-Galmiche, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Hernández-Cordero, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. Sillard, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Six mode selective fiber optic spatial multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1663–1666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Newkirk, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, A. Velazquez-Benitez, J. Albert, R. Amezcua-Correa, and A. Schülzgen, “Bending sensor combining multicore fiber with a mode-selective photonic lantern,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5188–5191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “3×10 Gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber using photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M2D.5.
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Antonio-Lopez, J.

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

Antonio-López, J. E.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, N.

Bente, E.

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bogan, C.

Bradford, J.

Bückers, J.

Burger, L.

S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2289 (2013), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, D.

Bustos Ramirez, R.

Cang, J.

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Chang, S. H.

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Chelkowski, S.

S. Chelkowski, S. Hild, and A. Freise, “Prospects of higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes in future gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 79(12), 122002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chujo, K.

Clarkson, W. A.

Daniel, J. M. O.

Dudley, A.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ercan, B.

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Eznaveh, Z. S.

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Feurer, T.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fini, J. M.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective area higher order mode fibers: a new strategy for high power laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Fini and S. Ramachandran, “Natural bend-distortion immunity of higher-order-mode large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 748–750 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fontaine, N. K.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Photonic lantern as mode multiplexer for multimode optical communications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 46–55 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Forbes, A.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. A. Litvin, S. Ngcobo, D. Naidoo, K. Ait-Ameur, and A. Forbes, “Doughnut laser beam as an incoherent superposition of two petal beams,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 704–707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2289 (2013), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freise, A.

S. Chelkowski, S. Hild, and A. Freise, “Prospects of higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes in future gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 79(12), 122002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ghalmi, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective area higher order mode fibers: a new strategy for high power laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Girkin, J.

Gonnet, C.

G. Lopez-Galmiche, Z. Sanjabi Eznaveh, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, A. M. Velazquez Benitez, J. Rodriguez Asomoza, J. J. Sanchez Mondragon, C. Gonnet, P. Sillard, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua Correa, “Few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier with photonic lantern for pump spatial mode control,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2588–2591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Gris-Sánchez, I.

Gu, C.

Guan, B.

Hamazaki, J.

Harke, B.

Hell, S. W.

Hernández-Cordero, J.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. C. Alvarado, G. Lopez-Galmiche, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Hernández-Cordero, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. Sillard, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Six mode selective fiber optic spatial multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1663–1666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hild, S.

S. Chelkowski, S. Hild, and A. Freise, “Prospects of higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes in future gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 79(12), 122002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Ip, E.

E. Ip, “Gain equalization for few-mode fiber amplifiers beyond two propagating mode groups,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1933–1936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Bai, E. Ip, T. Wang, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber amplifier with tunable modal gain using a reconfigurable multimode pump,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16601–16611 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kastrup, L.

Keller, J.

Kim, D. J.

Kim, J. W.

Kobayashi, Y.

Leng, J.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, G.

Li, L.

Lin, D.

Lin, Z.

Lingle, R.

Litvin, I.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2289 (2013), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Litvin, I. A.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “3×10 Gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber using photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M2D.5.
[Crossref]

Liu, T.

Lopez, J. E. A.

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Lopez Galmiche, G.

Lopez-Galmiche, G.

Lubeigt, W.

Luo, Z.

Marrucci, L.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

Meier, M.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mermelstein, M.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective area higher order mode fibers: a new strategy for high power laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ming, H.

Morita, R.

Naidoo, D.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. A. Litvin, S. Ngcobo, D. Naidoo, K. Ait-Ameur, and A. Forbes, “Doughnut laser beam as an incoherent superposition of two petal beams,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 704–707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newkirk, A. V.

Ngcobo, S.

Nicholson, J. W.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective area higher order mode fibers: a new strategy for high power laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Noack, A.

Okonkwo, C.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okonkwo, C. M.

Omatsu, T.

Pang, F.

Piccirillo, B.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective area higher order mode fibers: a new strategy for high power laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Fini and S. Ramachandran, “Natural bend-distortion immunity of higher-order-mode large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 748–750 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez Asomoza, J.

Romano, V.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[Crossref]

Roux, F. S.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Salazar-Gil, J. R.

Sanchez Mondragon, J. J.

Sanchez-Mondragon, J.

Sanjabi Eznaveh, Z.

Schönle, A.

Schulzgen, A.

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Schülzgen, A.

