Abstract

We demonstrate lasing up to 230 K in a GeSn heterostructure micro-disk cavity. The GeSn 16.0% optically active layer was grown on a step-graded GeSn buffer, limiting the density of misfit dislocations. The lasing wavelengths shifted from 2720 to 2890 nm at 15 K up to 3200 nm at 230 K. Compared to results reported elsewhere, we attribute the increase in maximal lasing temperature to two factors: a stronger optical confinement by a thicker active layer and a better carrier confinement provided by a GeSn 13.8% / GeSn 16.0% / GeSn 13.8% double heterostructure.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Study of GeSn based heterostructures: towards optimized group IV MQW LEDs

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, C. Schulte-Braucks, S. Wirths, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca
Opt. Express 24(2) 1358-1367 (2016)

Mid-infrared light emission > 3 µm wavelength from tensile strained GeSn microdisks

R. W. Millar, D. C. S. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, P. Jahandar, C. MacGregor, M. Myronov, and D. J. Paul
Opt. Express 25(21) 25374-25385 (2017)

Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng
Opt. Express 18(19) 19957-19965 (2010)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Georgakilas, J. Stoemenos, K. Tsagaraki, P. Komninou, N. Flevaris, P. Panayotatos, and A. Christou, “Generation and annihilation of antiphase domain boundaries in GaAs on Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Mater. Res. 8(08), 1908–1921 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Morizane, “Antiphase domain structures in GaP and GaAs epitaxial layers grown on Si and Ge,” J. Cryst. Growth 38(2), 249–254 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Zubia and S. D. Hersee, “Nanoheteroepitaxy: The Application of nanostructuring and substrate compliance to the heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductor materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6492–6496 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Z. Li, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and Z. Shellenbarger, “Defect reduction of GaAs/Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 106102 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, L. Gignac, C. M. Breslin, J. Bruley, D. Cutaia, and H. Riel, “Template-assisted selective epitaxy of III–V nanoscale devices for co-planar heterogeneous integration with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(23), 233101 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Knoedler, N. Bologna, H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, S. Wirths, M. D. Rossell, and H. Riel, “Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy,” Cryst. Growth. Res. 17(12), 6297–6302 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, S. David, X. Checoury, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Optical gain in single tensile-strained germanium photonic wire,” Opt. Express 19(19), 17925–17934 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers At Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, T. Zabel, and B. Marzban, Z. ikonic, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, J. Witzens, H. Sigg, D. Grutzmacher, and D. Buca “Quantum Confinement Effects in GeSn/SiGeSn Heterostructure Lasers,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (2017), paper 24.2.1.
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge1-x Snx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. Khazaka, J. Aubin, E. Nolot, and J. M. Hartmann, “Investigation of the Growth of Si-Ge-Sn Pseudomorphic Layers on 200 mm Ge Virtual Substrates: Impact of Growth Pressure, HCl and Si2H6 Flows”, accepted for publication in ECS Transactions - G03 Symposium, AIMES 2018 Meeting of the Electro-Chemical Society (30 September – 4 October 2018).
  23. S. Gupta, R. Chen, Y. C. Huang, Y. Kim, E. Sanchez, J. S. Harris, and K. C. Saraswat, “Highly Selective Dry Etching of Germanium Over Germanium-Tin (Ge1-xSnx): A Novel Route for Ge1-xSnx Nanostructure Fabrication,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3783–3790 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).
  25. CEA, unpublished.
  26. R. Khazaka, E. Nolot, J. Aubin, and J.M. Hartmann, “Growth and characterization of SiGeSn pseudomorphic layers on 200 mm Ge virtual substrates,” submitted for publication in Semicond. Sci. Technol. (June 2018).

