Abstract

In the past few years, orbital angular momentum (OAM) has aroused great interest in the scientific communities, because it shows great potential for enhancing capacities of radio and optical communication systems. Here, we propose anisotropic metasurfaces to generate multiple OAM vortex beams at microwave frequencies. A phase compensation theory is presented, in order to determine the phase distributions on metasurfaces, This theory enables independent control of beam numbers, polarizations, orientations, and topological charges of OAM vortex beams, respectively. The metasurface is composed of anisotropic elements, whose reflection phases can be engineered separately in different polarization directions. The scheme is validated by both simulation and experimental results and shows great potential for the polarization division multiplexing in OAM communication systems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
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  10. N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. H. Gong, R. Wang, Y. K. Deng, B. W. Zhang, N. Wang, N. Li, and P. Wang, “Generation and transmission of OAM-carrying vortex beams using circular antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(6), 2940–2949 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Liu, H. Liu, Y. Qin, Y. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Li, and H. Wang, “Generation of OAM beams using phased array in the microwave band,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(9), 3850–3857 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Yuan, J. Zhao, J. Y. Dai, T. C. Guo, J. Liang, G. Y. Xu, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(44), 444002 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. H. Zhao, B. Quan, X. Wang, C. Gu, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Demonstration of orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing based on a metasurface in the terahertz band,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1726–1732 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  26. E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Zhang, W. Liu, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Generating focused 3D perfect vortex beams by plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(4), 1701228 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. X. Yu, L. Li, G. M. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-Editing Coding Metasurfaces Based on Polarization Bit and Orbital-Angular-Momentum-Mode Bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  30. G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. L. Zhang, S. Liu, L. Li, and T. J. Cui, “Spin-Controlled Multiple Pencil Beams and Vortex Beams with Different Polarizations Generated by Pancharatnam-Berry Coding Metasurfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36447–36455 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. H. F. Ma, Y. Q. Liu, K. Luan, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-beam reflections with flexible control of polarizations by using anisotropic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39390 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, T. Cai, and Q. Zhang, “Design of bifunctional metasurface based on independent control of transmission and reflection,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3594–3603 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. J. Yang, C. Zhang, H. F. Ma, J. Zhao, J. D. Dai, W. Yuan, L. X. Yang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 203501 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2018 (5)

T. J. Cui, “Microwave metamaterials,” Natl. Sci. Rev. 5(2), 134–136 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, B. Quan, X. Wang, C. Gu, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Demonstration of orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing based on a metasurface in the terahertz band,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1726–1732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, W. Liu, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Generating focused 3D perfect vortex beams by plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(4), 1701228 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, T. Cai, and Q. Zhang, “Design of bifunctional metasurface based on independent control of transmission and reflection,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3594–3603 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, C. Zhang, H. F. Ma, J. Zhao, J. D. Dai, W. Yuan, L. X. Yang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 203501 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

T. J. Cui, “Microwave metamaterials-from passive to digital and programmable controls of electromagnetic waves,” Optics 19(8), 084004 (2017).

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-Editing Coding Metasurfaces Based on Polarization Bit and Orbital-Angular-Momentum-Mode Bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, S. Liu, L. Li, and T. J. Cui, “Spin-Controlled Multiple Pencil Beams and Vortex Beams with Different Polarizations Generated by Pancharatnam-Berry Coding Metasurfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36447–36455 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Gong, R. Wang, Y. K. Deng, B. W. Zhang, N. Wang, N. Li, and P. Wang, “Generation and transmission of OAM-carrying vortex beams using circular antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(6), 2940–2949 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Yuan, J. Zhao, J. Y. Dai, T. C. Guo, J. Liang, G. Y. Xu, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(44), 444002 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, H. Liu, Y. Qin, Y. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Li, and H. Wang, “Generation of OAM beams using phased array in the microwave band,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(9), 3850–3857 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Ma, Y. Q. Liu, K. Luan, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-beam reflections with flexible control of polarizations by using anisotropic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39390 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, X. Zhou, and Y. Shi, “Design, fabrication, and measurement of reflective metasurface for orbital angular momentum vortex wave in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121903 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. X. Yu, L. Li, G. M. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

S. Liu, H. B. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Schemmel, G. Pisano, and B. Maffei, “Modular spiral phase plate design for orbital angular momentum generation at millimetre wavelengths,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14712–14726 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, “Light’s orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Today 57(5), 35–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1936 (1)

R. A. Beth, “Mechanical detection and measurement of the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. 50(2), 115–125 (1936).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, “Light’s orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Today 57(5), 35–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, G. D.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-Editing Coding Metasurfaces Based on Polarization Bit and Orbital-Angular-Momentum-Mode Bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bao, D.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beth, R. A.