Shah, L.

Shi, F.

Shubochkin, R.

Sillard, P.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lopez-Galmiche, Z. Sanjabi Eznaveh, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, A. M. Velazquez Benitez, J. Rodriguez Asomoza, J. J. Sanchez Mondragon, C. Gonnet, P. Sillard, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua Correa, “Few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier with photonic lantern for pump spatial mode control,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2588–2591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. C. Alvarado, G. Lopez-Galmiche, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Hernández-Cordero, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. Sillard, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Six mode selective fiber optic spatial multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1663–1666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “3×10 Gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber using photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M2D.5.
[Crossref]

Sun, B.

Sun, Y.

Tanda, S.

Ullal, C. K.

Valentine, G.

Veláquez-Benitez, A.

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Velazquez Benitez, A. M.

Velazquez-Benitez, A.

Velazquez-Benitez, A. M.

Velázquez-Benítez, A. M.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

Wang, M.

Wang, N.

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “3×10 Gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber using photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M2D.5.
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Wen, H.

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “3×10 Gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber using photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M2D.5.
[Crossref]

Wen, J.

Westphal, V.

Wildanger, D.

Willke, B.

Wittek, S.

Xu, L.

Yan, M. F.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective area higher order mode fibers: a new strategy for high power laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yerolatsitis, S.

Zacarias, J. C. A.

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “3×10 Gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber using photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M2D.5.
[Crossref]

Zaharias, J. C. A.

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, D.

Zhou, P.

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

E. Ip, “Gain equalization for few-mode fiber amplifiers beyond two propagating mode groups,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1933–1936 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective area higher order mode fibers: a new strategy for high power laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Ngcobo, I. Litvin, L. Burger, and A. Forbes, “A digital laser for on-demand laser modes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2289 (2013), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 327–332 (2016).
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Opt. Express (11)

W. Lubeigt, G. Valentine, J. Girkin, E. Bente, and D. Burns, “Active transverse mode control and optimization of an all-solid-state laser using an intracavity adaptive-optic mirror,” Opt. Express 10(13), 550–555 (2002).
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B. Harke, J. Keller, C. K. Ullal, V. Westphal, A. Schönle, and S. W. Hell, “Resolution scaling in STED microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4154–4162 (2008).
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D. Wildanger, J. Bückers, V. Westphal, S. W. Hell, and L. Kastrup, “A STED microscope aligned by design,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16100–16110 (2009).
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J. Hamazaki, R. Morita, K. Chujo, Y. Kobayashi, S. Tanda, and T. Omatsu, “Optical-vortex laser ablation,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2144–2151 (2010).
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J. M. O. Daniel and W. A. Clarkson, “Rapid, electronically controllable transverse mode selection in a multimode fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29442–29448 (2013).
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N. Bai, E. Ip, T. Wang, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber amplifier with tunable modal gain using a reconfigurable multimode pump,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16601–16611 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, F. Shi, Y. Huang, J. Wen, Z. Luo, F. Pang, T. Wang, and X. Zeng, “High-order mode direct oscillation of few-mode fiber laser for high-quality cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11850–11858 (2018).
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N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
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S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. A. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 608–617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Photonic lantern as mode multiplexer for multimode optical communications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 46–55 (2017).
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Opt. Lett. (11)