2018 (2)

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

2017 (3)

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Knoedler, N. Bologna, H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, S. Wirths, M. D. Rossell, and H. Riel, “Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy,” Cryst. Growth. Res. 17(12), 6297–6302 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, L. Gignac, C. M. Breslin, J. Bruley, D. Cutaia, and H. Riel, “Template-assisted selective epitaxy of III–V nanoscale devices for co-planar heterogeneous integration with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(23), 233101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers At Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, R. Chen, Y. C. Huang, Y. Kim, E. Sanchez, J. S. Harris, and K. C. Saraswat, “Highly Selective Dry Etching of Germanium Over Germanium-Tin (Ge1-xSnx): A Novel Route for Ge1-xSnx Nanostructure Fabrication,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3783–3790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge1-x Snx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Z. Li, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and Z. Shellenbarger, “Defect reduction of GaAs/Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 106102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

1999 (1)

D. Zubia and S. D. Hersee, “Nanoheteroepitaxy: The Application of nanostructuring and substrate compliance to the heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductor materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6492–6496 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. Georgakilas, J. Stoemenos, K. Tsagaraki, P. Komninou, N. Flevaris, P. Panayotatos, and A. Christou, “Generation and annihilation of antiphase domain boundaries in GaAs on Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Mater. Res. 8(08), 1908–1921 (1993).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

K. Morizane, “Antiphase domain structures in GaP and GaAs epitaxial layers grown on Si and Ge,” J. Cryst. Growth 38(2), 249–254 (1977).
[Crossref]

Aboozar, M.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alcotte, R.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Al-Kabi, S.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Armand Pilon, F.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aubin, J.

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bai, J.

J. Z. Li, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and Z. Shellenbarger, “Defect reduction of GaAs/Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 106102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bao, X.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baron, T.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bassani, F.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, G.

Bender, H.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bertrand, M.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bogumilowicz, Y.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bologna, N.

M. Knoedler, N. Bologna, H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, S. Wirths, M. D. Rossell, and H. Riel, “Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy,” Cryst. Growth. Res. 17(12), 6297–6302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Borg, M.

M. Knoedler, N. Bologna, H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, S. Wirths, M. D. Rossell, and H. Riel, “Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy,” Cryst. Growth. Res. 17(12), 6297–6302 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, L. Gignac, C. M. Breslin, J. Bruley, D. Cutaia, and H. Riel, “Template-assisted selective epitaxy of III–V nanoscale devices for co-planar heterogeneous integration with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(23), 233101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

Breslin, C. M.

H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, L. Gignac, C. M. Breslin, J. Bruley, D. Cutaia, and H. Riel, “Template-assisted selective epitaxy of III–V nanoscale devices for co-planar heterogeneous integration with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(23), 233101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers At Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruley, J.

H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, L. Gignac, C. M. Breslin, J. Bruley, D. Cutaia, and H. Riel, “Template-assisted selective epitaxy of III–V nanoscale devices for co-planar heterogeneous integration with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(23), 233101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Buca, D.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Calvo, V.

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carroll, M.

J. Z. Li, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and Z. Shellenbarger, “Defect reduction of GaAs/Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 106102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Caymax, M.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

Chelnokov, A.

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

S. Gupta, R. Chen, Y. C. Huang, Y. Kim, E. Sanchez, J. S. Harris, and K. C. Saraswat, “Highly Selective Dry Etching of Germanium Over Germanium-Tin (Ge1-xSnx): A Novel Route for Ge1-xSnx Nanostructure Fabrication,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3783–3790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiussi, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chrastina, D.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Christou, A.

A. Georgakilas, J. Stoemenos, K. Tsagaraki, P. Komninou, N. Flevaris, P. Panayotatos, and A. Christou, “Generation and annihilation of antiphase domain boundaries in GaAs on Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Mater. Res. 8(08), 1908–1921 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cipro, R.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Collier, B.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cooper, D.

J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cutaia, D.

H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, L. Gignac, C. M. Breslin, J. Bruley, D. Cutaia, and H. Riel, “Template-assisted selective epitaxy of III–V nanoscale devices for co-planar heterogeneous integration with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(23), 233101 (2015).
[Crossref]

David, S.

de Kersauson, M.

Delaye, V.

J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

Demeulemeester, J.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dou, W.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Du, W.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Duchemin, I.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

El Kurdi, M.

Escalante, J.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fishman, G.

Flevaris, N.

A. Georgakilas, J. Stoemenos, K. Tsagaraki, P. Komninou, N. Flevaris, P. Panayotatos, and A. Christou, “Generation and annihilation of antiphase domain boundaries in GaAs on Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Mater. Res. 8(08), 1908–1921 (1993).
[Crossref]

Franquet, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Frigerio, J.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gassenq, A.