R. A. Beth, “Mechanical detection and measurement of the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. 50(2), 115–125 (1936).
[Crossref]

Bo Li, Y.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowman, R.

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, T.

Cao, W.

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheah, K. W.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. B.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. B. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. Y.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-Editing Coding Metasurfaces Based on Polarization Bit and Orbital-Angular-Momentum-Mode Bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Q.

J. Yang, C. Zhang, H. F. Ma, J. Zhao, J. D. Dai, W. Yuan, L. X. Yang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 203501 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Yuan, J. Zhao, J. Y. Dai, T. C. Guo, J. Liang, G. Y. Xu, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(44), 444002 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

K. Liu, H. Liu, Y. Qin, Y. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Li, and H. Wang, “Generation of OAM beams using phased array in the microwave band,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(9), 3850–3857 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chi, H.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cong, L. Q.

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Courtial, J.

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, “Light’s orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Today 57(5), 35–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cui, T. J.

T. J. Cui, “Microwave metamaterials,” Natl. Sci. Rev. 5(2), 134–136 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Zhang, H. F. Ma, J. Zhao, J. D. Dai, W. Yuan, L. X. Yang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 203501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-Editing Coding Metasurfaces Based on Polarization Bit and Orbital-Angular-Momentum-Mode Bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, S. Liu, L. Li, and T. J. Cui, “Spin-Controlled Multiple Pencil Beams and Vortex Beams with Different Polarizations Generated by Pancharatnam-Berry Coding Metasurfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36447–36455 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Cui, “Microwave metamaterials-from passive to digital and programmable controls of electromagnetic waves,” Optics 19(8), 084004 (2017).

C. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Yuan, J. Zhao, J. Y. Dai, T. C. Guo, J. Liang, G. Y. Xu, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(44), 444002 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Ma, Y. Q. Liu, K. Luan, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-beam reflections with flexible control of polarizations by using anisotropic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39390 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, H. B. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dai, J. D.

J. Yang, C. Zhang, H. F. Ma, J. Zhao, J. D. Dai, W. Yuan, L. X. Yang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 203501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dai, J. Y.

C. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Yuan, J. Zhao, J. Y. Dai, T. C. Guo, J. Liang, G. Y. Xu, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(44), 444002 (2017).
[Crossref]

De Leon, I.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y. K.

Y. H. Gong, R. Wang, Y. K. Deng, B. W. Zhang, N. Wang, N. Li, and P. Wang, “Generation and transmission of OAM-carrying vortex beams using circular antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(6), 2940–2949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Du, L.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fu, X. J.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

Y. Zhang, W. Liu, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Generating focused 3D perfect vortex beams by plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(4), 1701228 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y. H.

Y. H. Gong, R. Wang, Y. K. Deng, B. W. Zhang, N. Wang, N. Li, and P. Wang, “Generation and transmission of OAM-carrying vortex beams using circular antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(6), 2940–2949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gu, C.

H. Zhao, B. Quan, X. Wang, C. Gu, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Demonstration of orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing based on a metasurface in the terahertz band,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1726–1732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gu, J. Q.

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, T. C.

C. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Yuan, J. Zhao, J. Y. Dai, T. C. Guo, J. Liang, G. Y. Xu, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(44), 444002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J. G.

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hui, X.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, M.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, W. X.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, X.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jun Cui, T.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karimi, E.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

H. Zhao, B. Quan, X. Wang, C. Gu, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Demonstration of orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing based on a metasurface in the terahertz band,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1726–1732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, K. F.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Zhang, S. Liu, L. Li, and T. J. Cui, “Spin-Controlled Multiple Pencil Beams and Vortex Beams with Different Polarizations Generated by Pancharatnam-Berry Coding Metasurfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36447–36455 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Yu, L. Li, G. M. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, X. Zhou, and Y. Shi, “Design, fabrication, and measurement of reflective metasurface for orbital angular momentum vortex wave in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121903 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, N.