S. Wittek, R. Bustos Ramirez, J. Alvarado Zacarias, Z. Sanjabi Eznaveh, J. Bradford, G. Lopez Galmiche, D. Zhang, W. Zhu, J. Antonio-Lopez, L. Shah, and R. Amezcua Correa, “Mode-selective amplification in a large mode area Yb-doped fiber using a photonic lantern,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2157–2160 (2016).
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A. Noack, C. Bogan, and B. Willke, “Higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes in (non-) planar four-mirror cavities for future gravitational wave detectors,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 751–754 (2017).
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A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. C. Alvarado, G. Lopez-Galmiche, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Hernández-Cordero, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. Sillard, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Six mode selective fiber optic spatial multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1663–1666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lopez-Galmiche, Z. Sanjabi Eznaveh, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, A. M. Velazquez Benitez, J. Rodriguez Asomoza, J. J. Sanchez Mondragon, C. Gonnet, P. Sillard, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua Correa, “Few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier with photonic lantern for pump spatial mode control,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2588–2591 (2016).
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B. Sun, A. Wang, L. Xu, C. Gu, Y. Zhou, Z. Lin, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Transverse mode switchable fiber laser through wavelength tuning,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 667–669 (2013).
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D. Lin and W. A. Clarkson, “Polarization-dependent transverse mode selection in an Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 498–501 (2015).
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J. M. Fini and S. Ramachandran, “Natural bend-distortion immunity of higher-order-mode large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 748–750 (2007).
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A. V. Newkirk, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, A. Velazquez-Benitez, J. Albert, R. Amezcua-Correa, and A. Schülzgen, “Bending sensor combining multicore fiber with a mode-selective photonic lantern,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5188–5191 (2015).
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I. A. Litvin, S. Ngcobo, D. Naidoo, K. Ait-Ameur, and A. Forbes, “Doughnut laser beam as an incoherent superposition of two petal beams,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 704–707 (2014).
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D. Lin, J. M. O. Daniel, and W. A. Clarkson, “Controlling the handedness of directly excited Laguerre-Gaussian modes in a solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 3903–3906 (2014).
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D. J. Kim and J. W. Kim, “Direct generation of an optical vortex beam in a single-frequency Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 399–402 (2015).
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Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. (1)

S. Chelkowski, S. Hild, and A. Freise, “Prospects of higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes in future gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 79(12), 122002 (2009).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
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Other (5)

A. Velázquez-Benítez, J. Antonio-López, J. Alvarado-Zacarías, G. Lopez-Galmiche, P. Sillard, D. Van Ras, C. Okonkwo, H. Chen, R. Ryf, N. Fontaine, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling the fabrication of higher order photonic lanterns using microstructured preforms,” in Optical Communication (ECOC),2015European Conference on, (IEEE, 2015), paper Tu.3.3.2.

N. K. Fontaine, B. Huang, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Chen, J. Cang, B. Ercan, A. Veláquez-Benitez, S. H. Chang, R. Ryf, A. Schulzgen, J. C. A. Zaharias, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet, J. E. A. Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Multi-mode optical fiber amplifier supporting over 10 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th5A.4.
[Crossref]

N. Wang, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. A. Zacarias, Z. S. Eznaveh, H. Wen, P. Sillard, S. Leon-Saval, A. Schulzgen, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Mode-Selective Fiber Laser Using a Photonic Lantern,” in ECOC2016; 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication; Proceedings of, (VDE, 2016), paper Tu2F.5.

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, A. Amezcua-Correa, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “3×10 Gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber using photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M2D.5.
[Crossref]

J. Van Weerdenburg, R. Ryf, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, R. A. Alvarez-Aguirre, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Amezcua-Correa, T. Koonen, and C. Okonkwo, “138 Tbit/s transmission over 650 km graded-index 6-mode fiber,” in Optical Communication (ECOC),2017European Conference on, (IEEE, 2017), paper Th.PDP.A.4.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of a MSPL; (b) cross-sectional view of the input fiber distribution in the MSPL; (c) mode profiles of the PL after splicing to a 6-mode FMF at λ = 1550 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Measured refractive index of the ED-FMF; (b) cross-sectional image of the ED-FMF; (c) mode profiles from ED-FMF spliced with 6-mode FMF.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup for the transverse mode-switchable fiber laser. The MSPL is used to switch between different LP modes. PC: polarization controller; FBG: fiber Bragg grating.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Output power vs. pump power for the six lasing modes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Intensity profiles of the six lasing LP modes.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Output optical spectra of the six lasing modes measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution of 0.1 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Schematic of a fiber laser for the generation of donut-shaped modes by the incoherent superposition of degenerate LP11s or LP21s modes. OC: optical coupler; VOA: variable optical attenuator.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Laser power vs pump power for each LP mode lasing separately and the donut mode as their incoherent superposition for the (a) LP11 modes and (b) LP21 modes.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Upper row: mode profiles for each LP11 mode lasing individually and the donut LP11 mode from their incoherent superposition; lower row: mode profiles for each LP21 mode and the donut-shaped LP21 mode.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Schematic setup of interference experiment to verify the incoherence of the donut mode laser; (b) position of the pinholes correspond to the lobes on the donut mode laser; and the interference patterns between points 1 and 2 (c) and points 1 and 3 (d).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Losses of the MSPL at both pump and signal wavelength (in dB)

Equations (1)

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η i,j = Γ s,i ( r,φ ) Γ p,j (r,φ) N 0 (r, φ)rdrdφ

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