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geiger, R.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gencarelli, F.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Georgakilas, A.

A. Georgakilas, J. Stoemenos, K. Tsagaraki, P. Komninou, N. Flevaris, P. Panayotatos, and A. Christou, “Generation and annihilation of antiphase domain boundaries in GaAs on Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Mater. Res. 8(08), 1908–1921 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ghetmiri, S. A.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gignac, L.

H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, L. Gignac, C. M. Breslin, J. Bruley, D. Cutaia, and H. Riel, “Template-assisted selective epitaxy of III–V nanoscale devices for co-planar heterogeneous integration with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(23), 233101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grant, P.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Grutzmacher, D.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guilloy, K.

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, R. Chen, Y. C. Huang, Y. Kim, E. Sanchez, J. S. Harris, and K. C. Saraswat, “Highly Selective Dry Etching of Germanium Over Germanium-Tin (Ge1-xSnx): A Novel Route for Ge1-xSnx Nanostructure Fabrication,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3783–3790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, J. S.

S. Gupta, R. Chen, Y. C. Huang, Y. Kim, E. Sanchez, J. S. Harris, and K. C. Saraswat, “Highly Selective Dry Etching of Germanium Over Germanium-Tin (Ge1-xSnx): A Novel Route for Ge1-xSnx Nanostructure Fabrication,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3783–3790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, J. M.

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hersee, S. D.

D. Zubia and S. D. Hersee, “Nanoheteroepitaxy: The Application of nanostructuring and substrate compliance to the heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductor materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6492–6496 (1999).
[Crossref]

Heyns, M.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. C.

S. Gupta, R. Chen, Y. C. Huang, Y. Kim, E. Sanchez, J. S. Harris, and K. C. Saraswat, “Highly Selective Dry Etching of Germanium Over Germanium-Tin (Ge1-xSnx): A Novel Route for Ge1-xSnx Nanostructure Fabrication,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3783–3790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikonic, Z.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Isella, G.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jakomin, R.

Jung, W. S.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers At Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J. H.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers At Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

S. Gupta, R. Chen, Y. C. Huang, Y. Kim, E. Sanchez, J. S. Harris, and K. C. Saraswat, “Highly Selective Dry Etching of Germanium Over Germanium-Tin (Ge1-xSnx): A Novel Route for Ge1-xSnx Nanostructure Fabrication,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3783–3790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

Knoedler, M.

M. Knoedler, N. Bologna, H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, S. Wirths, M. D. Rossell, and H. Riel, “Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy,” Cryst. Growth. Res. 17(12), 6297–6302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Koch, T. L.

Komninou, P.

A. Georgakilas, J. Stoemenos, K. Tsagaraki, P. Komninou, N. Flevaris, P. Panayotatos, and A. Christou, “Generation and annihilation of antiphase domain boundaries in GaAs on Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Mater. Res. 8(08), 1908–1921 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers At Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, B.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, J. Z.

J. Z. Li, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and Z. Shellenbarger, “Defect reduction of GaAs/Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 106102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lochtefeld, A.

J. Z. Li, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and Z. Shellenbarger, “Defect reduction of GaAs/Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 106102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Loo, R.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luysberg, M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Major, C.

J. Z. Li, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and Z. Shellenbarger, “Defect reduction of GaAs/Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 106102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mantl, S.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Margetis, J.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Martin, M.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Marzban, B.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, T. Zabel, and B. Marzban, Z. ikonic, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, J. Witzens, H. Sigg, D. Grutzmacher, and D. Buca “Quantum Confinement Effects in GeSn/SiGeSn Heterostructure Lasers,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (2017), paper 24.2.1.
[Crossref]

Meersschaut, J.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

Milord, L.

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Minamisawa, A. R.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moeyaert, J.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mollard, N.

J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morizane, K.

K. Morizane, “Antiphase domain structures in GaP and GaAs epitaxial layers grown on Si and Ge,” J. Cryst. Growth 38(2), 249–254 (1977).
[Crossref]

Mortazavi, M.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moselund, K.