Y. H. Gong, R. Wang, Y. K. Deng, B. W. Zhang, N. Wang, N. Li, and P. Wang, “Generation and transmission of OAM-carrying vortex beams using circular antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(6), 2940–2949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

K. Liu, H. Liu, Y. Qin, Y. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Li, and H. Wang, “Generation of OAM beams using phased array in the microwave band,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(9), 3850–3857 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

C. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Yuan, J. Zhao, J. Y. Dai, T. C. Guo, J. Liang, G. Y. Xu, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(44), 444002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

K. Liu, H. Liu, Y. Qin, Y. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Li, and H. Wang, “Generation of OAM beams using phased array in the microwave band,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(9), 3850–3857 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, H. Liu, Y. Qin, Y. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Li, and H. Wang, “Generation of OAM beams using phased array in the microwave band,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(9), 3850–3857 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, S. Liu, L. Li, and T. J. Cui, “Spin-Controlled Multiple Pencil Beams and Vortex Beams with Different Polarizations Generated by Pancharatnam-Berry Coding Metasurfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36447–36455 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. B. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Y. Zhang, W. Liu, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Generating focused 3D perfect vortex beams by plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(4), 1701228 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. Q.

H. F. Ma, Y. Q. Liu, K. Luan, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-beam reflections with flexible control of polarizations by using anisotropic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39390 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luan, K.

H. F. Ma, Y. Q. Liu, K. Luan, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-beam reflections with flexible control of polarizations by using anisotropic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39390 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, H. F.

J. Yang, C. Zhang, H. F. Ma, J. Zhao, J. D. Dai, W. Yuan, L. X. Yang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 203501 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ma, Y. Q. Liu, K. Luan, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-beam reflections with flexible control of polarizations by using anisotropic metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 39390 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Q.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-Editing Coding Metasurfaces Based on Polarization Bit and Orbital-Angular-Momentum-Mode Bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Maffei, B.

Noor, A.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-Editing Coding Metasurfaces Based on Polarization Bit and Orbital-Angular-Momentum-Mode Bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, C.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padgett, M.

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, “Light’s orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Today 57(5), 35–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pisano, G.

Pun, E. Y. B.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qassim, H.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qi, M. Q.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qin, Y.

K. Liu, H. Liu, Y. Qin, Y. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Li, and H. Wang, “Generation of OAM beams using phased array in the microwave band,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(9), 3850–3857 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C. W.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quan, B.

H. Zhao, B. Quan, X. Wang, C. Gu, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Demonstration of orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing based on a metasurface in the terahertz band,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1726–1732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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Schlickriede, C.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
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Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-Editing Coding Metasurfaces Based on Polarization Bit and Orbital-Angular-Momentum-Mode Bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, G.

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, X. Zhou, and Y. Shi, “Design, fabrication, and measurement of reflective metasurface for orbital angular momentum vortex wave in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121903 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shi, G. M.

S. X. Yu, L. Li, G. M. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, X. Zhou, and Y. Shi, “Design, fabrication, and measurement of reflective metasurface for orbital angular momentum vortex wave in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121903 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. X. Yu, L. Li, G. M. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, W. X.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Z.

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Upham, J.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wan, X.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
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S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
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Wang, G.

Wang, H.

K. Liu, H. Liu, Y. Qin, Y. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Li, and H. Wang, “Generation of OAM beams using phased array in the microwave band,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(9), 3850–3857 (2016).
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Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, N.

Y. H. Gong, R. Wang, Y. K. Deng, B. W. Zhang, N. Wang, N. Li, and P. Wang, “Generation and transmission of OAM-carrying vortex beams using circular antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(6), 2940–2949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Y. H. Gong, R. Wang, Y. K. Deng, B. W. Zhang, N. Wang, N. Li, and P. Wang, “Generation and transmission of OAM-carrying vortex beams using circular antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(6), 2940–2949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

Y. H. Gong, R. Wang, Y. K. Deng, B. W. Zhang, N. Wang, N. Li, and P. Wang, “Generation and transmission of OAM-carrying vortex beams using circular antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(6), 2940–2949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

K. Liu, H. Liu, Y. Qin, Y. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Li, and H. Wang, “Generation of OAM beams using phased array in the microwave band,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(9), 3850–3857 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

H. Zhao, B. Quan, X. Wang, C. Gu, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Demonstration of orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing based on a metasurface in the terahertz band,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1726–1732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. K.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, L.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G. Y.

C. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Yuan, J. Zhao, J. Y. Dai, T. C. Guo, J. Liang, G. Y. Xu, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(44), 444002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, C. Zhang, H. F. Ma, J. Zhao, J. D. Dai, W. Yuan, L. X. Yang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 203501 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Yuan, J. Zhao, J. Y. Dai, T. C. Guo, J. Liang, G. Y. Xu, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(44), 444002 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, L. X.