M. Knoedler, N. Bologna, H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, S. Wirths, M. D. Rossell, and H. Riel, “Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy,” Cryst. Growth. Res. 17(12), 6297–6302 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, L. Gignac, C. M. Breslin, J. Bruley, D. Cutaia, and H. Riel, “Template-assisted selective epitaxy of III–V nanoscale devices for co-planar heterogeneous integration with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(23), 233101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mosleh, A.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moussa, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mussler, G.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nakatsuka, O.

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge1-x Snx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nam, D.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers At Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naseem, H. A.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Niquet, Y.-M.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, M.

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge1-x Snx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Osvaldo-Dias, G.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, D.

Panayotatos, P.

A. Georgakilas, J. Stoemenos, K. Tsagaraki, P. Komninou, N. Flevaris, P. Panayotatos, and A. Christou, “Generation and annihilation of antiphase domain boundaries in GaAs on Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Mater. Res. 8(08), 1908–1921 (1993).
[Crossref]

Pauc, N.

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Petykiewicz, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers At Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, T.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pin, J. B.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Quinde, R.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rainko, D.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, T. Zabel, and B. Marzban, Z. ikonic, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, J. Witzens, H. Sigg, D. Grutzmacher, and D. Buca “Quantum Confinement Effects in GeSn/SiGeSn Heterostructure Lasers,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (2017), paper 24.2.1.
[Crossref]

Reboud, V.

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Riel, H.

M. Knoedler, N. Bologna, H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, S. Wirths, M. D. Rossell, and H. Riel, “Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy,” Cryst. Growth. Res. 17(12), 6297–6302 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, L. Gignac, C. M. Breslin, J. Bruley, D. Cutaia, and H. Riel, “Template-assisted selective epitaxy of III–V nanoscale devices for co-planar heterogeneous integration with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(23), 233101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rieutord, F.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Robin, E.

J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rossell, M. D.

M. Knoedler, N. Bologna, H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, S. Wirths, M. D. Rossell, and H. Riel, “Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy,” Cryst. Growth. Res. 17(12), 6297–6302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rothman, J.

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rouchon, D.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rouvière, J. L.

J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

Sakai, A.

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge1-x Snx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, E.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, R. Chen, Y. C. Huang, Y. Kim, E. Sanchez, J. S. Harris, and K. C. Saraswat, “Highly Selective Dry Etching of Germanium Over Germanium-Tin (Ge1-xSnx): A Novel Route for Ge1-xSnx Nanostructure Fabrication,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3783–3790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K. C.

S. Gupta, R. Chen, Y. C. Huang, Y. Kim, E. Sanchez, J. S. Harris, and K. C. Saraswat, “Highly Selective Dry Etching of Germanium Over Germanium-Tin (Ge1-xSnx): A Novel Route for Ge1-xSnx Nanostructure Fabrication,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3783–3790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers At Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauvage, S.

Schiefler, G.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmid, H.

M. Knoedler, N. Bologna, H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, S. Wirths, M. D. Rossell, and H. Riel, “Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy,” Cryst. Growth. Res. 17(12), 6297–6302 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, L. Gignac, C. M. Breslin, J. Bruley, D. Cutaia, and H. Riel, “Template-assisted selective epitaxy of III–V nanoscale devices for co-planar heterogeneous integration with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(23), 233101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schulte-Braucks, C.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shellenbarger, Z.

J. Z. Li, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and Z. Shellenbarger, “Defect reduction of GaAs/Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 106102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shimura, Y.

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge1-x Snx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sigg, H.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Spolenak, R.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stange, D.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, T. Zabel, and B. Marzban, Z. ikonic, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, J. Witzens, H. Sigg, D. Grutzmacher, and D. Buca “Quantum Confinement Effects in GeSn/SiGeSn Heterostructure Lasers,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (2017), paper 24.2.1.
[Crossref]

Stoemenos, J.

A. Georgakilas, J. Stoemenos, K. Tsagaraki, P. Komninou, N. Flevaris, P. Panayotatos, and A. Christou, “Generation and annihilation of antiphase domain boundaries in GaAs on Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Mater. Res. 8(08), 1908–1921 (1993).
[Crossref]

Stoica, T.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Suess, M. J.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sukhdeo, D. S.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers At Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, G.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Takeuchi, S.