J. Yang, C. Zhang, H. F. Ma, J. Zhao, J. D. Dai, W. Yuan, L. X. Yang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 203501 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

Y. Zhang, W. Liu, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Generating focused 3D perfect vortex beams by plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(4), 1701228 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yao, M.

M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, X. Zhou, and Y. Shi, “Design, fabrication, and measurement of reflective metasurface for orbital angular momentum vortex wave in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121903 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, S. X.

S. X. Yu, L. Li, G. M. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, H.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, M. J.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, W.

J. Yang, C. Zhang, H. F. Ma, J. Zhao, J. D. Dai, W. Yuan, L. X. Yang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 203501 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Yuan, J. Zhao, J. Y. Dai, T. C. Guo, J. Liang, G. Y. Xu, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(44), 444002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B. W.

Y. H. Gong, R. Wang, Y. K. Deng, B. W. Zhang, N. Wang, N. Li, and P. Wang, “Generation and transmission of OAM-carrying vortex beams using circular antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(6), 2940–2949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

J. Yang, C. Zhang, H. F. Ma, J. Zhao, J. D. Dai, W. Yuan, L. X. Yang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 203501 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Yuan, J. Zhao, J. Y. Dai, T. C. Guo, J. Liang, G. Y. Xu, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(44), 444002 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, S. Liu, L. Li, and T. J. Cui, “Spin-Controlled Multiple Pencil Beams and Vortex Beams with Different Polarizations Generated by Pancharatnam-Berry Coding Metasurfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36447–36455 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, S.

G. Li, L. Wu, K. F. Li, S. Chen, C. Schlickriede, Z. Xu, S. Huang, W. Li, Y. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. Zentgraf, K. W. Cheah, Y. Luo, and S. Zhang, “Nonlinear metasurface for simultaneous control of spin and orbital angular momentum in second harmonic generation,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7974–7979 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. L.

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. Q.

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, W. Liu, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Generating focused 3D perfect vortex beams by plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(4), 1701228 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, B. Quan, X. Wang, C. Gu, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Demonstration of orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing based on a metasurface in the terahertz band,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1726–1732 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, B. Quan, X. Wang, C. Gu, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Demonstration of orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing based on a metasurface in the terahertz band,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1726–1732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Yang, C. Zhang, H. F. Ma, J. Zhao, J. D. Dai, W. Yuan, L. X. Yang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 203501 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Yuan, J. Zhao, J. Y. Dai, T. C. Guo, J. Liang, G. Y. Xu, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “An ultralight and thin metasurface for radar-infrared bi-stealth applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(44), 444002 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, S.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, X. Zhou, and Y. Shi, “Design, fabrication, and measurement of reflective metasurface for orbital angular momentum vortex wave in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121903 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X. Y.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

S. X. Yu, L. Li, G. M. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, X. Zhou, and Y. Shi, “Design, fabrication, and measurement of reflective metasurface for orbital angular momentum vortex wave in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121903 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, Y.

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

L. Zhang, S. Liu, L. Li, and T. J. Cui, “Spin-Controlled Multiple Pencil Beams and Vortex Beams with Different Polarizations Generated by Pancharatnam-Berry Coding Metasurfaces,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(41), 36447–36455 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

H. Zhao, B. Quan, X. Wang, C. Gu, J. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Demonstration of orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing based on a metasurface in the terahertz band,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1726–1732 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (3)

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, W. Liu, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Generating focused 3D perfect vortex beams by plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(4), 1701228 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-Editing Coding Metasurfaces Based on Polarization Bit and Orbital-Angular-Momentum-Mode Bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

L. Q. Cong, W. Cao, X. Q. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Q. Gu, R. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. X. Yu, L. Li, G. M. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
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S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, X. Zhou, and Y. Shi, “Design, fabrication, and measurement of reflective metasurface for orbital angular momentum vortex wave in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121903 (2016).
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S. Liu, H. B. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “A broadband terahertz absorber using multi-layer stacked bars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151601 (2015).
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C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
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J. Yang, C. Zhang, H. F. Ma, J. Zhao, J. D. Dai, W. Yuan, L. X. Yang, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(20), 203501 (2018).
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IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. (1)

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (2)

Y. H. Gong, R. Wang, Y. K. Deng, B. W. Zhang, N. Wang, N. Li, and P. Wang, “Generation and transmission of OAM-carrying vortex beams using circular antenna array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(6), 2940–2949 (2017).
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K. Liu, H. Liu, Y. Qin, Y. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Li, and H. Wang, “Generation of OAM beams using phased array in the microwave band,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(9), 3850–3857 (2016).
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Light Sci. Appl. (4)