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge1-x Snx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tardif, S.

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Temst, K.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thai, Q. M.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tolle, J.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsagaraki, K.

A. Georgakilas, J. Stoemenos, K. Tsagaraki, P. Komninou, N. Flevaris, P. Panayotatos, and A. Christou, “Generation and annihilation of antiphase domain boundaries in GaAs on Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Mater. Res. 8(08), 1908–1921 (1993).
[Crossref]

Vandervorst, W.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vantomme, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vincent, B.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

von den Driesch, N.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, T. Zabel, and B. Marzban, Z. ikonic, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, J. Witzens, H. Sigg, D. Grutzmacher, and D. Buca “Quantum Confinement Effects in GeSn/SiGeSn Heterostructure Lasers,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (2017), paper 24.2.1.
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers At Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Widiez, J.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wirths, S.

M. Knoedler, N. Bologna, H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, S. Wirths, M. D. Rossell, and H. Riel, “Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy,” Cryst. Growth. Res. 17(12), 6297–6302 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Witzens, J.

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yiyin, Z.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.-Q.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zabel, T.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, T. Zabel, and B. Marzban, Z. ikonic, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, J. Witzens, H. Sigg, D. Grutzmacher, and D. Buca “Quantum Confinement Effects in GeSn/SiGeSn Heterostructure Lasers,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (2017), paper 24.2.1.
[Crossref]

Zaima, S.

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge1-x Snx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zubia, D.

D. Zubia and S. D. Hersee, “Nanoheteroepitaxy: The Application of nanostructuring and substrate compliance to the heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductor materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6492–6496 (1999).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

D. Stange, S. Wirths, R. Geiger, C. Schulte-Braucks, B. Marzban, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Zabel, T. Stoica, J. M. Hartmann, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, D. Grutzmacher, H. Sigg, J. Witzens, and D. Buca, “Optically Pumped GeSn Microdisk Lasers on Si,” ACS Photonics 3(7), 1279–1285 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Z. Yiyin, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. A. Ghetmiri, M. Aboozar, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn Lasers with Wavelength Coverage of 2–3 μm and Operating Temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, N. Pauc, J. Aubin, L. Milord, Q. M. Thai, M. Bertrand, K. Guilloy, D. Rouchon, J. Rothman, T. Zabel, F. Armand Pilon, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, and V. Calvo, “Optically pumped GeSn micro-disks with 16% Sn lasing at 3.1 μm up to 180 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo-Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Al-Kabi, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, T. Pham, Y. Zhou, W. Dou, B. Collier, R. Quinde, W. Du, A. Mosleh, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “An optically pumped 2.5 μm GeSn laser on Si operating at 110 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 171105 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge1-x Snx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, M. Martin, F. Bassani, J. Moeyaert, T. Baron, J. B. Pin, X. Bao, Z. Ye, and E. Sanchez, “Anti-phase boundaries–Free GaAs epilayers on “quasi-nominal” Ge-buffered silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(21), 212105 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, L. Gignac, C. M. Breslin, J. Bruley, D. Cutaia, and H. Riel, “Template-assisted selective epitaxy of III–V nanoscale devices for co-planar heterogeneous integration with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(23), 233101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Growth. Res. (1)

M. Knoedler, N. Bologna, H. Schmid, M. Borg, K. Moselund, S. Wirths, M. D. Rossell, and H. Riel, “Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy,” Cryst. Growth. Res. 17(12), 6297–6302 (2017).
[Crossref]

ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. (1)

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(4), 134–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Zubia and S. D. Hersee, “Nanoheteroepitaxy: The Application of nanostructuring and substrate compliance to the heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductor materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6492–6496 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Z. Li, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and Z. Shellenbarger, “Defect reduction of GaAs/Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 106102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

K. Morizane, “Antiphase domain structures in GaP and GaAs epitaxial layers grown on Si and Ge,” J. Cryst. Growth 38(2), 249–254 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

A. Georgakilas, J. Stoemenos, K. Tsagaraki, P. Komninou, N. Flevaris, P. Panayotatos, and A. Christou, “Generation and annihilation of antiphase domain boundaries in GaAs on Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Mater. Res. 8(08), 1908–1921 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