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Nat. Commun. (1)

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T. J. Cui, “Microwave metamaterials,” Natl. Sci. Rev. 5(2), 134–136 (2018).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of multiple OAM beams generation based on an anisotropic metasurface fed by a point source. Each reflected beam carries the OAM with customized topological charge, orientation and polarization state. (b-c) Dependence of the reflection amplitude and phase on the arm length lx of the meta-atom, where the blue and red lines represent the EM responses under x- and y-polarized waves respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Detailed procedure to synthesize a metasurface with two OAM beams, in which the polarizations, orientations and topological charges are controlled independently. (a-b) Calculated phase patterns of x and y components of the metasurface for single beam generation, with the corresponding 3D radiation patterns and 2D radiation patterns at a cut-plane with θ = 35°. The OAM beam is directed at the angle φ1 = 45°, θ1 = 35° with RCP, l = −1 (a), and φ2 = 225°, θ2 = 35° with LCP, l =+ 1 (b). (c) Calculated synthesized phase patterns of x and y components for the metasurface for double beams generation, with the corresponding 3D and 2D radiation patterns at a cut-plane with θ = 35°. The RCP and LCP OAM beams are directed at the angles φ1 = 45°, θ1 = 35° and φ2 = 225°, θ2 = 35°, with l = −1and l =+ 1 respectively. (d-e) Simulated phase distributions of the RCP and LCP electric fields at the cut-planes perpendicular to the axes of the two beams respectively. (f-g) Simulated amplitude distributions of the RCP and LCP electric fields at the cut-planes perpendicular to the axes of the two beams respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Detailed procedure to synthesize a metasurface with three OAM beams, in which the polarizations, orientations and topological charges are controlled independently. (a-c) Calculated phase patterns of x and y components of the metasurface for single beam generation, with the corresponding 3D radiation patterns and 2D radiation patterns at a cut-plane with θ = 30°. The OAM beam is directed at the angle φ1 = 0°, θ1 = 30° with linear polarization (v-polarization), l = −1 (a), φ2 = 120°, θ2 = 30° with RCP, l =+ 1 (b) and φ2 = 240°, θ2 = 30° with LCP, l =+ 1 (c). (d) Calculated phase patterns of x and y components of the metasurface for triple beams generation, with the corresponding 3D radiation pattern and 2D radiation pattern at a cut-plane with θ = 30°. The v-polarization, RCP and LCP OAM beams are directed at the angles (φ1 = 0°, θ1 = 30°), (φ2 = 120°, θ2 = 30°), and (φ3 = 240°, θ3 = 30°), with l1 = −1, l2 =+ 1 and l3 =+ 1 respectively. (e-g) Simulated phase distributions of the v-polarization, RCP and LCP electric fields at the cut-planes perpendicular to the axes of the three beams respectively. (h-j) Simulated amplitude distributions of the v-polarization, RCP and LCP electric fields at the cut-planes perpendicular to the axes of the three beams respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Experimental setup to measure the near fields of the fabricated metasurface, where the sample is attached to the plastic holder on a rotary stage, and a waveguide probe is employed as the detector on the left. (b) Zoomed-in image of the sample. (c) The waveguide antenna as the excitation of the metasurface.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a-b) Measured amplitude and phase distributions at the cut-plane perpendicular to the RCP beam (beam 1#) axis. (c-d) Measured amplitude and phase distributions at the cut-plane perpendicular to the LCP beam (beam 2#) axis.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 2D radiation patterns of the RCP (a) and LCP (b) beams respectively at a cut-plane with φ = 45°.

Equations (6)

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ϕ mn x = ϕ 0 x +l φ mn + k 0 | r mn r f |,
ϕ mn y = ϕ 0 y +l φ mn + k 0 | r mn r f |,
ϕ mn(i) x = ϕ 0(i) x + l x (i) φ mn + k 0 | r mn r f | k 0 ( r mn b ^ i ),
ϕ mn(i) y = ϕ 0(i) x +Δ ϕ 0(i) + l y (i) φ mn + k 0 | r mn r f | k 0 ( r mn b ^ i ),
ϕ mn x = k 0 | r mn r f |+Arg{ i=1 k exp[j l x (i) φ mn j k 0 ( r mn b ^ i )+j ϕ 0(i) x ]}
ϕ mn y = k 0 | r mn r f |+Arg{ i=1 k exp[j l y (i) φ mn j k 0 ( r mn b ^ i )+j( ϕ 0(i) x +Δ ϕ 0(i) )]} .

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