S. Gupta, R. Chen, Y. C. Huang, Y. Kim, E. Sanchez, J. S. Harris, and K. C. Saraswat, “Highly Selective Dry Etching of Germanium Over Germanium-Tin (Ge1-xSnx): A Novel Route for Ge1-xSnx Nanostructure Fabrication,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3783–3790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers At Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, A. R. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grutzmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Milord, J. Aubin, A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, J. Rothman, A. Chelnokov, J. M. Hartmann, V. Calvo, and V. Reboud, “GeSn lasers for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” Proc. SPIE 10108, 105370S (2018).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Aubin, J. M. Hartmann, A. Gassenq, J. L. Rouvière, E. Robin, V. Delaye, D. Cooper, N. Mollard, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(9), 094006 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

R. Khazaka, J. Aubin, E. Nolot, and J. M. Hartmann, “Investigation of the Growth of Si-Ge-Sn Pseudomorphic Layers on 200 mm Ge Virtual Substrates: Impact of Growth Pressure, HCl and Si2H6 Flows”, accepted for publication in ECS Transactions - G03 Symposium, AIMES 2018 Meeting of the Electro-Chemical Society (30 September – 4 October 2018).

CEA, unpublished.

R. Khazaka, E. Nolot, J. Aubin, and J.M. Hartmann, “Growth and characterization of SiGeSn pseudomorphic layers on 200 mm Ge virtual substrates,” submitted for publication in Semicond. Sci. Technol. (June 2018).

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, T. Zabel, and B. Marzban, Z. ikonic, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, S. Mantl, J. Witzens, H. Sigg, D. Grutzmacher, and D. Buca “Quantum Confinement Effects in GeSn/SiGeSn Heterostructure Lasers,” in 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (2017), paper 24.2.1.
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) ω-2ϴ scan around the (004) XRD order of the GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructure, grown on a Ge SRB. (b) RSM around the asymmetrical (224) XRD order. (c),(d) Cross-sectional TEM images of the stack, showing in (c) the array of misfit dislocations in the lower part of the GeSn step-graded buffer. Red markers are provided for a better visualization of the interfaces. The thickness of each layer is provided in (d).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Tilted view (SEM) image of GeSn heterostructure micro-disk cavities with the measured diameter and thickness. The calculated concentration and thickness of each layer after the under-etching step are provided in the inset. (b) PL signal under continuous excitation of a 20 µm micro-disk (blue) and the nominal stack (red), with a shift toward higher wavelength due to strain relaxation in the perimeter area.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Lasing spectra at 15 K, 135 K, 190 K and 230 K. Only a PL background was observed at 250 K. The lasing spectra shown here were obtained at different pumping powers, highlighting the clearly resolved lasing peaks and the wavelengths shift. (b) Pin – Pout curves at 15 K, 135 K, 190 K and 230 K. c) The exponential fit curve to the variation of threshold as a function of temperature yielded a nominal characteristic temperature T0 = 117 K
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Lasing spectra of the GeSn heterostructure micro-disk at 15 K. The spectrum at 105 kW/cm2 is magnified 100-folds to show the broad PL background, where no lasing occurs. (b) Normalized spectra at same pumping powers
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Lasing spectra of the GeSn heterostructure micro-disk at 230 K. The spectra at 660 kW/cm2 and 790 kW/cm2 are magnified 10-folds, showing a switch between the regime of spontaneous emission and the lasing regime (b) Normalized spectra at the same pumping powers
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optical confinement in the z-direction (perpendicular to the surface of each layer) at (a) the center of the micro-disk and (b) the perimeter of the micro-disk. The z = 0 point is the interface between the SiGeSn layer and the Ge buffer underneath in case (a), and the bottom of the remaining GeSn 8% layer in case (b). We used as refractive indexes nair = 1.0, nGe = 4.0, nGeSn = 4.2 and nSi = 3.4.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Macroscopic degree of strain relaxation and strain level in the heterostructure. The Ge buffer is slightly tensile strained while GeSn 13.8% and 16.0% layers are still compressively strained

Metrics